Check the latest update, results, syllabus, the application process, and preparation tips.
CBSE Class 12: The Central Board of Secondary Education has announced the Class 12 result on July 30, 2021. CBSE has announced CBSE Class 12 results in online mode only. Therefore, students can check the CBSE Class 12 result from the official website, i.e., cbseresults.nic.in. Candidates need to enter credentials like roll number, registration number, school code, centre code, etc., to check the result.
This year, CBSE has not conducted the Class 12 board examination due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the board has provided an evaluation criteria/ assessment policy for finalising the result of CBSE Class 12. According to the assessment policy, the board declared Class 12 results depending upon the school-based performance in Class 12th, Class 11 marks, and average marks of the best three subjects in class 10. Candidates can further get detailed information about the CBSE Class 12 from this article.
|CBSE Class 12 Latest Update: CBSE has declared the Class 12 Board Exam 2021 Result on July 30, 2021. Candidates can check their Class 12 results below.|
CBSE Class 12 Board Exam 2021 Highlights
The Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) conducts the Class 12 board examination. Moreover, around 12 lakh students appear for the Senior School Certificate Examination (Class 12 board exam) every year. The CBSE Class 12th Board Exam is a national level examination. The board conducts the exam in offline mode in centres throughout the whole country. Furthermore, candidates can choose to pursue higher studies in any area related to their Class 12 stream after passing the exam. Candidates can get the highlights of the CBSE Class 12 board exam 2021 below.
|Name of the Exam||Central Board of Secondary Education Class 12 Board Examination|
|Commonly Known as||CBSE Class 12 Board Exam|
|Conducting Body||Central Board of Secondary Education- CBSE|
|Exam Level||National Level|
|Mode of Registration||Offline via school – For Regular CandidatesOnline – For Private Candidates|
|Registration Fee||INR 1500/- for 5 SubjectsINR 300/- per Additional Subject|
|Mode of Exam||Offline|
|Class 12 Language Subjects||English, Hindi, Bengali, Sanskrit, Urdu, Telugu, Tamil, Malayalam, Kannada, Marathi, Gujarati, Punjabi, etc.|
|Class 12 Academic Subjects||Accountancy, Biology, Business Studies, Chemistry, Computer Science, Economics, Mathematics, Physics, Political Science, etc.|
|Frequency of the Exam||Once a year|
CBSE Class 12 – Important Dates 2021
Candidates can check important dates related to CBSE Class 12 exam below.
|Start date of uploading of Class 12 marks by schools||01 July 2021|
|Last date for uploading of Class 11 marks by schools||02 July 2021|
|Opening of portal for moderation and finalisation of Class 12 results by schools||16 July 2021|
|Last date for result preparation by schools||25 July 2021|
|Date of declaration of CBSE Class 12 result||30 July 2021|
CBSE Class 12 Board Exam 2021 – Latest News
Check all the CBSE latest news for the Class 12 board exam below.
July 29, 2021: CBSE has provided an online facility for the students to obtain their Class 12 board exam roll numbers. Candidates can find the roll number for the Class 12 board exam online from the official site. Moreover, they need to provide the same credentials uploaded in the LOC data to find the roll number. Check Class 12 Board Exam Roll Numbers Notice.
July 29, 2021: The board has released a press release regarding the conduction of exams for private candidates. CBSE will conduct the Class 12 exam for private candidates between August 16 and September 15, 2021. Check Class 12 Exam Notice for Private Candidates.
July 21, 2021: The Central Board of Secondary Education has released frequently asked questions related to the CBSE Class 12 Result preparation. Check Class 12 Result FAQs.
June 30, 2021: CBSE has released a notice regarding subject change cases (Clause 14) and absent candidates in reference to the Class 12 Result Assessment Policy.
June 17, 2021: The Central Board of Secondary Education has released Class 12 result evaluation criteria. According to evaluation criteria, CBSE will prepare the Class 12 board exam result depending upon the school-based performance in Class 12th, Class 11 exam, and average scores of best 3 subjects in Class 10 board exam. Check Class 12 Result Evaluation Criteria.
June 01, 2021: The board has released a notice regarding CBSE Class 12 Board Exam 2021. According to the notice, the board has cancelled the exam and will assess the Class 12 result as per a well-defined criteria. Moreover, the board will also provide an option to appear in the exam when the situation becomes favourable. Check Class 12 Board Exam Cancellation Notice.
CBSE Class 12 Board Exam Date Sheet 2021
CBSE releases the date sheet for the Class 12 board examination. The board releases the date sheet on its official website. The board usually conducts the CBSE Class 12 Exam in March and April. Accordingly, the board releases the date sheet 1 or 2 months before the exam. Therefore, candidates can check or download the CBSE Class 12 Date Sheet online from the official site. The date sheet contains a date-wise schedule of the CBSE Class 12 board exam. Thus, candidates from Science, Commerce, and Arts stream can check their subjects and dates of exams from the date sheet.
CBSE Class 12 Eligibility Criteria 2021
CBSE has laid down some eligibility criteria for the Class 12 board exam. Candidates who want to appear for the Class 12th board examination have to meet the eligibility criteria. Moreover, they must ensure their eligibility for the board examination. As not meeting the eligibility may lead to the cancellation of candidature for the CBSE Class 12 exam. Therefore, candidates must check their eligibility for the exam carefully. The following are the CBSE Class 12 board exam eligibility criteria.
CBSE Class 12 Board Exam Eligibility Criteria:
- Students who have passed the Class 11 examination from the CBSE board and studying in Class 12 are eligible to appear for the Class 12th board examination.
- A student who failed the Class 12 board examination in previous years is eligible to apply for the current year’s board exam as a private student.
- Already Class 12 board exam passed candidates who want to improve their marks in one or more subjects can apply for subsequent year’s board examination.
- Candidates whose Class 12 result status is “Essential Repeat” are also eligible for the Class 12 exam as private candidates.
- Female students/ Physically Handicapped students who are permanent residents of NCT of Delhi and passed Class 10th at least two years before are also eligible for CBSE Class 12 exam as private candidates.
- Finally, regular candidates who had been allotted a roll number but could not appear for the Class 12 board examination due to medical reasons are eligible to appear for the same as a private candidate.
CBSE Class 12 Registration 2021
Candidates have to register to appear for the CBSE Class 12 Board Exam. Regular candidates have to do the CBSE Registration from their respective schools. Schools fill the application form for the Class 12 exam on behalf of their students. However, private candidates have to register for the Class 12 exam online from the CBSE’s official website. Private candidates can fill the Class 12 examination form and pay the fee online. Furthermore, it is advisable that they check the eligibility criteria before applying for the CBSE Class 12 board exam.
CBSE Class 12 Registration Fee 2021
Regular candidates can submit the examination fee at their respective schools. However, private candidates need to pay the examination fee online after filling the registration form. They can pay the registration fee online through a credit card/ debit card/ NEFT/ RTGS. Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 examination fee below.
CBSE Class 12 Registration Fee:
|Registration Fee Slab||Registration Fee|
|Examination Fee||INR 1500/- for 05 subjects|
|Examination Fee for Visually Impaired Candidates||Nil|
|Examination Fee for Additional Subject/ Compartment/ Improvement||INR 300/- per subject|
|Practical Fee||INR 150/- for each Practical/ Project Work Subject|
|Examination Fee with Late Fee||INR 2000/- (in addition to prescribed fee)|
How to Register/ Apply for CBSE Class 12 Board Exam 2021?
Private candidates can register for the CBSE Class 12 board exam online. Moreover, they can follow the simple steps below to do the Class 12 exam registration. Also, note that female candidates residing outside Delhi are not eligible to apply as private candidates. Before proceeding with registration, candidates must check their eligibility.
- 1st Step: Visit the official website of CBSE at cbse.gov.in.
- 2nd Step: Click on the link that reads, ‘Online Application for Private Students.’
- 3rd Step: On the left side of the page, select the exam type , i.e., Compartment, Failure, Improvement, etc.
- 4th Step: Next, enter your Previous Year of Examination, Previous Year Roll Number, 5-digit School Number and Center Number.
- 5th Step: Then, pay the registration fee online and complete the application process.
- 6th Step: Finally, candidates can print out the CBSE Class 12 registration form for future references.
Documents Needed for CBSE Class 12 Registration 2021
Candidates need the following documents before proceeding to fill the application form for CBSE Class 12 exam.
- Valid Email Id
- Mobile Number
- Aadhar Card or ID proof
- Soft Copy of Passport Size Photograph
- Scanned Image of Signature
- Educational Certificates
- Category Certificate (if any)
- Debit/ Credit Card, etc.
CBSE Class 12 Exam Pattern 2021
The Central Board of Secondary Education provides the pattern of the Class 12 board exam. Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Exam Pattern from the official website. Furthermore, candidates can find the exam pattern for all subjects from the website. Also, they can check the exam pattern for the Class 12 board exam below.
- Mode of Examination: Offline
- Duration of Exam: 3 hours
- Types of Questions: Multiple choice questions and subjective type questions
- Medium of Question: English for Academic Subjects. Furthermore, it depends on the Language Subject.
- Maximum Marks for Theory: 80 or 70 Marks
- Maximum Marks for Practical: 20 or 30 Marks
Subject-wise CBSE Class 12 Marking Scheme 2021
Candidates can check the subject-wise CBSE Class 12 Marking Scheme below. Moreover, candidates can know about the weightage of units or sections from the marking scheme of the Class 12 board exam.
CBSE Class 12 English Core Marking Scheme
|Part B: Subjective Questions||40|
|Part C: Assessment of Listening and Speaking Skills||20|
CBSE Class 12 English Elective Marking Scheme
|Part C: Seminar||20|
CBSE Class 12 Physics Marking Scheme
|Unit IUnit II||– Electrostatics- Current Electricity||16|
|Unit IIIUnit IV||– Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism- Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents||17|
|Unit VUnit VI||– Electromagnetic Waves- Optics||18|
|Unit VIIUnit VIII||– Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter- Atoms and Nuclei||12|
|Unit IX||Electronic Devices||07|
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Marking Scheme
|Unit IUnit IIUnit IIIUnit IVUnit V||– Solid State- Solutions- Electrochemistry- Chemical Kinetics- Surface Chemistry||23|
|Unit VIUnit VIIUnit VIIIUnit IX||– General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements- p-Block Elements- d- and f-Block Elements- Coordination Compounds||19|
|Unit XUnit XIUnit XIIUnit XIIIUnit XIVUnit XVUnit XVI||– Haloalkanes and Haloarenes- Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers- Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids- Amines- Biomolecules- Polymers- Chemistry in Everyday Life||28|
CBSE Class 12 Mathematics Marking Scheme
|Unit I||Relations and Functions||08|
|Unit IV||Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry||14|
|Unit V||Linear Programming||05|
CBSE Class 12 Biology Marking Scheme
|Unit VII||Genetics and Evolution||18|
|Unit VIII||Biology and Human Welfare||14|
|Unit IX||Biotechnology and its Applications||10|
|Unit X||Ecology and Environment||14|
CBSE Class 12 Business Studies Marking Scheme
|Part A||Principles and Functions of Management||50|
|Unit 1Unit 2Unit 3||– Nature and Significance of Management- Principles of Management- Business Environment||16|
|Unit 4Unit 5||– Planning- Organising||14|
|Unit 6Unit 7Unit 8||– Staffing- Directing- Controlling||20|
|Part B||Business Finance and Marketing||30|
|Unit 9Unit 10||– Financial Management- Financial Markets||15|
|Unit 11Unit 12||– Marketing Management- Consumer Protection||15|
CBSE Class 12 Accountancy Marking Scheme
|Part A||Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organizations, Partnership Firms and Companies||60|
|Unit I||Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations||10|
|Unit II||Accounting for Partnership Firms||30|
|Unit III||Accounting for Companies||20|
|Part B||Financial Statement Analysis||20|
|Unit IV||Analysis of Financial Statements||12|
|Unit V||Cash Flow Statement||08|
|Part B||Computerised Accounting||20|
|Unit IV||Computerised Accounting||20|
CBSE Class 12 Political Science Marking Scheme
|Part A||Contemporary World Politics||40|
|Unit 1Unit 2||– Cold War Era and Non–aligned Movement- The End of Bipolarity||12|
|Unit 3Unit 4||– New Centers of Power- South Asia and the Contemporary World||12|
|Unit 5Unit 6||United Nations and its Organizations- Security in Contemporary World||08|
|Unit 7Unit 8||– Environment and Natural Resources- Globalization||08|
|Part B||Politics in India Since Independence||40|
|Unit 9Unit 10||– Challenges of Nation-Building- Planning and Development||12|
|Unit 11||India’s Foreign Policy||06|
|Unit 12Unit 13||– Parties and the Party Systems in India- Democratic Resurgence||10|
|Unit 14Unit 15Unit 16||– Social and New Social Movements in India- Regional Aspirations- Indian Politics: Trends and Developments||12|
CBSE Class 12 Economics Marking Scheme
|Part A||Introductory Macroeconomics||40|
|Unit 1||National Income and Related Aggregates||12|
|Unit 2||Money and Banking||06|
|Unit 3||Determination of Income and Employment||10|
|Unit 4||Government Budget and the Economy||06|
|Unit 5||Balance of Payments||06|
|Part B||Indian Economic Development||40|
|Unit 6||Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991||12|
|Unit 7||Current Challenges facing Indian Economy||22|
|Unit 8||Development Experience of India||06|
CBSE Class 12 Subjects 2021
Candidates can check the list of subjects available in CBSE Class 12 below. Candidates from Science, Commerce, and Arts stream have to choose subjects in Class 11 from the list provided below. Furthermore, the candidates get to choose these subjects depending upon their schools. Some schools may have limited options, while others have more options.
