You must have heard the proverb: ‘Practice makes a man perfect’. But how to practice is the real question. Class 12 is an important year...
CBSE Class 7 Hindi Syllabus 2022-23: Check DetailsSeptember 26, 2023
Assam Board Class 12 Syllabus: The new syllabus of Assam Board Class 12 has been released by Assam Higher Secondary Educational Council (AHSEC). Previously, the syllabus was reduced for the academic year 2020-21 considering the COVID-19 pandemic. Getting to know the syllabus is the first step to be followed by students as it helps them in drafting a strategic time table. It is advisable for the students to have a printed copy of the syllabus to have a clear understanding of what to study.
There are some subjects that have to be compulsorily studied by the students of all streams. Few subjects are to be commonly studied by the students for all streams. It is essential for the students to get detailed subject-wise syllabus to score well in the exams. Hence, we have provided the subject-wise syllabus for all streams. Students are advised to go through all the subjects & study the syllabus carefully before preparing for final examination.
Although Arts, Science and Commerce students have a few subjects in common, there are a few subjects that have to be compulsorily studied by the students of all streams.
English is a compulsory subject for students of all streams of Assam Board Class 12. Below mentioned are topics for each section of English.
|SECTION A: Reading unseen Passage Reading unseen prose passage for comprehension. The total length of the passage will be between 500-800 words. The passages may be one of the following: (a) Factual Passages e.g. instructions. descriptions, reports.(b) Discursive passage involving opinion e.g. argumentative. persuasive or interpretative text.(c) Literary passage e.g. extract from fiction, drama, poetry, essay or biography.|
|SECTION B Advanced Writing Skills : One out of two short compositions of not more than 50 words each e.g. advertisement and notices, designing or drafting posters, writing formal and informal invitations and replies.|
A report or a factual description based on verbal input provided (one out of two) (100-125 words)
Writing one out of two letters based on verbal input. Letter types include:(a) Business or official letters (for making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies):(b)Letters to the editor (giving suggestions on an issue)(c)Application for a job
|SECTION C Grammar 1. Narrati on : Direct and Indirect 2.Voice 3. Tenses 4. Preposition 5. Transformation of Sentences|
|SECTION D Prescribed Text books: (i) FLAMIN GO Prose: Selected Text 1. The Last Lesson: Alphonse Daudet 2. Memoirs of Chota Sahib: John Rowntree 3. Lost Spring: Anees Jung 4. Indigo: Louis Fischer 5. Going places: A.R. Barton Poetry: Selected Poetries 1. My Mother At Sixty Six: Kamala Das 2. Keeping Quiet: Pablo Neruda 3. A Thing of beauty: John Keats 4. A Roadside Stand: Robert Frost 6. One out of two extracts based on poetry from the text to test comprehension and appreciation7. Three out of four short questions from the poetry section to test local and global comprehension of text8. Five very Short answer questions out of seven questions based on the lessons from prescribed text.9. Five short answer questions out of seven questions based on the lessons from prescribed text10. One out of two long answer type questions based on the text to test global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the set text. (Expected word limit about 80-100 words each)|
|Prescribed Textbooks: (ii) VISTASSelected Pieces:1. The Tiger King: Kalki2. The Enemy: Pearl S. Buck3. On the Face of it: Susan Hill4. Memories of Childhood: Zitkala Sa and Bama5. Magh Bihu or Maghar Domahi: Dr. Praphulladatta Goswami11. One out of two long answer type question based on Supplementary Reader to test comprehension and extrapolation of theme, character and incidents (Expected word limit about 125-150 words)12. Four short answer questions from the Supplementary Reader (2×4)Prescribed books:1. Flamingo: English Reader published by Assam Higher Secondary Education Council, Bamunimaidam, Guwahati-21, developed by NCERT2. Vistas: Supplementary Reader published by Assam Higher Secondary Education Council,Bamunimaidam, Guwahati-21, developed by NCERT|
Students can choose any one of the following Modern Indian Language (MIL) subjects or they can choose the subject of Alternative English.
|Subject||Syllabus PDF Link|
|Subject||Syllabus PDF Link|
A detailed syllabus of all units of Alternative English Syllabus from below. Studying all the topics thoroughly helps in scoring maximum marks.
