• Written By Pritam G
  • Last Modified 16-09-2022

NCERT Solutions for Class 12: All Subjects


NCERT Solutions for Class 12: The NCERT Solutions for Class 12 provide clear and detailed answers to all in-text questions. These solutions help students understand the paper pattern and in solving questions more efficiently. Students can prepare better for their Class 12 exams with the help of these solutions.

In this article, we have provided students with detailed NCERT Solutions for Class 12 prepared by top academic experts at Embibe in accordance with the latest curriculum. Students can also visit Embibe to get free access to thousands of questions and study materials to help them get additional practice for their exams. Embibe offers interactive 3D videos for Class 12 students that covers all subjects and topics. Continue reading to get the Class 12 NCERT solutions PDF.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12: Important Chapters

Class 12 board exam scores are extremely important for future studies. Without a good score in the Class 12 exam, students will not be able to get admission into a good college. Also, exams like JEE Main, JEE Advanced, BITSAT, NEET, etc., are based on the Class 12 Syllabus (along with the Class 11 Syllabus). These exams require students to score a certain percentage in the Class 12 board exam to be eligible. So, students must take their CBSE Class 12 preparation seriously.

Students can check all the important chapters in NCERT Class 12 Maths, Physics, Chemistry and Biology subjects below.

NCERT Class 12 Maths Important Chapters

Chapter No. Chapter Name
1 Relations and Functions
2 Inverse Trigonometric Functions
3 Matrices
4 Determinants
5 Continuity and Differentiability
6 Application of Derivatives
7 Integrals
8 Application of Integrals
9 Differential Equations
10 Vector Algebra
11 Three-Dimensional Geometry
12 Linear Programming
13 Probability

NCERT Class 12 Physics Important Chapters

Chapter No.Chapter Name
1Electric Charges and Fields
2Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
3Current Electricity
4Moving Charges and Magnetism
5Magnetism and Matter
6Electromagnetic Induction
7Alternating Current
8Electromagnetic Waves
9Ray Optics And Optical Instruments
10Wave Optics
11Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
14Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices, and Simple Circuits

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry Important Chapters

Chapter No.Chapter Name
1The Solid State
4Chemical Kinetics
5Surface Chemistry
6General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
7The p-Block Elements
8The d-Block and f-Block Elements
9Coordination Compounds
10Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
11Alcohols, Phenols, and Ethers
12Aldehydes, Ketones, and Carboxylic Acids

NCERT Class 12 Biology Important Chapters

Chapter No.Chapter Name
1Reproduction in Organisms
2Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
3Human Reproduction
4Reproductive Health
5Principles of Inheritance and Variation
6Molecular Basis of Inheritance
8Human Health and Disease
9Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
10Microbes in Human Welfare
11Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
12Biotechnology and its Applications
13Organisms and Populations
15Biodiversity and Conservation
16Environmental Issues

NCERT Solutions for Class 12: Points to Remember

We have provided some important points that are covered in NCERT Class 12 Maths, Physics, Chemistry and Biology to help students in their exam preparations. Refer to the list below:

NCERT Class 12 Maths

  • Matrices
    • A set of numbers (real or imaginary) or symbols or expressions arranged in the form of a rectangular array of m rows and n columns is called m × n matrix.
    • A matrix having only one row is called a row matrix.
    • A matrix having only one column is called a column matrix.
    • A matrix in which the number of rows is equal to the number of columns, say n, is called a square matrix of order n.
  • Application of Derivatives
    • A function f(x) is said to be monotonic on (a, b) if it is either strictly increasing or strictly decreasing on (a,b).
    • A function f(x) is said to be a strictly increasing function on (a, b) if x1 < x2 ⇒ f(x1) < f(x2) for all x1 , x2 ∈ (a, b).
    • The necessary and sufficient condition for a differentiable function defined on (a, b) to be strictly increasing on (a, b) is that f'(x) > 0 for all x ∈ (a, b).
    • The necessary and sufficient condition for a differentiable function defined on (a,b) to be strictly decreasing on (a, b) is that f'(x) < 0 for all x ∈ (a, b).
  • Vector Algebra
    • Any two non-zero, non-collinear vectors are linearly independent.
    • Any two collinear vectors are linearly dependent.
    • Any three non-coplanar vectors are linearly independent.
    • Any three coplanar vectors are linearly dependent.

NCERT Class 12 Physics

  • Electric Charges and Fields
    • An electric field line is a curve drawn in such a way that the tangent at each point on the curve gives the direction of the electric field at that point.
    • Field lines are continuous curves without any breaks.
    • Two field lines cannot cross each other.
    • Electrostatic field lines start at positive charges and end at negative charges.
  • Magnetism and Matter
    • It has been known since ancient times that magnets tend to point in the north-south direction.
    • There are two poles; north pole and south pole. Like magnetic poles repel and unlike ones attract.
    • Magnetic monopoles do not exist. If you slice a magnet in half, you get two smaller magnets.
  • Atoms
    • Atoms, as a whole, are electrically neutral and therefore contain equal amounts of positive and negative charges.
    • In Thomson’s model, an atom is a spherical cloud of positive charges with electrons embedded in it.
    • In Rutherford’s model, most of the mass of the atom and all its positive charge are concentrated in a tiny nucleus (typically one by ten thousand the size of an atom), and the electrons revolve around it.
    • Rutherford’s model predicts that atoms are unstable because the accelerated electrons revolving around the nucleus must spiral into the nucleus. This contradicts the stability of matter.
    • It cannot explain the characteristic line spectra of atoms of different elements.
  • Semiconductor Electronics
    • Metals have low resistivity (10−2 to 10−8 Ωm)
    • Insulators have very high resistivity (1011 Ωm−1 to 1019 Ωm−1)
    • Semiconductors have intermediate values of resistivity. (10−5 Ω m−1 to 106 Ωm−1)
    • Semiconductors are elemental (Si,Ge) as well as compound (GaAs,CdS, etc.).
    • Pure semiconductors are called intrinsic semiconductors. ne = nh for intrinsic semiconductors.