Scheme of CBSE Class 12 Subjects Selection:
The CBSE board offers a minimum of 5 or more subjects to students in Class 11. Moreover, the students need to continue the same subjects in Class XII as well.
|Compulsory Subjects||Combination of Subjects|
|Subject 1||Hindi Elective or Hindi Core or English Elective or English Core|
|Subject 2||Any one Language from Subject Group – L not opted as Subject 1ORAny one Subject from Academic Electives (Subject Group – A)|
|Subject 3, Subject 4, and Subject 5||Any three Subjects from Academic Electives (Subject Group – A)ORAny three Subjects from Skill Electives (Subject Group – S)ORAny three Subjects from Combination of Academic Electives (Subject Group – A) and Skill Electives (Subject Group – S)|
|Additional Subject Optional||Combination of Subjects|
|Subject 6||Any one Subject or Language from any subject group not opted as Subjects 1 to 5|
|Subjects of Internal Assessment||Combination of Subjects|
|Subject 7, Subject 8, and Subject 9||– Work Experience- Health and Physical Education- General Studies|
Note: Work experience is subsumed in Health and Physical Education. Furthermore, the NCERT provides textbooks for Class 12th CBSE students. Therefore, they need to study those books throughout the academic year. Moreover, they can also refer to Best Reference Books for CBSE Class 12 to study for the board exam.
CBSE Class 12 Subjects – Languages (Group L)
Candidates can check all the language subjects available for them. They can choose the language subjects depending upon their schools.
|Language Subject Code||Name of the Language Subject|
Note: Candidates need to select any one subject between elective and core language subjects.
CBSE Class 12 Subjects – Academic (Group A)
Candidates can check the list of academic subjects from the table below. These are the core subjects that they can choose in the Science, Commerce, and Arts stream.
|Academic Subject Code||Name of the Academic Subject|
|031||Carnatic Music Vocal|
|032||Carnatic Music Mel. Ins.|
|033||Carnatic Per. Ins. Mridangam|
|034||Hindustani Music Vocal|
|035||Hindustani Music Mel. Ins.|
|036||Hindustani Per. Ins.|
|052||Applied/ Commercial Art|
|056||Kathak – Dance|
|057||Bharatnatyam – Dance|
|058||Kuchipudi – Dance|
|059||Odissi – Dance|
|060||Manipuri – Dance|
|061||Kathakali – Dance|
|073||Knowledge Tradition & Practices of India|
|076||National Cadet Corps (NCC)|
Note: The candidates can’t choose the following combination of subjects. Moreover, they need to select any one subject from the combination.
- Carnatic Music Vocal (Code 031), Carnatic Music Mel. Ins. (Code 032), Carnatic Per. Ins. Mridangam (Code 033), Hindustani Music Vocal (Code 034), Hindustani Music Mel. Ins. (Code 035), and Hindustani Per. Ins. (Code 036)
- Mathematics (Code 041) and Applied Mathematics (Code 241)
- Biology (Code 044) and Biotechnology (Code 045)
- Painting (Code 049), Graphics (Code 050), Sculpture (Code 051), and Applied/ Commercial Art (Code 052)
- Kathak – Dance (Code 056), Bharatnatyam – Dance (Code 057), Kuchipudi – Dance (Code 058), Odissi – Dance (Code 059), Manipuri – Dance (Code 060), and Kathakali – Dance (Code 061)
- Business Studies (Code 054) and Business Administration (Code 833)
- Informatics Practices (065), Computer Science (Code 083), and Information Technology (Code 802)
CBSE Class 12 Subjects – Skill Electives (Group S)
Candidates can check the list of skill subjects from the table below. They can choose these subjects for skill electives.
|Skill Subject Code||Name of the Skill Subject|
|805||Financial Markets Management|
|807||Beauty & Wellness|
|810||Front Office Operations|
|817||Typography & Computer Application|
|824||Office Procedures & Practices|
|827||Air-Conditioning & Refrigeration|
|834||Food Nutrition & Dietetics|
|835||Mass Media Studies|
|836||Library & Information Science|
|842||Early Childhood Education|
Note: Candidates may note that X-Ray Technician (Code 815), Music Production (Code 832), Applied Physics (Code 838), and Applied Chemistry (Code 839) have been discontinued w.e.f. session 2020-2021. However, candidates who had opted for these Skill Electives in session 2019-2020 in class XI shall appear for the same in the Board Examinations 2021 accordingly.
CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2021
This year, CBSE has introduced changes in its syllabus. The new CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2021 has been reduced by 30% for all important subjects. It is essential for you to know the new revised CBSE Class 12 Syllabus to prepare for the board exam. Moreover, the students can check the new Class 12 CBSE Syllabus below. The syllabus can help them grasp the important topics of the subject and prepare a strategy for the Class 12 Board Exam preparation. Furthermore, candidates can decide what to study first and what to keep for later through the syllabus.
CBSE Class 12 English Core Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 English Core Syllabus below.
Section A: Reading Comprehension
- Section A will have two passages.
- One unseen passage of length 800 to 900 words – Five Multiple Choice Type questions and Seven Objective Type Questions
- Second passage of length 400 to 500 words – Note-making and Summary
Section B: Writing Skills
- Advertisements and notices, designing or drafting posters, writing formal and informal invitations and replies. One question out of the two Short Answer Questions to be answered in 50 words.
- Letters based on verbal/ visual input – One question out of the two Long Answer Questions to be answered in 120 to 150 words.
- Two compositions based on visual or verbal inputs. It may be descriptive or argumentative in nature, such as an article/ a debate/ a speech/ a report. Two Very Long Answer Questions containing internal choice, to be answered in 150 to 200 words. Contemporary topical issues to be a part of speech and debate writing.
Letter types include:
- Business or official letters (for making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies)
- Letters to the editor (giving suggestions or opinion on issues of public interest). Provide realistic context in the form of a newspaper report/ article to which the students may respond.
- Application for a job
Section C: Literature Textbooks
- Eight Objective Type Questions – 4 from one poetry and 4 from one prose extract to assess comprehension and appreciation. Avoid direct questions. Refer to the lines to answer questions based on the given extract.
- Five out of Seven Short Answer Questions based on prose/ drama/ poetry from both texts. Questions should elicit inferential responses through critical thinking.
- Flamingo – One out of two Long Answer Questions answered in 120 to 150 words to assess global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the text. Questions to provide evaluating and analytical responses using incidents, events, themes as reference points.
- Vistas – One out of two Long Answer Questions to be answered in 120 to 150 words to assess global comprehension along with analysis and extrapolation beyond the texts. Questions to elicit creative responses and the ability to form opinions.
CBSE Class 12 English Elective Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 English Elective Syllabus below.
Section A: Reading
- Section A contains an unseen passage and a poem.
- 12 Objective Type Questions including Multiple Choice Questions from a literary or discursive passage of about 950 to 1000 words.
- 04 Short Answer Questions to test interpretation and appreciation and to be answered in 50 to 60 words each on a poem of about 24 to 28 lines.
Section B: Creative Writing Skills and Applied Grammar
- Two Long Answer Questions out of three to be answered in 120 to 150 words each. Discursive and interpretative writing.
- One Very Long Answer Question out of two to be answered in 150 to 200 words. An essay on an argumentative/ discursive topic such as an article/ report/ speech. Contemporary topics/ issues to be a part of Article, Report, and Speech Writing.
- Eight Objective Type Questions. Transformation of Sentences.
Section C: Literature
- One Short Answer Question out of two to be answered in 50 to 60 words to assess understanding analysis and critical appreciation. Questions should elicit inferential responses through critical thinking.
- Two Short Answer Questions out of three to be answered in 60 to 80 words to assess understanding analysis and critical appreciation. Questions should elicit inferential responses through critical thinking and drawing inferences in poetry and prose.
- Two Long Answer Questions out of three to be answered in 80 to 100 words each to assess deeper understanding, interpretation, appreciation and drawing inferences. Questions to elicit creative responses and ability to form opinions.
Section C: Fiction
- One Short Answer Question out of two to be answered in 60 to 80 words to test understanding and appreciation. Furthermore, the question seeks comments, interpretation, evaluation, and appreciation of characters, events, episodes, and interpersonal relationships.
- One Long Answer Question out of two to be answered in 120 to 160 words to test deeper (in-depth) understanding, interpretation, appreciation, and drawing global inferences of the given text with reference to characters/ events/ incidents, and episodes. Moreover, leading to creative rendering, forming and defending opinions.
CBSE Class 12 Hindi Core Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Hindi Core Syllabus below.
खंड अ (वस्तुपरक प्रश्न)
- अपठित गद्यांश
- कार्यालयी हिंदी और रचनात्मक लेखन (‘अभिव्यक्ति और माध्यम’ पुस्तक के आधार पर)
- पाठ्यपुस्तक आरोह भाग-2 से बहुविकल्पात्मक प्रश्न
- अनुपूरक पाठ्यपुस्तक वितान भाग-2 से बहुविकल्पात्मक प्रश्न
खंड ब (वर्णनात्मक प्रश्न)
- कार्यालयी हिंदी और रचनात्मक लेखन
- पाठ्यपुस्तक आरोह भाग-2
- श्रवण तथा वाचन
- परियोजना कार्य
CBSE Class 12 Hindi Elective Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Hindi Elective Syllabus below.
खंड अ (वस्तुपरक प्रश्न)
- अपठित गद्यांश
- कार्यालयी हिंदी और रचनात्मक लेखन (‘अभिव्यक्ति और माध्यम’ पुस्तक के आधार पर)
- पाठ्यपुस्तक अंतरा भाग-2 से बहुविकल्पात्मक प्रश्न
- अनुपूरक पाठ्यपुस्तक अंतराल भाग-2 से बहुविकल्पात्मक प्रश्न
खंड ब (वर्णनात्मक प्रश्न)
- कार्यालयी हिंदी और रचनात्मक लेखन
- पाठ्यपुस्तक अंतरा भाग-2
- श्रवण तथा वाचन
- परियोजना कार्य
CBSE Class 12 Bengali Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Bengali Syllabus below.
Section A: Reading Comprehension
- Two unseen passages of 100 to 150 words each.
- Four direct questions from the given passage.
- Fifth question should be grammar based (Sandhi, Antonyms, Sadhu – Chalit and sentence making).
Section B: Grammar
- Phonology (definition with two examples)
- Rhetoric (No clarification only definition/ identification with reason)
- Proverbs and idioms – Meaning and sentence making
Section C: Composition and Writing
- Report Reading (Three questions from a given report: News Headline/ one direct Question/ Focus on main topic in two sentences)
- Letter Writing (Friends and Parents only)
Section A: Literature
- Ke banchay, ke banche by Manik Bandyopadhayay
- Bhaat by Mahashewta Debi
- Bharatbarsha by Syed Mustafa Siraj
- Nana Ranger Din (Drama) by Ajitesh Bandyopadhaya
- Rup Naraner Kule by Rabindranath Tagore
- Aami Dekhi by Shakti Chattopadhyaya
- Krandanrata Jananir Pashe by Mridul Dasgupta
- Porte Jane Emon Ek Majurer Prashno by Bertolt Brecht (International Poem)
Supplementary Reader: Amar Bangla by Subhash Mukhopadhyay
- Garo Paharer Niche
- Chhatir Badole Hati
- Bonyar Sange Juddha
- Megher Gaye Jelkhana
- Hath Barao
CBSE Class 12 Arabic Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Arabic Syllabus below.
|Section A: Advanced Reading Skills||An unseen passage of 150 words followed by 3-4 short questions to test comprehension.|
|Section B: Effective Writing Skills||– Letter writing on a given topic- Summary of lesson from Textbook- Writing a longer composition such as an essay, or speech or story read/ heard/ experienced of about 200 words|
|Section C: Grammar(Theory and Application)||Definition and examples of the following (Theory of Grammar)- I’laal (In Mithaal, Ajwaf and Naaqis)- Ibdal- (MahmoozulFaa, wal- ‘Ainwal – Laam)- Idgham- Mudao’af- Murakkab ‘Adadi (Adad and Ma’dood), 1 + 100- Use of Asmaa’- Mausoolah- Khasiyat-Abwaab Al- MazidFih (If’aal, Taf’eel, Mufaa’alah, Tafa’ul, Istif’aal)- JumlaShartiyyah- JumlaNidaaiyah|
Applied Grammar (any two of the following)- Correction of sentences- Fill in the blanks- Roots of the verbs- Formation of active participle and passive participle (All verb patterns)- Choose nouns, verbs and prepositions
|Section D: Literature||– Prose: Translation of any 2 out of 3 given passages in about 75 words of each)- Poetry: Explanation of any four out of 6-7 given verses with reference to the context.|
CBSE Class 12 Assamese Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Assamese Syllabus below.
|Section A: Reading||Bodh Parikshan (Comprehension)||One unseen passage of minimum 400 words. There will be 6 general questions and 3 short answer questions bearing and 4 MCQs.|
|Section B: Writing||Likhan – Kala(Writing Skills)||– Galpa Likhan (Story Writing)/ Rachana (Essay)- Pratibedan Prastutikaran (Report Writing) – Phakara yojana (Proverb)- Bhab Samprasaran- Bakya Rachana- Jatuwa Khandabakya|
|Section C: Grammar||Byakaran||– Samuchcharan Sabda- Biparitarthak Sabda- Bak-sanhati (Eta Shabdat Prakash)- Sandhi- Satwabiddhi- Bakya Paribartan- Linga|
|Section D: Textbook||Prose (Gadya)||– Mor Matrimukh Darshan- Lakshminath Bezbarua- Ananda Ram Barua- Upendra Chandra Lekharu- Maganiyar – Jatindra Nath Duwara- Chithi- Shilabhadra|
|Section D: Textbook||Poetry (Padya)||– Bargeet (uthare utha bapu)- Sri Sri Madhab Dev- Biswa Khanikar- Maffijuddin Ahmad Hazarika- Janatar Ahbban- Jyoti Prasad Agarwala- Aghonar Kunwali- Keshab Mahanta|
CBSE Class 12 Gujarati Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Gujarati Syllabus below.
|Section||Details of Topics|
|Section A: Reading||– Question from an unseen prose passage- Question from an unseen poetry|
|Section B: Writing||– Report Writing- Official Letter- Essay of at least 200 to 250 words on current topics|
|Section C: Grammar||– Correct the Sentences- Idioms (from the textbook)- Proverbs (from the textbook)- Transformation of Sentences in respect to tenses- Sandhi|
|Section D: Literature||Prose:- Critical Appreciation, Comprehension- Explanation with reference to context (who said to whom, when or why, name of the lesson)- Answer in detail- Answer in two/ three sentences|
Poetry:- Poetry Comprehension (From the text)- Questions from the prescribed poems- Answer in two /three sentences- One question based on History of modern Literature
CBSE Class 12 Kannada Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Kannada Syllabus below.