|Unit 1: Prose|
|(i) The Verger : William Somerset Maugham(ii) Testament of a Walker : R.K. Narayan(iii) The Scarecrow : Satyajit Ray(iv) The Gift of the Magi : O’Henry(v) On Not Being a Philosopher : Robert Lynd|
|Unit 2: Poetry|
|(i) Sita : Toru Dutt (ii) The Brook : Alfred Lord Tennyson (iii) Ozymandias of Egypt : Percy Bysshe Shelley (iv) La Belle Dame Sans Merci : John Keats (v) Village Song : Sarojini Naidu|
|Unit 3: Grammar|
|(i) Transformation of Sentences (affirmative, interrogative, negative)(ii) Question Tags(iii) Use of Prepositions(iv) Use of Tenses|
|Unit 4: Composition|
|Composition based on a given conversational piece|
Students belonging to the Arts stream can find the detailed syllabus of all the subjects from below.
Practising all the units of Mathematics syllabus of Assam board Class 12 increases the scope of scoring higher marks.
|Unit 1 – Relations & Functions|
|Relations and Functions:Types of relations : Reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.|
Inverse Trigonometric Functions:Definition, range, domain, principal value branches. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions
|Unit 2 – Algebra|
|Matrices:Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication of matrices, simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non-commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order. Concept of elementary row and column operations. Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).|
Determinants:Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 × 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by example, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix
|Unit 3 – Calculus|
|Continuity and Differentiability:Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit function. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions and their derivatives. Logarithmic differentiation. Derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems (without proof) and their geometric interpretations|
|Application of Derivatives:Applications of derivatives : Rate of change, increasing/ decreasing functions, tangents and normals, approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations)|
|Integrals:Integration as an inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, only simple integrals of the type.|
Definite integrals as a limit of a sum. Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof). Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
|Applications of the Integrals:Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, arcs of circles/ parabolas/ ellipses (in standard form only), area between the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).|
|Differential Equations:Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Formation of differential equations whose general solution is given. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:|
|Unit 4 – Vectors & Three Dimensional Geometry|
|VectorsVectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines/ ratios of vectors. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Scalar (dot) product of vectors, projection of a vector on a line. Vector (cross) product of vectors.|
|Three-dimensional GeometryDirection cosines/ ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian and vectors equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane. Distance of a point from a plane|
|Unit 5 – Linear Programming|
|Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions, feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints)|
|Unit 6 – Probability|
|Multiplication theorem on probability. Conditional probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes theorem. Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of haphazard variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.|
A detailed syllabus of Economics is given below for student’s reference.
|Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics|
|Unit 1: National Income and Related AggregateWhat is Macroeconomics?Basic concepts in Macroeconomics : consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.Circular flow of income (two sector model) Methods of calculating National Income- Value added or Product method, Expenditure Method, Income Method.Aggregates related to National Income:Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and Net Domestic Product (NLDP) – at market price, at factor cost; Real and Nominal GDP, Personal Income, Private Income, Personal Disposable Income, national Disposable Income (Gross & Net).Simple mathematical applications of national Income conceptsGDP and WelfareUnit 2: Determination of income and EmploymentAggregate demand and its components.Aggregate Supply and ifs components.Effective Demand.Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and Marginal).Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism.Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them- change in government spending, taxes and money supply.Determination of Income and Employment (2 sector model). Unit 3: Money and BankingMoney – Meaning, evolution and functionsCommercial Banks- Meaning and functions.Credit creation by the commercial banks.Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue, Govt. bank, Banker’s bank. Control of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR,SLR, Repo Rate and reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.Unit 4: Government Budget and the EconomyGovernment budget- meaning, objectives and components.Classification of receipts revenue receipts and capital receipts.Classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure, Plan andNon-plan expenditure, Developmental and Non-Developmental expenditure.Measures of Government deficit- Revenue deficit, Fiscal deficit, Primary deficit their meaning.Balanced Budget, Surplus Budget and Deficit Budget meaningUnit 5: Balance of PaymentsBalance of Payments account- meaning and components, balance of payments deficit-meaningForeign exchange -meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.Spot and Forward exchange rate (concept only).Determination of exchange rate in free market.Foreign Exchange Market (concept only)|
|Part B: Indian Economic Development|
|Unit 6: Development Experience (1947-1990)A brief introduction of the states of the Indian economy on the eve of independence.Indian economic system and common goals of Five Years Plans.Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy)Industry (1PR 1956; SSI- role & importance) and foreign tradeUnit 7: Economic Reforms since 1991Features and appraisals of liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation (LPG Policy)Concept of demonetization and GST.NITI AayogUnit 8: Current Challenges facing Indian EconomyPoverty- absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessmentHuman Capital Formation: How people become resource, Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in IndiaRural Development: Key Issues- credit and marketing role of co-operatives, agricultural diversification; alternative farming- organic farmingEmployment: Growth and changes in work force participation rate in formal and informal sectors; problems and policies. Infrastructure: Meaning and Types: Case Studies: Energy and Health: Problems and Policies – A critical assessmentSustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming.Unit 9: Development Experience of India: A comparison with neighboursIndia and PakistanIndia and ChinaIndia and Bangladesh|
Syllabus of other subjects in Arts stream
Students belonging to Arts stream can download the syllabus of other subjects from below
|Subject||Syllabus PDF Link|
|Logic & Philosophy or Psychology,||Link or Link|
|Sociology or Anthropology||Link or Link|
Science students can find the detailed syllabus structure for all the subjects below.