NCERT Class 12 Chemistry

  • Solid State
    • Solid is the form of matter which possesses a definite shape and a definite volume.
    • If intermolecular forces > thermal energy, substance exists as solid
    • Classification of Solid: Crystalline (Regular arrangement of particles, anisotropic), Amorphous (No regular arrangement of particles, isotropic).
    • Classification of crystalline solids: Ionic, Molecular, Covalent/Network, Metallic
  • Chemical Kinetics
    • Chemical Kinetics is the branch of chemistry which deals with the study of reaction rates and their mechanism.
    • Rate of Reaction: It is the rate of change of concentration of any of the reactant or product with time at any particular moment of time.
    • Average Rate: The rate of reaction measured over a long time interval is called average rate. It is given as Δx/Δt.
  • The p-Block Elements
    • Elements: N, P, As, Sb & Bi
    • Electronic configuration: ns2np3
    • Oxidation state: +3 and +5. +3 oxidation state is favoured by heavier elements due to the ‘inert pair effect’.
    • Nitrogen differs from other elements of group 15 due to small size, formation of pπ–pπ multiple bonds with itself and with highly electronegative atoms like O or C and non-availability of d orbitals to expand its valence shell.
  • Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
    • Alcohols are versatile compounds. They react both as nucleophiles and electrophiles.
    • Electron withdrawing groups in phenol increase its acidic strength and electron releasing groups decrease it.
    • Alcohols undergo nucleophilic substitution with hydrogen halides to yield alkyl halides.
    • Dehydration of alcohols gives alkenes.
    • Primary alcohols on oxidation yield aldehydes with mild oxidising agents and carboxylic acids with strong oxidising agents while secondary alcohols yield ketones.

NCERT Class 12 Biology

  • Reproduction in Organisms
    • Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms’ offspring are produced from their parents.
    • It enables a species to live generation after generation.
    • There are two major types of reproduction in biological world; asexual and sexual.
    • Asexual reproduction is without the formation or union of gametes or sex cells.
    • It is common in organisms that have a relatively simple organisation such as Monerans, Fungi, Algae, Protozoa, lower invertebrates such as sponges, jellyfishes, flatworms and many annelids.
    • The offspring formed by asexual reproduction are morphologically and genetically identical and are referred to as clones.
  • Evolution
    • According to the Big Bang theory, the expansion of the observable universe began with a large-scale and violent explosion of a small, primaeval “super-atom.”
    • Most widely accepted view of the origin of our solar system is the nebular hypothesis proposed by Kant (1753 A.D.).
    • Earth began to form over 4.6 billion years ago.
    • Theory of spontaneous generation of life was articulated by Francesco Redi (1668), A.L. Spallanzani (1767) and Louis Pasteur (1867).
    • Louis Pasteur demonstrated the theory of biogenesis and finally disproved the theory of spontaneous generation in 1861 by his experiments with “swan neck” flask.
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
    • Microbes are the major components of biological systems on this Earth.
    • All microbes are not pathogenic, many microbes play an important role in the welfare of human society.
    • Microbes and microbially derived products are used almost every day.
  • Biotechnology
    • Biotechnology has provided many useful products by using microbes, plants and animals and their metabolic systems.
    • Recombinant DNA (rDNA) technology modifies microbes, plants and animals by manipulating genes in them.
    • Genetically Modified (GM) crops and animals are of immense value and have been developed by using methods to transfer one or more genes from one organism to another by using rDNA technology.
    • GM plants were developed to provide resistance against stresses such as drought, heat, cold, salt, etc.

Students can visit Embibe to get free access to all the important points for NCERT Class 12 Maths, Physics, Chemistry and Biology.

NCERT Solutions for Class 12: All Subjects

Students can download the NCERT Solutions for Class 12 for Maths, Physics, Chemistry and Biology from the following:

FAQs on NCERT Solutions For Class 12

Q.1: How to make good notes from NCERT books?

Ans: To prepare notes for Class 12, try reading a passage. After having understood the topic, write it down in plain simple words. Students can also make diagrams to understand better. Jot down important formulas, reactions, equations, and block diagrams as well.

Q.2: Will these NCERT 12th Solutions help in competitive exams like JEE and AIPMT/NEET?

Ans: NCERT books have been termed as the Bible for many top competitive examinations. These 12th NCERT solutions will help build the conceptual knowledge base to solve other questions.

Q.3: What is the cost of NCERT Solutions for Class 12?

Ans: Embibe provides NCERT Solutions for Class 12 for free. No cost is charged in downloading Class 12th solutions for Maths, Physics, Chemistry and Biology subjects.

Q.4: Where do I find NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology PDF for NEET Preparation?

Ans: On Embibe, students will find the free PDF for NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology for all 16 Chapters.

Q.5: I am preparing for JEE. Is there any place where I can get free mocks?

Ans: You can take advantage of Embibe’s free JEE Main and Advanced Mock Test. Embibe provides chapter tests, revision tests, mini-tests, full tests, etc., for free.

Adaptive Practice with Solutions To Help You Ace Important Topics for 12th CBSE