Section A: Grammar
- Transformation of Sentences
- Converting Compound to Simple sentences and vice-versa
- Changing Tenses
- Roopa Nishpatti
- Translation of the given passage from English or Hindi into Kannada
- Kanda Padya
- Bhamini Shatpadi
- Explaining Proverbs
- Questions based on Bhashabhyasa given at the end of the lessons.
Section B: Comprehension
Comprehension of an unseen passage with questions
- Comprehension questions on a given passage.
- Writing a brief summary of the passage or poem with salient points.
Section C: Composition and Writing
- Reporting simple and common events
- Writing letters to newspaper editors
- Summarising newspaper, magazine and periodical writings
Section D: Literature
Readings for detailed study
- Prose: All lessons need to be studied.
- Poetry: All poems need to be studied.
- Deergha Gadya: Krishna Gowdana Aane by K. P. Poornachandra Tejaswi
CBSE Class 12 Kashmiri Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Kashmiri Syllabus below.
|Section A||Advanced Reading||– Reading unseen comprehension passage of 150 words followed by 5 short questions to test comprehension and to provide a suitable heading- Vocabulary|
|Section B||Effective Writing Skills||– Story writing- Summary of an event (80 to 100 words)- An essay of the following nature (150 words) (Descriptive/ Narrative/ Environmental/ Scientific)- Letter writing|
|Section C||Applied Grammar and Translation||– Usage of words- Conjunction, adjective- Translation|
|Section D||Literature||Prose- Explanation of two extracts out of four with reference to context.- One text-based question with hundred percent choice lessons to be studied.|
Poetry- Explanation of two excerpts out of four with reference to context.- Textbook Questions
CBSE Class 12 Malayalam Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Malayalam Syllabus below.
|Section||Topics||Details of Topics|
|Section A||Applied Grammar||Elementary Meters and Alankaras- Upama: Lupthopama, Malopama, Reshanopama, Savayopama- Utpreksha: Dharmi, Dharmam, Phalam, Hethu|
|Section B||Writing||A general study/ analysis of Newspapers, Magazines and Periodicals etc.- Paragraph writing on general topics- Letter to Editor/ Authority- Comprehension of an unseen passage followed by short answer questions|
|Section C||Literature (Prose & Poetry)||Prose: – Avakashangalute Prashnam (P.27)- Gouli Janmam (P.77)- Nava Madhyamangal Shakthiyum Sadhyathayum (P.109)- Vanghadeyude Hridayathudippukal (P.100)- Mappilappattile Keraleeyatha (P.64)|
Poetry:- Kannadi Kaanmolavum (P.10)- Kiraatha Vrutham (P.22)- Kesineemozhi (P.40)- Kollivaakkallathonnum (P.74)- Thenga (P.83)
|Section D||Literature (Non-detailed)||Out of 02 questions from the Textbook, 01 questions should be attended.|
CBSE Class 12 Manipuri Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Manipuri Syllabus below.
|Section||Topics||Details of Topics|
|Section A||Grammar||– Phrase and Clauses- Sentence and its transformation- Antonyms- Synonyms- Homonyms|
|Section B||Reading (Comprehension)||Two unseen passages from supplementary reader and textbook.|
|Section C||Composition and Writing||– Essay Writing- Letter Writing- Amplification- Notice Writing- Application Writing|
|Section D||Literature||Poetry to be studied:- Meitei Kabi by Khwairakpam Chaoba Singh- Lei Langba by Laishram Samarendra Singh- MapaN Naidabasida Ei by Nongthombam Sribiren- Anouba Thunglaba Jiba by Th. Ibopishak Singh|
Prose to be studied:- Meitei Nupi by Sinam Krishnamohon Singh- Eigi Thahoudraba Heitup Lalu by M.K. Binodini Devi- Bigyan Amadi Mioiba by Prof. H. Nandakumar Sharma- Inkhatlakpa Chahi Matang Amadi Aids by O. Ibochouba Singh
CBSE Class 12 Tamil Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Tamil Syllabus below.
Section A: Grammar
- Correction of Errors
- Vallinam Migum Idangal
- Do as Directed: Tan vinai, Pira vinai, Cey vinai, Ceyappattu vinai, Udanpattu vinai, Edhirmarai vinai, Ner Kootru, Ayar Kootru, Tani Vakkiyam, Todar Vakkiyam and Kalavai Vakkiyam
Section B: Comprehension
- Pathi vina vidai (Unseen Passage)
- Ceyyul Pagudhi koduthu vina kettal (Unseen Poem) or Ner Kaanal (Karpanai)
Section C: Writing Skills
- Essay Writing- On Literature, Science, General Knowledge
- Letter Writing
Section D: Literature
Prose from the Prescribed Textbook
- Unit (Iyal) 1: Thamizh mozhiyin Nadai Azhahiyal
- Unit (Iyal) 2: Peru Mazhai Kaalam
- Unit (Iyal) 3: Tamilar Kudumba Murai
- Unit (Iyal) 5: Matharasapattinam
- Unit (Iyal) 6: Thirai Mozhi
Poetry from the Prescribed Book
- Unit (Iyal) 1:
- Unit (Iyal) 2:
- Piragorunaal kodai
- Unit (Iyal) 3:
- Virunthinar Illam
- Unit (Iyal) 5:
- Deivamani Maalai
- Unit (Iyal) 6:
- Puthu Kavithaikal
- Tholkaapiyam- Meippattiyal
Section E: Non-detail Essay
Essay type Questions from the following lesson
- Unit (Iyal) 1: Bharathiyin kaditham
- Unit (Iyal) 2: Muthal kal– Uthama cholan
- Unit (Iyal) 3: Urimai Thagam- Pumani
- Unit (Iyal) 5: Thalai Kulam- Thopil Mohamed Meeran
- Unit (Iyal) 6: Nadigar Thilagam- K. V. Sailaja
CBSE Class 12 Telugu (Andhra Pradesh) Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Telugu (Andhra Pradesh) Syllabus below.
Section A: Grammar
I. Prosody and Rhetorics
- Prosody-Metre: Champakamala, Utpalamala, Mattebham, Shardulam, Ataveladi, Tetagiti
- Alankaras: Upama, Rupaka, Arthantaranyasa, Slesha, Utpreksha, and Atisayokti
II. Translation: Translation of given passage not exceeding 10 sentences in English into Telugu [Abstract Passage should be avoided]
Section B: Unseen Reading Comprehension
Section C: Composition and Writing
- Descriptive and Narrative essays
Section D: Literature
I. Prose: Lessons to be studied
- Mana Aatalu
- Vemana Kavitvamu
- Jathee Yodyama Kavitvam
Explanation with reference to the context
Two Questions and Answers
II. Poetry: Lessons to be studied
- Sathya Prashastyamu
- Hanumat Sandesam
- Eedaari Ekkadikopotumdi
Meaning of verse
Explanation with reference to the context
One long question and answer
III. Non-Detailed Text:
- Aasha Khreedu Anaa
IV. History of Literature: From Prabandha Age to Modern Age
- Only the following poets to be studied: Peddana, Dhurjati, Chemakura, Tenali Ramakrishna, Kandukuri, Rayaprolu, Sri Sri, Tirupati Venkata Kavulu and Viswanatha Satyanarayana
- Salient features of Satakas (Neeti and Bhakti), Novel and Drama
One long answer type question
Two short answer type questions
CBSE Class 12 Telugu (Telangana) Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Telugu (Telangana) Syllabus below.
Section A: Grammar
- Prosody: Champakamala, Utpalamala, Mattebhamu, Shardhulamu, Ataveladi, Tetageeti and Kandamu.
- Alankaraalu: Upama, Rupaka, Arthantaranyasa, Slesha, Utpreksha and Atisayokti
- Translation: Translation from English to Telugu. A passage not exceeding 10 sentences. [Abstract passage should be avoided]
Section B: Unseen Reading Comprehension
Section C: Composition & Writing
- Descriptive and Narrative essays
Section D: Literature
I. Prose: Lessons to be studied
- Bhasha – Charitra – Samskruti
- CINARE Kavitwam – Manavaha Vaadam
- Jateeya Udyamamlo Sthreelu
- Mana Maata Theepi
One sentence answers (4 to be answered out of 6)
Short Answer (2 to be answered out of 4)
II. Poetry: Lessons to be studied
- Vidura Neethi
- Bejja Maha Devi
- Anna Daatha
- Ravvala Pathaaka
Meaning of verse (1 to be answered out of 2)
Explanation with reference to the context (1 to be answered out of 2)
One Long Answer Question (1 to be answered out of 2)
III. Non-Detailed Text: “Vipanchi” Lessons to be studied
- Swathanthriya Vaahini
Essay type of questions (one to be answered out of 2)
IV. History of Literature:
From Prabandha Age to Modern Age: Peddana, Dhurjati, Tenali Ramakrishna, Sri Sri, Dr. Dasarathi & Dr C Narayana Reddy
- One long answer question (one to be answered out of 2)
- Two short answer questions (2 to be answered out of 4)
CBSE Class 12 Mizo Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Mizo Syllabus below.
|Unit I||Grammar||– Prefix and suffix- Vocabulary enrichment in Mizo- Double adverb/ Adjective adverb|
|Unit III||Composition and Writing||– Explanation and uses of idioms and phrases- A short history of Mizo literature- Reports of events and incidents|
|Unit IV||Literature||– Poetry- Prose- Fiction|
CBSE Class 12 Bhutia Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Bhutia Syllabus below.
|Section A||Reading||Unseen passage|
|Section B||Writing||Writing an Essay/ Story:Dritsom – Thakor Tsangda, Dhuechen, Nagtsen Sungkyop, Ridag Semchen Sungkyop, Natsha, Throten, Shering, Thung Chu, Gnamshi, Mitsi, Miki Jigko Gong shue yigi, Famalo yigi, Roglo yigi, Lelatsuna shuyig, Wangten, Tsong dang drelway yegi, goenbo yigi.|
|Section C||Applied Grammar||Threy zenwang chen gay, Kayki yenla gay, Datsen tagshed, Duesum namshad, Taag, Tampay, Petam, Shayso.|
|Section D||Literature Textbooks||Tshig Lhug:Bero-chana Sam-yelo Denshuboi kor, Berochans Gyagarlo chho Tshoeba chhonboi kor, Zamling Naytang Rigsarlay jungboi kor, Sempa Chhinpu Tagmolo Luejin Tangboi Kor, Gandhi chogki namthar, Sherab lay Tshondu Geychhinboi Tam, Ghakoi Labjha, Druboi Labjha.|
Tshig chey:Tshig cheed yongzog, Drowa zangmui Namthar : Thamchey.
