• Written By Akanksha P John

# Application of d-Block and f-Block Elements

Application of d and f-block elements: d-block and f-block elements are the main constituents of the periodic table in inorganic chemistry. The d-block of the periodic table contains all the elements from groups 3-12 where the d orbitals are progressively filled in each of the four long periods. The f-block consists of elements in which 4 f and 5 f orbitals are progressively filled. They are placed separately below the periodic table.

This article will contain all the applications of the d and f- block elements in daily life that human beings possess. Students will get to know some of the interesting tips and information while going through this article. Keep on reading this article in order to know more about the application of d and f block elements in daily life.

## Characteristics of d and f-block elements

### Introduction of d-block

The d-block elements in their ground state or most stable oxidation state have an incompletely filled d-subshell. They are also referred to as transition elements. The partially filled subshells include the $$\left( {{\rm{n}} – 1} \right){\rm{d}}$$ subshell. Although electrons in group $$12$$ metals do not fill the ‘$${\rm{d}}$$’ orbital, their chemistry is very similar to that of the preceding groups, so they are classified as $${\rm{d}}$$ block elements. These elements are characterised by metallic properties such as malleability and ductility, high electrical and thermal conductivity, and high tensile strength.

#### Notes of d block Elements

The $${\rm{d}}$$-block of the Periodic Table contains the elements of groups $$3-12$$, with the d-orbitals gradually filling in. The elements are classified into three groups: $$3{\rm{d}}$$-series (from $${\rm{Sc}}$$ to $${\rm{Zn}}$$), $$4{\rm{d}}$$-series (from $${\rm{Y}}$$ to $${\rm{Cd}}$$), and $$5{\rm{d}}$$-series ($${\rm{La}}$$ to $${\rm{Hg}}$$, omitting $${\rm{Ce}}$$ to $${\rm{Lu}}$$). Beginning with $${\rm{Ac}}$$, the fourth $$6{\rm{d}}$$-series includes elements ranging from $${\rm{Rf}}$$ to $${\rm{Cn}}$$.

The non-typical transition elements are $${\rm{II – B}}$$ $${\rm{Zn,Cd}}$$, and $${\rm{Hg}}$$ and $${\rm{III – B}}$$ $${\rm{Sc,Y,La,}}$$ and $${\rm{Ac}}$$, while the remaining transition elements are typical elements.

#### Electronic Configuration of d-block Elements

The general electronic configuration of $${\rm{d}}$$-block elements is $$\left( {{\rm{n}} – 1} \right){{\rm{d}}^{1 – 10}}{\rm{n}}{{\rm{s}}^{1 – 2}}$$. These elements can find stability in both half-filled and fully filled $${\rm{d}}$$ orbitals.

1. The electronic configuration for transition elements in period $$4$$ is $$\left( {{\rm{Ar}}} \right)4{{\rm{s}}^{1 – 2}}3{{\rm{d}}^{1 – 10}}$$.
2. The electronic configuration for transition elements in period $$5$$ is $$\left( {{\rm{Kr}}} \right)5{{\rm{s}}^{1 – 2}}4{{\rm{d}}^{1 – 10}}$$.
3. The electronic configuration for transition elements in period $$6$$ is $$\left( {{\rm{Xe}}} \right)4{{\rm{s}}^{1 – 2}}{\rm{3}}{{\rm{d}}^{1 – 10}}$$.

These three series of elements are determined by the $$\left( {{\rm{n}} – 1} \right){\rm{d}}$$ orbitals that are filled. An orbital of lower energy is filled first.

#### Application of d-block Elements

The $${\rm{d}}$$ block elements are used for the following purposes:

• i. Iron and its alloy, steel, are widely used in the construction industry.
• ii. Titanium is used in the construction of airships and spaceships.
• iii. Tungsten is used in the production of electrical fibres.
• iv. Manganese dioxide is used as a component in dry battery cells.
• v. In fixed dry batteries, zinc is used as the anode.
• vi. Niobium composites are ideal for use in fly motors.
• vii. Tantalum is used in the manufacture of expository weights.
• viii. Photography employs the use of silver bromide.
• ix. Many $${\rm{d}}$$-block or transition metals and their compounds are used as catalysts in chemical reactions.
• x. Palladium chloride is used in the Wacker process of converting ethane to ethanal.
• xi. In Haber’s process, iron is used in the production of ammonia.
• xii. Ziegler-Natta, a complex of trimethyl aluminium and titanium tetrachloride, is used in the polymerisation of ethene to polythene.

### Notes of f block Elements

$${\rm{f}}$$-block elements are those in which the last electron enters into the $$\left( {{\rm{n}} – 2} \right){\rm{f}}$$ orbitals. Because they form a transition series within the transition elements, these elements are also known as inner transition elements. The elements in the $${\rm{f}}$$-block are also known as rare earth elements. There are two series of these.