CBSE Class 12 Tibetan Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Tibetan Syllabus below.
|Sections||Details of Topic/ Section||Lessons|
|Section A: Grammar||– Applied Grammar- Tags jugs- Classifications andapplications of root letter andprefix letter- Tenses||Lesson no. 1 to 5|
|Section B: Reading||– Comprehension of a seen and an unseen passage extracted from stories- Notes and biographies||Lesson no. 6|
|Section C: Writing(Part 1)||– Letter writing- Report- Bonafide letter||Lesson no. 7 to 8|
|Section C: Writing(Part 2)||– Essay writing- Techniques for writing prose and short stories||Lesson no. 9 to 11|
|Section D: Literature(Part 1)||Prose:- The tale of birds and monkeys- Leg bShad Blo gSar Mig Byed||Lesson no. 12 to 15|
|Section D: Literature(Part 2)||Poetry:- Metaphor, Abbreviated expression, exaggeration.- Tsig rGyan Rig pai sGo ‘Byed||Lesson no. 16 to 18|
|Section D: Literature(Part 3)||Drama:Ri dvags Kyi gtam nges byung gi pho nya by Rigzin Jigme Lingpa||Lesson no. 19|
|Section D: Literature(Part 4)||Rapid Reading:My Land and My People by H.H. the Dalai Lama||Lesson no. 20 to 24|
CBSE Class 12 French Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 French Syllabus below.
|Topics/ Sections||Name of Topics/ Sections||Details of Topics/ Sections|
|Section A||Comprehension/ Reading||– One passage from the prescribed book- One unseen passage (Factual/ Descriptive/ picture based)|
|Section B||Writing Skills/ Compositions||– Completing a story- Informal letter (about 80 words)|
|Section C||Applied Grammar(based on lessons 18 to 30)||The section will test following grammar topics through filling the blanks/ transformation of sentences/ sentence correction (not involving punctuation and spelling)- Prepositions- Interrogative adjectives and pronouns- Relative pronouns (simple and composed)- Personal pronouns- Tenses (excluding passé antérieur but including passé simple)- Direct and reported speech- Active and passive voice|
|Section D||Culture||– Prose (Lessons 18 to 30)- Fill in the blanks, True & False/one-word answer, etc.,based on general information in the lessons|
CBSE Class 12 German Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 German Syllabus below.
|Sections||Name of Sections||Details of Sections|
|Section A||Reading||Comprehension (unseen passage)|
|Section B||Writing||– Based on stimulus, compose an Email- Based on stimulus, compose a dialogue|
|Section C||Applied Grammar||– Passive voice- Future tense (Futur I – werden + Infinitiv)- Subordinate clauses- Personal pronouns in accusative and dative case- Adjectives and particle as nouns|
|Section D||Textbook||– Completing a passage with the vocabulary provided (from the textbook)- Comprehension (seen passage)|
CBSE Class 12 Lepcha Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Lepcha Syllabus below.
|Sections||Name of Sections/ Topics||Details of Sections/ Topics|
|Section A||–||Unseen passages|
|Section B-I||Writing||– An Essay/ Article/ book review/ Blog/ Column/ Story etc., of 300 to 350 words.- Choice in topics will be provided.- The questions may (narrative, stanza, incomplete story, pictures, photographs, opening phrases, etc.) and students may require to describe how the given prompts stimulated them.|
|Section B-II||Writing||– An article, advertisement email etc., of choice of 100 to 150 words will be asked.- Choice in topics will be provided.- The question may provide verbal or visual prompts OR Translation of a Text/ letter/ application.|
|Section C||Applied Grammar & Composition||– Essay Writing- Paragraph Writing- Letter Writing- Honorific/ Figurative|
|Section D-I||Prose||– Vartosa Gyutong- Kongkee Burnontho- AIDS Rummula Nyet kat- Val-entine ponol- Athung sung kat Siungtamsa- Hodosa Aka ka Kusudunggit Chutba- Mamko- Gyakarka Romchulut- Kingchum Rum mit Peychuk|
|Section D-II||Poetry||– Saksom all sosonf areyka- Tododo Mutomba- Kusu mikshimka Ho- Thyakpey muninbo tshukdong. Zong kususa muro- Kususa muro- Rummitnomsasakchum- Chakmong fo- Kheybumsa un Tung Dorjee- Zupto Rongkupsa|
|Section D-III||Drama||Thonggaom Kat Nahan Page (40 onwards)|
|Section D-IV||Introduction of poets & Writers||–|
CBSE Class 12 Limboo Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Limboo Syllabus below.
|Sections||Name of Sections||Details of Sections|
|Section A||Reading Comprehension||One unseen paragraph from prose and one stanza from a poem.|
|Section B||Writing Composition||Lessons to be studied:- Wayway thaaming-o sum sapma (Essay writing) Kusing- Yakthung sappaan, Yakthung sathim, Sangdhabu lamdik, Hendhim wagera.- Sok-inghong, pelli-sok, utching- sok nu onchhewa sapma (Letter writing)- Translation (English to Limboo)Prescribed book- Thangsing Yakthung Huppan Nu Itchap, Published by H.R.D.D., Govt. of Sikkim|
|Section C||Grammar||Lessons to be studied:- Akkhelyemre Paapmanalam- Losok Chokma Thhim- Pammay- Mellengwaba Sutla- Paanlup- Mukpaan- Yokpayba Sutla- Iklengle Kugo- Thhokwavho- IkpaylekPrescribed book- Thangsing Yakthung Huppan Nu Itchap, Published by H.R.D.D., Govt. of Sikkim|
|Section D-I||Literature (Textbook)||Prescribed book: Patila Sapsok (Prose), Published by H.R.D.D., Govt. of Sikkim- Sarumba Kappoben- Rinchenpongba Thhong- Haat Taa-ee Kurekwa-o- Cyber Iksha- Yemnu Menggammare|
|Section D-II||Literature (Textbook)||Prescribed book: Kheda Sung (Rapid Reader), Published by H.R.D.D., Govt. of Sikkim- Aadangba- Khune Pangbhey Menukhen|
|Section D-III||Literature (Textbook)||Prescribed book: Thhothama (Novel), Published by H.R.D.D., Govt. of Sikkim|
|Section D-IV||Literature (Textbook)||Prescribed book: Sammila Sapsok (Poetry) Published by H.R.D.D., Govt. of Sikkim- Aani Lokhummo- Him Chogum- Khene Yakthung Hekkey Lare- Aamaro- Sappon|
CBSE Class 12 Nepali Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Nepali Syllabus below.
- Chhanda: Anustup, Totak, Sikharini, Sardulvikridit
- Alankaar: Anuprash, Upama, Slesh, Atisayokti
- Patra Rachana: Vyaktigat, Vyaparik, Daftari ani Smarak patra
- Nibandha Rachana: Aatma parak vastuparak ravicharaatmak
Sandarbha pustak: Purvottar Madhyamik Nepali Vyakaran ra Rachana
- Machhako mol – Shiva Kumar Rai
- Ku…khu…ri …ka… – Rudra Poudyal
- Rupko mulya – Balkrishna Sam
Sandarbha Pustak: Katha Sangraha, Janapakshya Prakashan, Gangtok Sikkim
- Hai Hai Angreji – Laxmi Prasad Deokota
- Pyaro Sapana – Ram Krishna Sharma
- Samadhanko Khoji – Deoraj Sharma and G.B. Niroula
Sandarbha Pustak: Nibandha Sangraha: Janapakshya Prakashan, Gangtok Sikkim
Ritu Vichar (Khandakavya) – Leknath Poudyal (Sabai Rituharu)
- Naatak: Sadharan Parichaya
- Bandhini (Ekanki) – Indramani Darnal
- Daan Yogdan (Ekanki) – I.K.Singh
Reference Book: Ekanki Sangraha, Janapakshya Prakashan, Gangtok, Sikkim
Juneli Rekha – Indra Sundas. (Janapakshya Prakashan, Gangtok, Sikkim)
- Lekhnath Poudyal
- Balkrishna Sam
- Ram Krishna Sharma
Reference Book: Prativa Parichaya, Janapakshya Prakashan, Gangtok, Sikkim
Nepali Sahityako Aitihasik Parichaya:
Dr.Taranath Sharma (Janapakshya Prakashan, Gangtok Sikkim)
(i) Nepali Bhasako parichaya.
(ii) Nepali Upanyash
CBSE Class 12 Persian Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Persian Syllabus below.
|Sections||Name of Sections||Details of Sections|
|Section A||Reading Comprehension||An unseen passage of 150 words followed by 3-4 short questions to test comprehension. 2 marks may be allocated for testing vocabulary. 1 mark may be allocated for providing a suitable heading.|
|Section B||Writing Skills||Questions will be asked on given subjects.- Letter writing/ Essay Writing- Objective type questions will be asked from the prescribed textbook- Summarizing of the prescribed lesson into Urdu/ English/ Hindi/ Persian|
|Section C||Applied Grammar||Definition of the following with examples:- Noun- Pronoun- Preposition- Verb|
Word formations from the infinitive- Imperatives- Aorists (Muzare) and Conjugation
lsm-e-Fail, lsm-e-Mafool, Adjectives Singular/ Plural
|Section D||Literature||Prose and Poetry: |
Farsi-wa-Dastoor Part I, Kitab-e-Awwal (1977) by Dr. Zahrae-KhanlariLessons to be studied:- Tarrar-e-Amanatdar- Qissa-e-Kodak Moosa (Part I)- Qissa-e-Kodak Moosa (Part II)- Shaban-wa-Gusfand- Qissa-e-Gule Khandan-wa-Durr-e-Giryan (Part I, II,Ill)- Guwahi-e-Darakht- Dasture Zaban-e-Farsi Wabastah-e Ajzai Jumla Muzaf IIeh- Dastur e Zaban-e-Farsi Wabastah-e-Fail (Qaid)- Mazandaran (Poem)- Nageen-e-Angushtri (Poem)- Kitab (Poem)
Amoozish-e-Zaban-e-Farsi Book IV by Dr Yadullah SamarehLessons to be studied:- Qissah-e-Rangha- Nohomeen ljlasi-ye Saran- Gandhi Khastar-e-Aghaz-e-Naw-dar Rawabit-e-Chin wa Hind Shod- Deeruz lmruz Wa Farda- Waqti Ke lshq Neest (Poem)
CBSE Class 12 Russian Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Russian Syllabus below.
|Sections||Name of Sections||Details of Sections|
|Section A||Applied Grammar||Based on the lessons from the prescribed textbook|
|Section B||Reading Comprehension||An unseen passage of about 150 to 200 words with 4-5 short answer type questions based on the passages|
|Section C||Composition and Writing||An essay of about 150 to 200 words in Russian on a topic related to everyday life|
|Section D||Questions based on the texts||Questions from the prescribed textbook. Students are required to answer in Russian.|
|Section E||Translation||– From Russian into English (Unknown text or Sentences) – From English into Russian (Unknown text or Sentences)|
CBSE Class 12 Sindhi Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Sindhi Syllabus below.
|Sections||Details of Topics/ Chapters|
|Section A: Reading||Advanced Reading Skills:An Unseen passage of 150 words followed by short questions to test comprehension, for testing vocabulary and for providing a suitable heading.|
|Section B: Writing||Effective Writing Skills:- Report Writing (150 words)- Essay Writing (250 words)|
|Section C: Prosody, Rhetorics and forms of Literature||– Prosody: Doha, Soratha, Rola, Chaupai, and Kundali- Figures of speech: Anuprasa, Slesha, Yamaka, Upama, Rupaka, Atishayokti, Sandeha, Utpreksha, Upalaksha, Virodhabhasa, Vyajastuti- Forms of Literature: Novel, Short story, Essay, Drama, Poetry|
|Section D: Literature||Novel:- Ahe-na-Ahe by Prof. Ram Panjwani|
Prose:- Dinu Ya Dharmu- Lal Chand Jagtayani- Kudarat-ain-Kadir- Bhojaraj Nagrani- Pahinja Pahinja Dap- Jaswant Kumar- Sindhi Sahita ja Char Thambha- Mangaram Malkani- Ama tu na Vanu- Popti Hiranandani- Pathar Jo Dushmanu- Mohan Kalpana
Poetry:- Marui- Shah Latif- Samia Ja Salok- Sami- Baharu- Kishinchand Bewas- Dahakau- Parasram Ziya- Khayaban Tu Aahi- Indar Bhojwani- Aman Ja Aasar- Prabhu Vafa
CBSE Class 12 Spanish Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Spanish Syllabus below.
Section A: Applied Grammar
- Revision of all Morphological and Syntactic elements prescribed for class XI.
- “Quiero/ voy a intentar/ pienso/ tengo la intención de + infinitivo”, “Ir + a + infinitivo”, “Pensar + infinitivo”, “Le importaría + infinitivo?”, “Podría/ podrá + infinitivo?”, “Yo creo que/ opino/ pienso que + indicativo”.
- The subjunctive mood (present and past), its use as an independent clause and with conditional clauses:
- “Quiero/necesito in present / condicional tense + infinitivo”.
- “Quieres que + present tense of subjunctive, “Que + presente tense of subjunctive”, “Es necesario/ importante/ esencial/ mejor que + subjunctive”, “¡Qué lástima/ rabia/ pena/ suerte/ maravilla que + present tense of subjunctive”, “Es mejor/ Lo mejor es que + subjunctive”, “(No) (me, te,) gusta que + subjunctive”, “Es una pena/ lástima que + subjunctive”, “Siempre que + subjunctive”, “En caso de que + subjunctive”, “Estar seguro de que, “dudo (de) que + subjunctive”, “Temo/ me preocupa que + subjunctive”.
- “A lo mejor, igual, seguramente + adjective”, “Quizás, probablemente + indicative or subjunctive” “Puede que, es posible que + subjunctive”.
- Use of the gerund and the participle.
- Active and passive voice and the uses of “Se”.
- Use of expressions like: en realidad, en el fondo, de hecho, la verdad es que, en cambio, por el contrario, no obstante, etc.
Section B: Reading Comprehension
Students will be expected to read and answer questions from an unseen passage in Spanish of about 200 words.
Section C: Composition and Writing
A short composition in Spanish on a topic related to the life around (150 words)
Section D: Culture/ Civilization/ Literature
- Simple questions of famous works, authors, customs, festivals etc., related to the Spanish speaking countries.
- The teacher is expected to make choices of texts from the prescribed textbook as per the general competence of the class.
- Additional choice of authors may be added by the teacher in addition to the ones prescribed in Classes IX and X.
CBSE Class 12 Tangkhul Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Tangkhul Syllabus below.
|Sections||Details of Topics/ Chapters|
|Section A: Composition||– Comprehension (Unseen)- Essay writing-. Letter writing- Precis/Paragraph- Notice/Bio Sketch|
|Section B: Grammar||– Nominal, Noun, Pronoun- Deverbal, Verbal system- Enclitics|
|Section C: Literature||Prose- Mirin Sangkhavai ari – Tara- Longpi Maringthei- La kasa eina Pheison Kasa- Thuipoplakha eina AIDS|
Poetry- France khavawui la- Raiyam
- Wordham Tuitam kakhane by TLS (Tangkhul Literature Society)
- Juikhama Tangkhul Grammar by TLS
CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus below.
Unit I: Electrostatics
Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields
- Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
- Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.
- Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).
Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
- Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
- Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.
Unit II: Current Electricity
Chapter 3: Current Electricity
- Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and nonlinear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance.
- Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and EMF of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
- Potentiometer – principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Unit III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism
Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
- Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.
- Biot-Savart law and its application to a current-carrying circular loop.
- Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron.
- Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter
- Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis, torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
- Para-, dia- and ferromagnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.
Unit IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Chapter 6: Electromagnetic Induction
- Electromagnetic induction
- Faraday’s laws
- Induced EMF and current
- Lenz’s Law
- Eddy currents
- Self and mutual induction
Chapter 7: Alternating Current
- Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage
- Reactance and impedance
- LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance
- Power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current
- AC generator and transformer.
Unit V: Electromagnetic Waves
Chapter 8: Electromagnetic Waves
- The basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).
- Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Unit VI: Optics
Chapter 9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
- Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction of light through a prism.
- Scattering of Light: Blue colour of sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.
- Optical Instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Chapter 10: Wave Optics
- Wavefront and Huygens principle, reflection and refraction of a plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.
- Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens principle
- Young’s double-slit experiment and expression for fringe width
- Coherent sources and sustained interference of light
- Diffraction due to a single slit
- Width of central maximum
- Resolving power of microscope and astronomical telescope
- Polarisation, plane polarised light
- Brewster’s law: uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids
Unit VII: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Chapter 11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
- Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations;
- Einstein’s photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.
- Experimental study of the photoelectric effect
- Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation, Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).
Unit VIII: Atoms and Nuclei
Chapter 12: Atoms
- Alpha-particle scattering experiment
- Rutherford’s model of the atom
- Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Chapter 13: Nuclei
- Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties; radioactive decay law, half-life and mean life.
- Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.
Unit IX: Electronic Devices
Chapter 14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
- Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only)
- Semiconductor Diode: I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;
- Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, Zener diode as a voltage regulator.
CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus below.
Unit I: Solid State
- Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea).
- Unit cell in two dimensional and three-dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
- Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n and p-type semiconductors.
Unit II: Solutions
- Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, the solubility of gases in liquids, and solid solutions,
- Raoult’s Law,
- Colligative properties – a relative lowering of vapour pressure,
- Elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, and osmotic pressure,
- Determination of molecular masses using colligative properties and abnormal molecular mass,
- Van’t Hoff Factor
Unit III: Electrochemistry
- Redox reactions, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential,
- Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells,
- Relation between Gibbs energy change and EMF of a cell,
- Conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration,
- Kohlrausch’s Law,
- Electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea),
- Dry Cell – electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, fuel cells, corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics
- Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous),
- Factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, Catalyst;
- Order and molecularity of a reaction,
- Rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half-life (only for zero and first-order reactions),
- Concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment),
- Activation energy,
- Arrhenius equation.
Unit V: Surface Chemistry
- Adsorption – physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids,
- Catalysis: homogenous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity of solid catalysts, enzyme catalysis,
- Colloidal state: the distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension,
- Lyophilic, lyophobic, multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids,
- Properties of colloids,
- Tyndall effect,
- Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion – types of emulsions.
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction – concentration, oxidation, reduction – electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Unit VII: p-Block Elements
- Group 15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen preparation properties and uses; compounds of Nitrogen: preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric Acid, Oxides of Nitrogen (Structure only); Phosphorus – allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: Preparation and properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only).
- Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, dioxygen: preparation, properties and uses, classification of Oxides, Ozone, Sulphur -allotropic forms; compounds of Sulphur: preparation properties and uses of Sulphur-dioxide, Sulphuric Acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).
- Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation, properties and uses of Chlorine and Hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
- Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements
- General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals.
- General trends in properties of the first row transition metals – metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation.
- Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
- Lanthanoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
- Actinoids – Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds – Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner’s theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereoisomerism, the importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological system).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
- Nomenclature, nature of C–X bond, physical and chemical properties, optical rotation mechanism of substitution reactions.
- Nature of C–X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only).
Uses and Environmental Effects
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
- Methods of preparation
- Physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only)
- Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols
- Mechanism of dehydration
- Uses, with special reference to methanol and ethanol
- Methods of preparation
- Physical and chemical properties
- Acidic nature of phenol
- Electrophilic substitution reactions
- Uses of phenols
- Methods of preparation
- Physical and chemical properties
- Uses of ethers
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones
- Nature of carbonyl group
- Methods of preparation
- Physical and chemical properties
- Mechanism of nucleophilic addition
- Reactivity of alpha hydrogen in Aldehydes
- Acidic nature
- Methods of preparation
- Physical and chemical properties
Unit XIII: Amines
- Methods of preparation
- Physical and chemical properties
- Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines
- Chemical reactions
- Importance in synthetic organic chemistry
Unit XIV: Biomolecules
- Classification (aldoses and ketoses)
- Monosaccharides (glucose and fructose)
- D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose)
- Polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen)
- Importance of carbohydrates
- Elementary idea of – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins
- Structure of proteins – primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only)
- Denaturation of proteins
- Hormones – Elementary idea excluding structure
Vitamins – Classification and functions
Nucleic Acids – DNA and RNA
Unit XV: Polymers
- Classification – natural and synthetic
- Methods of polymerization (addition and condensation)
- Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber
- Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life
- Chemicals in Medicines: Analgesics, tranquilizers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
- Chemicals in Food: Preservatives, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
- Cleansing Agents: Soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
CBSE Class 12 Mathematics Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Mathematics Syllabus below.
Unit I: Relations and Functions
Relations and Functions
- Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, the inverse of a function.
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.
Unit II: Algebra
- Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices.
- Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar.
- Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication.
- On Commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2).
- Concept of elementary row and column operations.
- Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).
- Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle.
- Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix.
- Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of a system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using the inverse of a matrix.
Unit III: Calculus
Continuity and Differentiability
- Continuity and differentiability, a derivative of composite functions, chain rule, a derivative of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions.
- Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.
- Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions.
- Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms.
- Second-order derivatives.
- Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretation.
Applications of Derivatives
- Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/ decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool).
- Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations).
- Integration as an inverse process of differentiation.
- Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts.
- Evaluation of simple integrals and problems based on them.
- Definite integrals as a limit of a sum
- Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof).
- Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
Applications of the Integrals
- Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles, parabolas, ellipses (in standard form only).
- The area between any of the two above-said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).
- Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation.
- Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given.
- Solution of differential equations by the method of separation of variables, solutions of homogeneous differential equations of the first order and first degree.
- Solutions of a linear differential equation.
Unit IV: Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry
- Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector.
- Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector.
- Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, the addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio.
- Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, a scalar triple product of vectors.
- Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points.
- Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, the shortest distance between two lines.
- Cartesian and vector equation of a plane.
- Angle between
- Two lines
- Two planes
- Line and a plane
- Distance of a point from a plane.
Unit V: Linear Programming
- Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization.
- Different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems.
- Mathematical formulation of L.P. problems.
- Graphical method of solution for problems in two variables.
- Feasible and infeasible regions (bounded or unbounded).
- Feasible and infeasible solutions.
- Optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).
Unit VI: Probability
- Conditional probability
- Multiplication theorem on probability
- Independent events
- Total probability
- Bayes’ theorem
- Random variable and its probability distribution
- Mean and variance of random variables
- Binomial probability distribution
CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus below.
Students can check Units I to V from the CBSE Class 11 Syllabus. The rest of the units are part of CBSE Class 12.
Unit VI: Reproduction
Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms
- Reproduction, a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species;
- Modes of reproduction – asexual and sexual reproduction;
- Asexual reproduction – binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule formation, fragmentation;
- Vegetative propagation in plants;
- Events in sexual reproduction
Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
- Flower structure;
- Development of male and female gametophytes;
- Pollination – types, agencies and examples;
- Outbreeding devices;
- Pollen-pistil interaction;
- Double fertilization;
- Post fertilization events – development of endosperm and embryo, development of seed and formation of fruit;
- Special modes- apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony;
- Significance of seed dispersal and fruit formation.
Chapter 3: Human Reproduction
- Male and female reproductive systems;
- Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary;
- Gametogenesis – spermatogenesis and oogenesis;
- Menstrual cycle;
- Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation;
- Pregnancy and placenta formation (elementary idea);
- Parturition (elementary idea);
- Lactation (elementary idea).
Chapter 4: Reproductive Health
- Need for reproductive health and prevention of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs);
- Birth control – need and methods;
- Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP);
- Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT, AI (brief overview).
Unit VII: Genetics and Evolution
Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation
- Heredity and variation, Mendelian inheritance;
- Deviations from Mendelism – incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles and inheritance of blood groups, pleiotropy;
- Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance;
- Chromosome theory of inheritance;
- Chromosomes and genes;
- Linkage and crossing over;
- Sex determination – in human beings, birds, grasshopper and honey bee;
- Mutation, Pedigree analysis, sex-linked inheritance – haemophilia, colour blindness;
- Mendelian disorders in humans –sickle cell anaemia, Phenylketonuria, thalassemia;
- Chromosomal disorders in humans;
- Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance
- Structure of DNA and RNA;
- DNA packaging;
- Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material;
- DNA replication;
- Central Dogma;
- Transcription, genetic code, translation;
- Gene expression and regulation – lac operon;
- Human genome project;
- DNA fingerprinting.
- Origin of life;
- Biological evolution and evidence for biological evolution (palaeontology, comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence);
- Adaptive radiation;
- Biological evolution: Lamarck’s theory of use and disuse of organs, Darwin’s theory of evolution;
- Mechanism of evolution – variation (mutation and recombination) and natural selection with examples, types of natural selection;
- Gene flow and genetic drift;
- Hardy – Weinberg’s principle;
- A brief account of evolution;
- Human evolution.
Unit VIII: Biology and Human Welfare
Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases
- Parasites causing human diseases (malaria, dengue, chikungunya, filariasis, ascariasis, typhoid, pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ringworm) and their control;
- Basic concepts of immunology – vaccines;
- Cancer, HIV and AIDS;
- Adolescence – drug and alcohol abuse.
Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
- Animal husbandry,
- Plant breeding,
- Tissue culture,
- Single-cell protein.
Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare
- Microbes in food processing, industrial production, Antibiotics;
- Production and judicious use, sewage treatment, energy generation and microbes as biocontrol agents and bio-fertilizers.
Unit IX: Biotechnology and its Applications
Chapter 11: Biotechnology – Principles and Processes
- Genetic Engineering (Recombinant DNA Technology)
Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application
- Application of biotechnology in health and agriculture
- Genetically modified organisms – Bt Crops;
- RNA interference, Human insulin, gene therapy;
- Molecular diagnosis;
- Transgenic animals;
- Biosafety issues, biopiracy and patents.
Unit X: Ecology and Environment
Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations
- Organisms and environment
- Habitat and niche, abiotic factors, ecological adaptations;
- Population interactions – mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism, commensalism;
- Population attributes – growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Chapter 14: Ecosystem
- Ecosystem: Structure and function;
- Productivity and decomposition;
- Energy flow;
- Pyramids of number, biomass, energy;
- Nutrient cycles (carbon and phosphorous);
- Ecological succession;
- Ecological services – carbon fixation, pollination, seed dispersal, oxygen release (in brief).
Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation
- Biodiversity – Concept, levels, patterns, importance;
- Loss of biodiversity;
- Biodiversity conservation;
- Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, Sacred Groves, biosphere reserves, national parks, wildlife, sanctuaries and Ramsar sites.
Chapter 16: Environmental Issues
- Air pollution and its control;
- Water pollution and its control;
- Agrochemicals and their effects;
- Solid waste management;
- Radioactive waste management;
- Greenhouse effect and climate change impact and mitigation;
- Ozone layer depletion;
- Case study exemplifying success story addressing the environmental issue(s).
CBSE Class 12 Accountancy Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Accountancy Syllabus below.
Part A: Accounting for Not-for-Profit Organizations, Partnership Firms and Companies
Unit 1: Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations
- Not-for-profit organizations: Concept.
- Receipts and Payments Account Features and preparation.
- Income and Expenditure Account: Features, preparation of income and expenditure account and balance sheet from the given receipts and payments account with additional information.
Unit 2: Accounting for Partnership Firms
- Partnership: Features, Partnership Deed.
- Provisions of the Indian Partnership Act 1932 in the absence of partnership deed.
- Fixed v/s fluctuating capital accounts. Preparation of Profit and Loss Appropriation account- a division of profit among partners, a guarantee of profits.
- Past adjustments (relating to interest on capital, interest on drawing, salary and profit-sharing ratio).
- Goodwill: Nature, factors affecting and methods of valuation – average profit, super profit and capitalization.
- Interest on a partner’s loan is to be treated as a charge against profits.
- Goodwill to be adjusted through partners capital/ current account.
- Note: Raising and writing off goodwill is excluded.
Accounting for Partnership firms – Reconstitution and Dissolution.
- Change in the Profit Sharing Ratio among the existing partners: Sacrificing ratio, gaining ratio, accounting for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities and treatment of reserves and accumulated profits. Preparation of revaluation account and balance sheet.
- Admission of a partner: Effect of admission of a partner on change in the profit-sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill, treatment for revaluation of assets and re-assessment of liabilities, treatment of reserves and accumulated profits, adjustment of capital accounts and preparation of balance sheet.
- Retirement and death of a partner: Effect of retirement/death of a partner on change in profit sharing ratio, treatment of goodwill, treatment for revaluation of assets and reassessment of liabilities, adjustment of accumulated profits and reserves, adjustment of capital accounts and preparation of balance sheet. Preparation of loan account of the retiring partner.
- Calculation of deceased partner’s share of profit till the date of death. Preparation of deceased partner’s capital account and his executor’s account.