• i. The lanthanide series ($$4{\rm{f}}$$-block elements)
• ii. The actinide series ($$5{\rm{f}}$$-block elements)

#### The Lanthanide Series

The Lanthanide series consists of fifteen elements, ranging from Lanthanum $$\left( {57,{\rm{La}}} \right)$$ to lutetium $$\left( {71,{\rm{Lu}}} \right)$$. Lanthanum and lutetium have electrons in the $$5{\rm{d}}$$-subshell but no partially filled $$4{\rm{f}}$$-subshell. As a result, these elements should be excluded from this series. However, because all of these elements are chemically similar to lanthanum, they are grouped together

#### Electronic Configuration of Lanthanide Series

The electronic configuration of Lanthanides, with fourteen electrons filled in $${\rm{Ce}}$$ to $${\rm{Lu}}$$ with the configuration $$\left[ {{\rm{Xe}}} \right]4{{\rm{f}}^{1 – 14}}5{{\rm{d}}^{0 – 1}}6{{\rm{s}}^2}$$

#### The Actinide Series

Neils Bohr proposed the existence of an actinide series analogous to the lanthanide series in $$1923$$. The periodic table’s actinide series consists of fifteen elements ranging from actinium to lawrencium.

#### Electronic Configuration of Actinide Series

Actinides have the general electronic configuration $$\left[ {{\rm{Rn}}} \right]{\rm{5}}{{\rm{f}}^{0,1 – 14}}6{{\rm{d}}^{0 – 1,2}}7{{\rm{s}}^{\rm{2}}}$$ where $${\rm{Rn}}$$ stands for radon core.

#### Application of f-block Elements

Some examples of how the $${\rm{f}}$$-block elements can be used are as follows:

• i. Lanthanide alloys (mischmetals) are used to making instrumental steels and heat-resistant materials.
• ii. Lanthanide carbides, borides, and nitrides are used as refractories.
• iii. Lanthanide oxides are used as abrasives in glass cleaning.
• iv. Thorium is used in cancer treatment as well as glowing gas mantles.
• v. Uranium is used as an atomic fuel.
• vi. Plutonium is used in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.

Study Everything About p-block Elements Here

### Summary

We looked at the electronic configuration of $${\rm{d}}$$ and $${\rm{f}}$$ block elements in this article. We now have a better understanding of the components that make up these blocks and the characteristics of d and f block elements. We also discovered that, although being less well-known than the $${\rm{s}}$$ and $${\rm{p}}$$ block elements, these elements are used in a variety of businesses. We looked at some of the most common uses for the $${\rm{d}}$$ and $${\rm{f}}$$-block elements.

### Application of d and f block Elements in Daily Life

Q.1. What are the elements known as d Block Elements?
Ans: $${\rm{d}}$$-block elements or outer transition elements are those that have partially filled $${\rm{d}}$$-orbitals in either their ground state or at least one of their ions. The $${\rm{d}}$$-block elements are scattered throughout the period table.

Q.2. Can magnets be made from transition metals?
Ans: Yes, magnets can be made from transition metals. Iron, cobalt, and nickel are all readily available.

Q.3. Where are the transition metals found in the periodic table?
Ans: The $$40$$ elements in Periodic Table Groups $$3-12$$ are known as “Transition Metals.” The transition elements, like all metals, are malleable and ductile, as well as good conductors of electricity and heat.

Q.4. What are the examples of f-block elements?
Ans: The elements of the $${\rm{f}}$$-block are as follows:- (from atomic number $$58$$ to $$71$$ and $$90$$ to $$103$$ elements)
Lanthanum, Cerium, Praseodymium, Neodymium, Promethium, Samarium, Europium, Gadolinium, Terbium, Dysprosium, Holmium, Erbium, Thulium, Ytterbium, Lutetium, Actinium, Thorium, Protactinium, Uranium, Neptunium, Plutonium, Americium, Curium, Berkelium, Californium, Einsteinium, Fermium, Mendelevium, Nobelium, Lawrencium.

Q.5. What are the characteristics of d-block elements?
Ans: The following are the general properties of transition elements:
i. create stable complexes
ii. These materials have high melting and boiling points.
iii. Have a high charge/radius ratio.
iv. Form compounds that are frequently paramagnetic.
v. They are hard and have a high density.
vi. Create compounds with high catalytic activity.
vii. Display varying oxidation states.

Q.6. How do you remember the d-block elements?
Ans: The Periodic Table’s $${\rm{d}}$$-block contains the elements of groups $$3-12$$, in which the d-orbitals are gradually filled. The elements are mainly divided into three series: $$3{\rm{d}}$$-series ($${\rm{Sc}}$$ to $${\rm{Zn}}$$), $$4d$$-series ($${\rm{Y}}$$ to $${\rm{Cd}}$$), and $$5{\rm{d}}$$-series ($${\rm{La}}$$ to $${\rm{Hg}}$$, omitting $${\rm{Ce}}$$ to $${\rm{Lu}}$$). The fourth 6d-series, beginning with $${\rm{Ac}}$$, also includes elements ranging from $${\rm{Rf}}$$ to $${\rm{Cn}}$$.

Practice d-&-f-Block Elements Questions with Hints & Solutions