- Dissolution of a partnership firm: Meaning of dissolution of partnership and partnership firm, types of dissolution of a firm. Settlement of accounts – preparation of realization account, and other related accounts: capital accounts of partners and cash/bank a/c (excluding piecemeal distribution, sale to a company and insolvency of partner(s)).
- If the realized value of an asset is not given, it is to be presumed that it has not realized any amount.
- If a partner has borne and/ or paid the realization expenses, it should be stated.
Unit 3: Accounting for Companies
Accounting for Share Capital
- Share and share capital: nature and types.
- Accounting for share capital: issue and allotment of equity and preferences shares. Public subscription of shares – over subscription and under subscription of shares; issue at par and at a premium, call in advance and arrears (excluding interest), issue of shares for consideration other than cash.
- Concept of Private Placement and Employee Stock Option Plan (ESOP).
- Accounting treatment of forfeiture and reissue of shares.
- Disclosure of share capital in the Balance Sheet of a company.
Accounting for Debentures
- Debentures: Issue of debentures at par, at a premium and at a discount. Issue of debentures for consideration other than cash; Issue of debentures with terms of redemption; debentures as collateral security concept, interest on debentures. Writing off discount/loss on the issue of debentures.
- Redemption of debentures-Methods: Lump sum, the draw of lots.
- Creation of Debenture Redemption Reserve.
- Investment in Debenture Redemption Investment.
Part B: Financial Statement Analysis
Unit 4: Analysis of Financial Statements
Financial statements of a Company: Statement of Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet in the prescribed form with major headings and sub-headings (as per Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013)
- Financial Statement Analysis: Objectives, importance and limitations.
- Tools for Financial Statement Analysis: Comparative statements, common-size statements, cash flow analysis, ratio analysis.
- Accounting Ratios: Meaning, Objectives, classification and computation.
- Liquidity Ratios: Current ratio and Quick ratio.
- Solvency Ratios: Debt to Equity Ratio, Total Asset to Debt Ratio, Proprietary Ratio and Interest Coverage Ratio.
- Activity Ratios: Inventory Turnover Ratio, Trade Receivables Turnover Ratio, Trade Payables Turnover Ratio and Working Capital Turnover Ratio.
- Profitability Ratios: Gross Profit Ratio, Operating Ratio, Operating Profit Ratio, Net Profit Ratio and Return on Investment.
Unit 5: Cash Flow Statement
- Meaning, objectives and preparation (as per AS 3 (Revised) (Indirect Method only)
- Adjustments relating to depreciation and amortization, profit or loss on sale of assets including investments, dividend (both final and interim) and tax.
- Bank overdraft and cash credit to be treated as short term borrowings.
- Current Investments are to be taken as Marketable securities unless otherwise specified.
Part B: Computerised Accounting
Unit 4: Computerised Accounting
Overview of Computerised Accounting System
- Introduction: Application in Accounting.
- Features of Computerised Accounting System.
- Structure of CAS.
- Software Packages: Generic; Specific; Tailored.
Accounting Application of Electronic Spreadsheet.
- Concept of an electronic spreadsheet.
- Features offered by electronic spreadsheet.
- Application in generating accounting information – bank reconciliation statement; asset accounting; loan repayment of loan schedule, ratio analysis
- Data representation- graphs, charts and diagrams.
Using Computerized Accounting System.
- Steps in installation of CAS, codification and Hierarchy of account heads, creation of accounts.
- Data: Entry, validation and verification.
- Adjusting entries, preparation of balance sheet, profit and loss account with closing entries and opening entries.
- Need and security features of the system.
Database Management System (DBMS)
- Concept and Features of DBMS.
- DBMS in Business Application.
- Generating Accounting Information – Payroll
CBSE Class 12 Business Studies Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Business Studies Syllabus below.
Part A: Principles and Functions of Management
Unit 1: Nature and Significance of Management
- Management – concept, objectives, and importance
- Management as Science, Art, and Profession
- Levels of Management
- Management functions- planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling
- Coordination- concept and importance
Unit 2: Principles of Management
- Principles of Management- concept and significance
- Fayol’s principles of management
- Taylor’s Scientific management- principles and techniques
Unit 3: Business Environment
- Business Environment- concept and importance
- Dimensions of Business Environment- Economic, Social, Technological, Political, and Legal
- Demonetization – concept and features
- Impact of Government policy changes on business with special reference to liberalization, privatization, and globalization in India.
Unit 4: Planning
- Concept, Importance and Limitations
- Planning Process
- Single use and standing plans. Objectives, Strategy, Policy, Procedure, Method, Rule, Budget, and Programme
Unit 5: Organising
- Concept and Importance
- Organising Process
- Structure of organization – functional and divisional concept. Formal and informal organization – concept
- Delegation: Concept, elements, and importance
- Decentralization: Concept and importance
Unit 6: Staffing
- Concept and importance of staffing
- Staffing as a part of Human Resource Management – concept
- Staffing Process
- Recruitment Process
- Selection Process
- Training and Development – Concept and importance
- Methods of training – on the job and off the job – vestibule training, apprenticeship training, and internship training
Unit 7: Directing
- Concept and importance
- Elements of Directing
- Motivation – concept, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Financial and non-financial incentives
- Leadership – concept, styles – authoritative, democratic, and laissez faire
- Communication – concept, formal and informal communication; barriers to effective communication, how to overcome the barriers
Unit 8: Controlling
- Controlling – Concept and importance
- Relationship between planning and controlling
- Steps in process of controlling
Part B: Business Finance and Marketing
Unit 9: Financial Management
- Concept, role and objectives of Financial Management
- Financial decisions: investment, financing and dividend- Meaning and factors affecting them
- Financial Planning – concept and importance
- Capital Structure – concept and factors affecting capital structure
- Fixed and Working Capital – concept and factors affecting their requirements
Unit 10: Financial Markets
- Financial Markets: Concept, Functions, and Types
- Money market and its instruments
- Capital market and its types (primary and secondary), methods of floatation in the primary market
- Stock Exchange – Functions and trading procedure
- Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) – objectives and functions
Unit 11: Marketing
- Marketing – Concept, functions, and philosophies
- Marketing Mix – Concept and elements
- Product – branding, labelling, and packaging – Concept
- Price – Concept, Factors determining price
- Physical Distribution – concept, components, and channels of distribution
- Promotion – Concept and elements; Advertising, Personal Selling, Sales Promotion, and Public Relations
Unit 12: Consumer Protection
- Concept and importance of consumer protection
- The Consumer Protection Act, 2019:
- Meaning of consumer
- Rights and responsibilities of consumers
- Who can file a complaint?
- Redressal machinery
- Remedies available
- Consumer awareness – Role of consumer organizations and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs)
CBSE Class 12 Computer Science Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Computer Science Syllabus below.
Unit I: Computational Thinking and Programming – 2
|Unit I: Sub-Topics|
|Revision of Python topics covered in Class XI.|
|Functions: types of function (built-in functions, functions defined in module, user-defined functions), creating user-defined function, arguments and parameters, default parameters, positional parameters, function returning value(s), flow of execution, scope of a variable (global scope, local scope).|
|Introduction to files, types of files (Text file, Binary file, CSV file), relative, and absolute paths.|
|Text file: opening a text file, text file open modes (r, r+, w, w+, a, a+), closing a text file, opening a file using with clause, writing/ appending data to a text file using write() and writelines(), reading from a text file using read(), readline() and readlines(), seek and tell methods, manipulation of data in a text file.|
|Binary file: basic operations on a binary file: open using file open modes (rb, rb+, wb, wb+, ab, ab+), close a binary file, import pickle module, dump() and load() method, read, write/create, search, append and update operations in a binary file.|
|CSV file: import CSV module, open/ close CSV file, write into a CSV file using CSV.writerow() and read from a CSV file using CSV.reader( ).|
|Python libraries: creating python libraries.|
|Recursion: simple programs with recursion, the sum of first n natural numbers, factorial, Fibonacci series.|
|The idea of efficiency: number of comparisons in Best, Worst and Average case for linear search.|
|Data Structure: Stack, operations on the stack (push & pop), implementation of stack using the list. Introduction to queue, operations on queue (enqueue, dequeue, is empty, peek, is full), implementation of queue using the list.|
Unit II: Computer Networks
|Unit II: Sub-Topics|
|Evolution of networking: Introduction to computer networks, the evolution of networking (ARPANET, NSFNET, INTERNET).|
|Data communication terminologies: Concept of communication, components of data communication (sender, receiver, message, communication media, protocols), measuring capacity of communication media (bandwidth, data transfer rate), IP address, switching techniques (Circuit switching, Packet switching).|
|Transmission media: Wired communication media (Twisted pair cable, Coaxial cable, Fiber-optic cable), Wireless media (Radio waves, Microwave, Infrared waves).|
|Network devices (Modem, Ethernet card, RJ45, Repeater, Hub, Switch, Router, Gateway, WIFI card).|
|Network topologies and Network types: Types of networks (PAN, LAN, MAN, WAN), networking topologies (Bus, Star, Tree).|
|Network protocol: HTTP, FTP, PPP, SMTP, TCP/IP, POP3, HTTPS, TELNET, VoIP, wireless/ mobile communication protocol such as GSM, GPRS and WLL.|
|Mobile telecommunication technologies: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G and 5G.|
|Introduction to web services: WWW, HyperText Markup Language (HTML), Extensible Markup Language (XML), domain names, URL, website, web browser, web servers, web hosting.|
Unit III: Database Management
|Unit III: Sub-Topics|
|Database concepts: Introduction to database concepts and its need.|
|Relational data model: Relation, attribute, tuple, domain, degree, cardinality, keys (candidate key, primary key, alternate key, foreign key).|
|Structured Query Language: Introduction, Data Definition Language and Data Manipulation Language, data type (char(n), varchar(n), int, float, date), constraints (not null, unique, primary key), create database, use database, show databases, drop database, show tables, create table, describe table, alter table (add and remove an attribute, add and remove primary key), drop table, insert, delete, select, operators (mathematical, relational and logical), aliasing, distinct clause, where clause, in, between, order by, meaning of null, is null, is not null, like, update command, delete command, aggregate functions (max, min, avg, sum, count), group by, having clause, joins: cartesian product on two tables, equi-join and natural join.|
|Interface of python with an SQL database: connecting SQL with Python, performing insert, update, delete queries using cursor, display data by using fetchone(), fetchall(), rowcount, creating database connectivity applications.|
CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Economics Syllabus below.
Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics
Unit 1: National Income and Related Aggregates
- What is Macroeconomics?
- Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
- Circular flow of income (two-sector model); Methods of calculating National Income – Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
- Aggregates related to National Income: Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Net Domestic Product (NDP) – at market price, at factor cost; Real and Nominal GDP, GDP Deflator.
- GDP and Welfare
Unit 2: Money and Banking
- Money – meaning and supply of money – Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
- Money creation by the commercial banking system.
- Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. Bank, Banker’s Bank, Control of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.
Unit 3: Determination of Income and Employment
- Aggregate demand and its components.
- Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
- Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism.
- Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
- Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them – changes in government spending, taxes and money supply.
Unit 4: Government Budget and the Economy
- Government budget – meaning, objectives and components.
- Classification of receipts – revenue receipts and capital receipts; classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
- Measures of government deficit – revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning.
Unit 5: Balance of Payments
- Balance of payments account – meaning and components; balance of payments deficit meaning.
- Foreign exchange rate – meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.
- Determination of exchange rate in a free market.
Part B: Indian Economic Development
Unit 6: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991
- A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence. Indian economic system and common goals of Five Year Plans.
- Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance) and foreign trade.
- Economic Reforms since 1991: Features and appraisals of liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation (LPG policy); Concepts of demonetization and GST.
Unit 7: Current challenges facing the Indian Economy
- Poverty- absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment;
- Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India
- Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – the role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming – organic farming
- Employment: Growth and changes in the workforce participation rate in formal and informal sectors; problems and policies
- Infrastructure: Meaning and Types: Case Studies: Energy and Health: Problems and Policies- A critical assessment;
- Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming
Unit 8: Development Experience of India
- A comparison with neighbours
- India and Pakistan
- India and China
- Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development and other Human Development Indicators.
CBSE Class 12 Political Science Syllabus 2021
Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 Political Science Syllabus below.
Part A: Contemporary World Politics
|Units||Details of Topics|
|Unit 1||Cold War and Non-aligned MovementThe emergence of two power blocs/ Bipolarity, Non-aligned Movement (NAM).|
|Unit 2||The End of BipolarityThe disintegration of Soviet Union, Unipolar World, Middle East Crisis – Afghanistan, Gulf War, Democratic Politics and Democratization – CIS and the21st Century (Arab Spring).|
|Unit 3||New Centres of PowerOrganizations: European Union, ASEAN, SAARC, BRICS. Nations: Russia, China, Israel, India.|
|Unit 4||South Asia and the Contemporary WorldConflicts and efforts for Peace and Democratization in South Asia: Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Maldives.|
|Unit 5||United Nations and its OrganizationsPrinciple Organs, Key Agencies: UNESCO, UNICEF, WHO, ILO, Security Council and the Need for its Expansion.|
|Unit 6||Security in Contemporary WorldSecurity: Meaning and Types; Terrorism.|
|Unit 7||Environment and Natural ResourcesEnvironmental Movements, Global Warming and Climate Change, Conservation of Natural Resources.|
|Unit 8||GlobalizationGlobalization: Meaning, Manifestations and Debates.|
Part B: Politics in India Since Independence
|Units||Details of Topics|
|Unit 9||Challenges of Nation-BuildingNation and Nation Building, Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel and Integration of States, Legacy of Partition: Challenge of Refugee, Resettlement, Kashmir Issue, Nehru’s Approach to Nation – Building, Political Conflicts over Language and Linguistic Organization of States.|
|Unit 10||Planning and DevelopmentChanging nature of India’s Economic Development, Planning Commission and Five year Plans, National Development Council, NITI Aayog.|
|Unit 11||India’s Foreign PolicyPrinciples of Foreign Policy; India’s Changing Relations with Other Nations: US, Russia, China, Israel; India’s Relations with its Neighbours: Pakistan, Bangladesh,Nepal, Sri Lanka and Myanmar; India’s Nuclear Programme.|
|Unit 12||Parties and the Party Systems in IndiaCongress System, Bi-party System, Multi-party Coalition System.|
|Unit 13||Democratic ResurgenceJaya Prakash Narayan and Total Revolution, Ram Manohar Lohia and Socialism, Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya and Integral Humanism, National Emergency, Democratic Upsurges – Participation of the Adults, Backwards and Youth.|
|Unit 14||Social and New Social Movements in IndiaSocial vs. New Social Movements, Farmer’s movements, Workers Movements, Women’s Movements, Ecological Movements.|
|Unit 15||Regional AspirationsRise of Regional Parties, Punjab Crisis, The Kashmir issue, Movements for Autonomy.|
|Unit 16||Indian Politics: Trends and DevelopmentsEra of Coalitions: National Front, United Front, United Progressive Alliance [UPA] – I & II, National Democratic Alliance [NDA] – I, II, III & IV, Issues of Development and Governance.|
CBSE Class 12 NCERT Books
The first thing needed to kick start your CBSE Preparation is the study material. The National Council of Educational Research and Training (NCERT) publishes CBSE Class 12 textbooks. NCERT Books are well known for their time to time updated content. The NCERT books for Class 12th (all subjects) are available for free download on the official website of NCERT. Therefore, candidates can download the Class 12 textbooks from the official site. Furthermore, students can also download NCERT Class 12 Books for all subjects from here.
CBSE Class 12 NCERT Books:
- NCERT Class 12 Maths Book
- NCERT Class 12 English Book
- NCERT Class 12 Hindi Book
- NCERT Class 12 Physics Book
- NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Book
- NCERT Class 12 Biology Book
- NCERT Class 12 History Book
- NCERT Class 12 Economics Book
CBSE Class 12 NCERT Solutions
To score well in the CBSE Class 12 Board Exams, one must thoroughly finish the NCERT textbooks of Class 12. They must read them from top to bottom and solve all the questions from the book diligently. NCERT Solutions by Embibe provide a better understanding of the concepts. When preparing for the CBSE Class 12 board exam, you can always rely on these NCERT Class 12 Solutions PDF. They help explain the solution to the trickiest problems in the easiest way.
Solving CBSE NCERT Solutions for 12th Class will not only help you practice well but also make you ready for the exam. Your problem-solving abilities will improve, and you solve each question in the most effective manner. Also, NCERT Class 12 Solutions will aid you in a quick and successful last-minute revision. You can download CBSE Class 12 NCERT Solutions in PDF for subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Maths, Biology for free.
CBSE Class 12 NCERT Solutions for Mathematics
Candidates can check the chapter-wise NCERT Solutions of CBSE Class 12 Mathematics below. Moreover, they can even download the NCERT solutions PDF for Class 12 Maths from the table below.
|Class 12 Mathematics NCERT Chapters||Class 12 Mathematics NCERT Solutions|
|Chapter 1||Relations and Functions|
|Chapter 2||Inverse Trigonometric Functions|
|Chapter 5||Continuity and Differentiability|
|Chapter 6||Application of Derivatives|
|Chapter 8||Application of Integrals|
|Chapter 9||Differential Equations|
|Chapter 10||Vector Algebra|
|Chapter 11||Three Dimensional Geometry|
|Chapter 12||Linear Programming|
CBSE Class 12 NCERT Solutions for Physics
Candidates can check as well as download the PDF of the chapter-wise NCERT Solutions of CBSE Class 12 Physics from the table below.
|Class 12 Physics NCERT Chapters||Class 12 Physics NCERT Solutions|
|Chapter 1||Electric Charges and Fields|
|Chapter 2||Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance|
|Chapter 3||Current Electricity|
|Chapter 4||Moving Charges and Magnetism|
|Chapter 5||Magnetism and Matter|
|Chapter 6||Electromagnetic Induction|
|Chapter 7||Alternating Current|
|Chapter 8||Electromagnetic Waves|
|Chapter 9||Ray Optics and Optical Instruments|
|Chapter 10||Wave Optics|
|Chapter 11||Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter|
|Chapter 14||Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices, and Simple Circuits|
|Chapter 15||Communication Systems|
CBSE Class 12 NCERT Solutions for Chemistry
Class 12 Chemistry comprises three types of sections, namely Physical Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, and Organic Chemistry. Candidates can check the chapter-wise NCERT Solutions of CBSE Class 12 Chemistry below.
|Class 12 Chemistry NCERT Chapters||Class 12 Chemistry NCERT Solutions|
|Chapter 1||The Solid State|
|Chapter 4||Chemical Kinetics|
|Chapter 5||Surface Chemistry|
|Chapter 6||General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements|
|Chapter 7||The p-Block Elements|
|Chapter 8||The d-Block and f-Block Elements (to be updated soon)|
|Chapter 9||Coordination Compounds|
|Chapter 10||Haloalkanes and Haloarenes|
|Chapter 11||Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers|
|Chapter 12||Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids|
|Chapter 16||Chemistry In Everyday Life|
CBSE Class 12 NCERT Solutions PDF for Biology
Candidates can check the chapter-wise NCERT Solutions of CBSE Class 12 Biology from the table below. Moreover, they can even download the PDF of NCERT solutions for Class 12 Biology from the table below.
|Class 12 Biology NCERT Chapters||Class 12 Biology NCERT Solutions|
|Chapter 1||Reproduction in Organisms|
|Chapter 2||Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants|
|Chapter 3||Human Reproduction|
|Chapter 4||Reproductive Health|
|Chapter 5||Principles of Inheritance and Variation|
|Chapter 6||Molecular Basis of Inheritance|
|Chapter 8||Human Health and Disease|
|Chapter 9||Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production|
|Chapter 10||Microbes in Human Welfare|
|Chapter 11||Biotechnology: Principles and Processes|
|Chapter 12||Biotechnology and its Applications|
|Chapter 13||Organisms and Populations|
|Chapter 15||Biodiversity and Conservation|
|Chapter 16||Environmental Issues|
CBSE Class 12 Exam 2021 – Preparation Tips
CBSE Class 12 Board Exam is the most popular national-level exam. The competition is very stiff as lakhs of candidates from all over the country appear for this exam every year. The competition gets more crucial as it is the pathway towards securing a better career. Furthermore, the Class 12 exam is also essential for taking renowned exams like JEE Main, NEET, DUET, CLAT, etc.
Now, preparing for such exams is a tough nut to crack. You need to have a diligent study routine to ace the Class 12 board exam with good marks. So, to help you with your CBSE Class 12 Board Exam preparation, you can follow the points below.
- Exam Pattern: Remember to check the CBSE Class 12 Exam Pattern. The exam pattern contains information about the structure of Class 12 question papers which helps in preparation.
- Syllabus: Don’t forget to check the CBSE Class 12 Syllabus. The syllabus provides you with topics that you can study. Moreover, you can even find important topics for the Class 12 examination from the syllabus.
- Time Management: Always prepare a good time management plan. You can make a timetable that you can follow daily. Moreover, don’t forget to give time to all Class 12 subjects.
- NCERT Textbooks: Read the NCERT Class 12 Textbooks thoroughly as all the questions in the Class 12 board exam come from the textbook.
- Quality Study Material: Always have quality study material at your disposal. Good study material can clear your concepts better and provide you with a good understanding of subjects.
- Take Notes: Always make notes while studying. You can always look into your notes and revise topics of any subject. Furthermore, do not keep tough topics for the last moment.
- Previous Year Question Papers: Candidates can practice CBSE Class 12 Previous Year Papers as much as possible. Practice a sufficient number of questions diligently.
- Mock Tests: You can also take mock tests and practise more for Class 12 board exams.
CBSE Class 12 Sample Papers 2021
While revising the syllabus, it is important to practice CBSE Class 12 Sample Papers as well. Practising CBSE 12th Class Sample Papers help in building confidence to face the actual exam. By solving CBSE sample papers, you will understand the type of questions asked in the exam, frequency of questions, marking scheme, difficulty level, and more. Also, it will help you in identifying your weak areas. So, what are you waiting for? You can download free CBSE Class 12 Sample Papers for all subjects and start preparing.
CBSE Class 12 Previous Year Question Papers
First of all, we all have questions like why solve previous year question papers? Well, because CBSE Class 12 previous year papers indicate the type of questions that can be asked in the exams. Also, it gives an idea of the changing trends of the Class 12 CBSE exam pattern and syllabus. There is no end to solving the previous year question papers. The more you practice, the more polished your preparation gets.
By practising CBSE Class 12 Previous Year Question Papers, you can further boost your speed and accuracy level. So, what are you waiting for? Scale your CBSE Class 12 Board exam preparation and strengthen your weak areas by solving previous year papers.
CBSE Class 12 Admit Card 2021
The Central Board of Secondary Education releases the admit card for the Class 12 board exam. CBSE Class 12 candidates can download the admit card online from the official website. The board issues the CBSE Class 12 Admit Card to both regular as well as private candidates. However, regular candidates can get the hall ticket for the Class 12 board exam 2021 from their respective schools. At the same time, private candidates can download the CBSE Class 12 hall ticket online from the official site.
The Class 12 admit card contains various essential information related to the board exam. For example, the date & day of every subject’s exam, details of subjects, timing, centre details, etc. Moreover, the admit card is an important document that students must carry to the exam centre. Without the hall ticket, officials will not permit any student to enter the examination hall.
How to Download CBSE Class 12 Admit Card 2021?
Private candidates can follow the steps below to download the admit card for the CBSE Class 12 board exam.
- Step 1: Visit the official website at cbse.gov.in.
- Step 2: Under the “Infocus” section, check for the “Admit Card for Board Examination” link and click on it.
- Step 3: On the next page, enter “User ID” and “Password”.
- Step 4: After entering the details, click on the “Login“ button.
- Step 5: The CBSE Class 12 Admit Card will appear on the screen.
- Step 6: Now, candidates can take a print of the Class 12 Board Exam Hall Ticket and keep it safe for future use.
CBSE Class 12 Exam Day Instructions 2021
CBSE provides various guidelines that candidates have to follow on the day of the Class 12 board examination. Moreover, if any candidate does not follow the instructions, the board can cancel his/ her candidature. Candidates can check the CBSE Class 12 board exam day instructions below.
- Candidates must carry the Class 12 board exam admit card to the examination centre.
- Students also need to carry their school Id cards to the exam centre.
- The candidate needs to carry his/ her own stationery items like a pen, pencil, scale, etc., to the centre. Asking for such items from another candidate is strictly prohibited.
- Candidates must not carry any type of electronic gadgets to the examination hall. They can’t carry mobile phones, pager, calculator, or any electronic items.
- The officials at the centre will conduct the exam by following all the safety measures of COVID-19. Therefore, students are advised to do the same as well.
- Students must wear masks and sanitize their hands at the exam centre.
CBSE Class 12 Practical Exam 2021
Every year, the Central Board of Secondary Education provides guidelines for conducting practical examinations and internal assessments for Class 12. Schools then conduct the CBSE Practical Exam before the theory exams. Moreover, CBSE also provides a time limit within which schools should conduct Class 12th practical exams. Depending upon the guidelines, schools conduct CBSE Practical Exam and Project Assessments. Candidates have to give these practical exams, as the marks of these practicals and internal assessments add to the final CBSE Class 12 result.
The board appoints an external examiner along with an internal examiner to the respective schools to conduct these Class 12 practical exams. Furthermore, CBSE also appoints an observer who supervises the conduction of the CBSE practical exam and project assessments. Upon completing the CBSE 12th Class Practical Exam, schools upload the practical and internal assessment marks on the CBSE’s website. While uploading CBSE practical and internal assessment marks, schools have to ensure that only correct marks are uploaded as no correction in the marks is allowed after uploading.
CBSE Class 12 Result 2021
The Central Board of Secondary Education will announce the Class 12 Board Exam Result 2021. The board will announce the Class 12 result online at cbseresults.nic.in. Thus, the Class 12 students will check the Class 12 result online from the official site. This year, the board has not conducted the Class 12 board exam. Therefore, the officials will announce the CBSE Class 12 Result without any examination. Moreover, the board has released evaluation criteria for announcing the result. Furthermore, they will follow the criteria to declare the CBSE result 2021 for Class 12.
Once the board declares the Class 12 CBSE Result 2021, the candidates will check as well as download the scorecard online from the website. They can check the Class 12 result or scorecard by providing their roll number, registration id, school number, and centre number. The Class 12 CBSE result contains various details. The candidates can check their subject-wise marks, overall marks, passing status, etc. Furthermore, the board will issue the original Class 12 mark sheet after around one month. And, candidates will collect the same from their respective schools.
How to Check CBSE Class 12 Result 2021 Online?
The CBSE Class 12 board exam 2021 result will be available online. Therefore, candidates have to check the Class 12 result online from the CBSE’s website. Candidates can follow the simple steps below to check as well as download the CBSE Class 12 result or scorecard.
- First, go to the CBSE’s official result website, i.e., cbseresults.nic.in.
- On the website, search for the “Senior School Certificate Examination (Class-XII) 2021” link and click on the link.
- On the next page, Candidates need to enter their Class 12 roll number, registration id, school number, and centre number.
- Then, check the details once and click on the “Submit” button.
- On clicking the button, the CBSE Class 12 Result 2021 will appear on the screen.
- Finally, candidates can check their CBSE Class 12 results and download the same for future references.
How to Obtain CBSE Class 12 Result 2021 From DigiLocker?
Candidates can also check their Class 12 results from DigiLocker. The following are the steps to obtain CBSE Class 12 Result 2021 from DigiLocker.
- First, visit the DigiLocker website at digilocker.gov.in.
- On the site, scroll down and go to the ‘Education’ section. Then, click on the “VIEW ALL” link.
- Next, search for the “Central Board of Secondary Education” tab and click on it.
- On the next page, click on the “Class XII Marksheet” tab.
- Now, enter either “Aadhar/ Mobile Number” or “Username” and a 6 digit security pin.
- Then, click on the “Sign In” button.
- Finally, the CBSE Class 12 Result will appear on the screen.
Grading System in CBSE Class 12 Board Exam
The CBSE puts all the passed students of Class 12th in a rank order to award grades. Furthermore, the board follows the following system to award grades to the Class XII students.
CBSE Class XII Grading System:
|A-1||Top 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|A-2||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|B-1||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|B-2||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|C-1||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|C-2||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|D-1||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
|D-2||Next 1/8th of the passed candidates|
- Board can make minor variations in the proportion of candidates to adjust ties.
- In case of a tie, all the students get the same grade who have the same score. If the number of students at a score point needs to be divided into two segments, the smaller segment will go with the larger.
- CBSE uses a grading method in subjects where the number of candidates who have passed is more than 500.
- In subjects where the total number of candidates passing is less than 500, the grading would be adopted on the pattern of grading and distribution in other similar subjects.
CBSE Class 12 Exam 2021 (Cancelled)
As per the official notification, the government has decided to cancel the Class 12 exams for 2021, on 1st June 2021. However, we have provided an overview of the CBSE 12th Class Exam for reference:
|Name of the Exam||CBSE Class 12 Exam|
|CBSE Full form||Central Board of Secondary Education|
|Exam Type||National Level|
|Frequency of the Exam||Once a year|
|Number of Streams||Three – Science, Commerce, Arts|
What Is CBSE Class 12 Exam?
The All India Senior School Certificate Examination which is popularly known as Boards is an examination conducted every year by the CBSE (Central Board of Secondary Education) on account of the Government of India. Every year around 12 Lakhs+ candidates appear in the board exam and candidates who clear CBSE Class 12 exams will be eligible to secure admissions UG or Diploma Courses.
CBSE 12th Registration For Regular & Private Students
There are two types of CBSE Registration for two types of students – Regular candidates and Private candidates. A regular candidate is one who is enrolled in a school and has a regular course of study. CBSE Registration for Class 12 regular students is done by their respective schools.
Now, candidates who do not attend a regular course of study and study on their own without any involvement of school are private students. They receive a different certificate than the regular students. CBSE allows the following kinds of students to appear for Class XII exams as private candidates:
- Students who want to reappear in all subjects.
- Candidates wishing to improve their marks by taking an improvement exam after the main exam.
- Students who got re-compartment in CBSE 12th class.
How To Apply For CBSE Class 12 Exam?
Here we have provided an overview of how students can apply for CBSE Class 12 exams for reference. Private candidates who wish to apply for CBSE 12th Class exam can follow the steps mentioned below:
- – 1st Step: Visit the official website of CBSE- cbse.gov.in.
- – 2nd Step: Click on the link that reads, ‘Online Application for Private Students.’
- – 3rd Step: On the left side of the page, select the exam type- Compartment, Failure, Improvement, etc.
- – 4th Step: Enter your Previous Year of Examination, Previous Year Roll Number, 5-digit School Number and Center Number.
- – 5th Step: Complete your CBSE Registration by paying the fees.
- – 6th Step: Take a printout of the CBSE application form for future reference.
CBSE Class 12 Registration Fees (Cancelled)
The CBSE Class 12 exams will not be conducted this year. Below is the CBSE application fee for Class 12 students for reference:
|Type of Fee||CBSE Registration Fee|
|Without Late Fee||Rs 1500 per candidate|
Rs 1200 per candidate (SC/ST candidates of Government schools of Delhi)
Rs 300 per additional/optional subject
|Practical Fee||Rs 150 for each practical subject|
|With Late Fee||Rs 2000 per candidate (in addition to fee prescribed)|
CBSE 12th Date Sheet 2021 (Cancelled)
CBSE 12th Class Exam is usually conducted in the month of March. But due to the pandemic situation in the country, the CBSE board exams were delayed by 2 to 3 months. However, now the government has decided to cancel the exam due to the Covid-19 pandemic.
CBSE Class XII Subjects
As mentioned above, the CBSE Class 12 exams are cancelled. However, students can start preparing for the year 2022. Below are the subjects that you will be studying in CBSE 12th Science, Commerce, and Arts:
- Business Studies
- Physical Education
- Computer Science
- Political Science
- Home Science
CBSE 12th Class Exam Pattern 2021
The CBSE Class 12 exams for 2021 are cancelled. However, in the year 2021, some important changes were made in the CBSE Class 12 Exam Pattern. It is essential for students to know the changes in both internal assessment and the format of the CBSE Class 12 question paper.
CBSE New Exam Pattern for 12th Class
- – Students can now score good marks easily as 25% of the CBSE paper will now consist of objective-type questions for all subjects.
- – CBSE has increased the internal choices by 33%.
- – As per CBSE New Exam Pattern for Class 12, all subjects will have 20% weightage given to internal assessment.
|Sections||Internal Assessment Marks|
|Periodic Test||5 Marks|
|Multiple Assessment||5 Marks|
|Subject Enrichment Activities||5 Marks|
CBSE Board Class 12th Syllabus 2021
This year, CBSE has introduced changes in its syllabus. The new CBSE Syllabus 2021 has been reduced by 30% for all important subjects. It is important for you to know the new revised CBSE Class 12 Syllabus to prepare for the exam. You can check the new CBSE Class 12 Syllabus here.
|1||CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus|
|2||CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus|
|3||CBSE Class 12 Maths Syllabus|
|4||CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus|
|5||CBSE Class 12 English Core Syllabus|
|6||CBSE Class 12 Hindi Core Syllabus|
CBSE NCERT Books For Class 12
The first thing needed to kick start your CBSE Preparation is the study material. The National Council of Educational Research and Training NCERT publishes CBSE Class 12 textbooks. NCERT Books are well known for their time to time updated contents. You can download NCERT Class 12 Books for all subjects from here. The NCERT books for Class 12 (all subjects) are also available for free download on the official website of NCERT.
|NCERT Class 12 Maths Book|
|NCERT Class 12 English Book|
|NCERT Class 12 Hindi Book|
|NCERT Class 12 Physics Book|
|NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Book|
|NCERT Class 12 Biology Book|
|NCERT Class 12 History Book|
|NCERT Class 12 Economics Book|
CBSE NCERT Solutions For Class 12
To score well in the CBSE Class 12 Board Exams, one must finish the NCERT textbooks of Class 12 thoroughly. They must read them from top to bottom and solve all the questions from the book diligently. NCERT Solutions by Embibe provide a better understanding of the concepts. When it comes to CBSE Class 12 Board Preparation, you can rely on these NCERT Class 12 Solutions as they are helpful in explaining to you the trickiest of the problems in the easiest way.
Solving CBSE NCERT Solutions For 12th Class will not only help you practice well but also make you ready for the exam. Your problem-solving abilities will improve and you solve each question in the most effective manner. Also, NCERT Class 12 Solutions will aid you in a quick and successful last-minute revision. You can download CBSE NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Physics, Chemistry, Maths, and Biology for free.
- NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths
- NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Physics
- NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Chemistry
- NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology
- NCERT Solutions for Class 12 English (Soon)
- NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Hindi (Soon)
CBSE Class 12th Sample Papers
While revising the syllabus, it is important to practice CBSE Class 12 Sample Papers as well. Practising CBSE 12th Class Sample Papers helps in building your confidence to face the real exam. By solving CBSE sample papers you will understand the type of questions asked in the exam, frequency of questions, marking scheme, difficulty level, and more. Also, it will help you in identifying your weak areas. You can download free CBSE Class 12 Sample Papers for all subjects here.
CBSE Class 12 Previous Year Papers
Why is it important for you to solve CBSE previous year questions papers? Well, because CBSE Class 12 previous year papers indicate the type of questions that can be asked in the exams. Also, it gives an idea of the changing trends of the CBSE exam pattern and syllabus. There is no end to solving the previous year question papers. The more you practice the more polished your preparation gets. By practising CBSE 12th Class previous year question papers, you boost your speed and accuracy level. So, what are you waiting for? Scale your CBSE preparation and strengthen your weak areas by solving Class 12 Previous Year Papers.
CBSE Class 12th Practical Exam
The Central Board Of Secondary Education conducts Practical Examination and Internal Assessments every year. CBSE Practical Exams are conducted before the theory ones. Every year, CBSE provides a time limit within which the school officials should conduct the CBSE Practical Board Exam. CBSE Practical Exam and Project Assessments are done in the respective schools. This year CBSE Class 12 Practical Exams were supposed to be conducted from 1st March to 11th June 2021. However, the exams for Class 12 2021 stands cancelled.
CBSE appoints an external examiner along with an internal examiner to the respective schools. An observer is also appointed by CBSE who supervises the conduction of the CBSE practical exam and project assessment. Upon the completion of the CBSE 12th Class Practical Exam, marks are uploaded on the link provided by the board. While uploading CBSE Practical Marks, schools should make sure that only correct marks are uploaded as no correction in the marks is allowed after uploading.
CBSE Class 12 Exam Preparation Tips
CBSE Class 12 Board Exam is the most popular nationwide board exam. The competition is very stiff as lakhs of candidates appear for this exam year from all over the country. The competition gets more crucial as it is the pathway to all major entrance exams like JEE, NEET, BITSAT. Now, preparing for such an exam is a tough nut to crack. You need to have a diligent study routine to ace the exam with good marks. You can follow the below points to start off with your CBSE Class 12 Preparation:
- Have quality study material at your disposal.
- Know your CBSE Syllabus well.
- Get a clear understanding of the concepts. Read the NCERT books thoroughly.
- Make notes as you study.
- Practice a sufficient number of questions diligently.
- Practice previous year papers.
- Prepare a good Time Management Plan.
- Take regular mock tests.
- Do not keep tough topics for the last moment.
- Never go for rote learning.
- Revise regularly.
CBSE 12th Admit Card
CBSE Admit Card for Class 12 was supposed to be released in April 2021. For, regular students of CBSE, the admit card is given to them from the school. But, for private students, CBSE Hall Ticket is released online on the official website. Students can download CBSE Admit Card by entering their User ID and Password. However, the government has decided to cancel the exams for Class 12.
The Admit Card of CBSE is one important document that students should carry with them to the exam hall. Without the CBSE Admit Card, students won’t be allowed to sit for the exam.
CBSE Board Class 12th Result
CBSE Result for Class 12 exams are cancelled and the result will be released officially after the government decides the assessment criteria. Class XII Results will be announced at the official website of cbseresults.nic.in. Students can check CBSE 12th Class Results using their Roll number, Centre number, School number, and Admit Card.
You should know that CBSE 12th Board Exam Results are based on a student’s performance in the assessment scheme. CBSE will not release any merit list this year. Also, CBSE decided to replace the term ‘FAIL’ with ‘Essential Repeat.’
CBSE 12th Board Exam – FAQs
The frequently asked questions on CBSE Class 12th Board exams are given below:
|Q. Is CBSE Practical exam 2021 cancelled or not?|
A. As per the covid-19 outbreak, CBSE Practical exams have been cancelled.
|Q. Is there a change in CBSE Syllabus 2021 from 2020?|
A. Yes, the officials of CBSE have reduced CBSE Syllabus for 2021 by up to 30%.
|Q. Where can I ask my doubts on NCERT Text Book Class 12|
A. You can post your queries on NCERT 12th Class books in the comment section below. If you have any academic queries, you can visit Embibe Ask.
|Q. When will CBSE release the admit card for Class 12 for 2021?|
A. The CBSE Class 12 exams for 2021 have been cancelled. However, the admit card was supposed to be released in April 2021.
|Q. What is the new pattern of CBSE for Class 12 2021?|
A. There are major changes in the total number of questions for all the subjects. But the Marking Scheme & Weightage distribution remains the same.
Q. Will CBSE Conduct Class 12 exams for 2021?
A. No, the CBSE has decided to cancel the class 12 exams for 2021 due to the Covid-19 outbreak.
Now you have a detailed article on CBSE Class 12 Exam. We hope it has provided all the information that you need. CBSE 12th Class cannot be sailed easily. You need to be serious and diligent while preparing for the exam. Your future career goal is dependant on your Class 12 score. So, study seriously right from the beginning.
At Embibe, CBSE Class 12 students of the Science stream can solve free Class 12 Practice Questions for Maths, Physics, Chemistry, and Biology. You can also take free Engineering Mock Tests (PCM) and Medical Mock Tests (PCB). These will help you in your entrance exam preparation (JEE Main, JEE Advanced, NEET, BITSAT, etc.) as well as the board exams.
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So, make use of Embibe’s resources, study material, practice questions, and mock tests for CBSE Class 12 and ace the exam to ensure a bright future.
If you have any queries related to this article on CBSE Class 12 Exam, do let us know about it in the comment section below and we will get back to you soon.2576 Views