All the topics from Physics syllabus are mentioned below for student reference. Going through the syllabus will help students in understanding what topics are to be covered.
|Unit 1 – Electrostatics|
|Electric charges and their conservation. Coulomb’s law– force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric dipole, electric field due to dipole;torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.Electric field lines; Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find fielddue to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field.Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor|
|Unit 2 – Current Electricity|
|Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear and nonlinear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity. Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors; temperature dependence of resistance Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.Potentiometer – principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of emfs cell’S; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.|
|Unit 3 – Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism|
|Concept of Magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.Biot-Savart law and its applications to current carrying circular loop (both at center and at axial point), finite straight conductorAmpere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire, straight and toroidal solenoidsForce on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields. Lorentz force Cyclotron.Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Force between two parallel current carrying conductors-definition of one ampere current. Torque experienced by a current loop in a Uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity and voltage sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment. Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis. Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements. Para-, dia- and ferro- magnetic substances, with examples. Magnetic Hysteresis Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths. Permanent magnets.|
|Unit 4 – Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Currents|
|Faraday’s Expt, Magnetic flux, Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.Alternating currents voltage, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage power; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit resonance power in AC circuits, wattless current.AC generator and transformer.|
|Unit 5 – Electromagnetic Waves|
|Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only). Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Need for displacement current.Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses|
|Unit 6 – Optics|
|Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lensmaker’s formula. Magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact. Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.Scattering of light – blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.Optical instruments : Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powersWave optics : Wavefront and Huygens’ principle, reflection and refraction of plane waves at a plane surface using wavefronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle. Interference, Young’s double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light. Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum. Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes. Polarisation, plane polarised light; Brewster’s law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids|
|Unit 7 – Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation|
|Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations; Einstein’s photoelectric equation– particle nature of light.Matter waves – Wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.|
|Unit 8 – Atoms and Nuclei|
|Alpha– particle scattering experiment; Rutherford’s atomic model; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrumComposition and size of a nucleus, atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones. Radioactivity – alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission and fusion|
|Unit 9 – Electronic Devices|
|Semiconductors; semiconductor diode– I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode, solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator. Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor, Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).|
|Unit 10 – Communication System|
|Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation. Need for modulation|
A detailed syllabus of all the subjects for Chemistry is given below. Students are advised to go through all the topics for scoring good marks.
|Unit 1 – Solid State|
|Classification of solids based on different binding forces : molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and Crystalline solids (elementary idea), unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.|
|Unit 2 – Solutions|
|Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties ñ relative lowering of vapour pressure, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass|
|Unit 3 – Electrochemistry|
|Redox reactions; conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrauschís Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell ñ electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells; lead storage battery, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, fuel cells; corrosion.|
|Unit 4 – Chemical Kinetics|
|Rate of a reaction (average and instantaneous), factors affecting rates of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction; rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions); concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment).|
|Unit 5 – Surface Chemistry|
|Adsorption : Physisorption and chemisorption; factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids;catalysis: homogeneous and heterogeneous, activity and selectivity: enzyme catalysis; colloidal state: distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspensions; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation; emulsions – types of emulsions.|
|Unit 6 – General principles and processes of Isolation of Elements|
|Principles and methods of extraction : concentration, oxidation, reduction electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.|
|Unit 7 – p-Block Elements|
|Group 15 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; nitrogenñ preparation, properties and uses; compounds of nitrogen : preparation and properties of ammonia and nitric acid, oxides of nitrogen (structure only); Phosphorus – allotropic forms, compounds of phosphorus : preparation and properties of phosphine, halides (PCl3, PCl5) and oxoacids (elementary idea only).|
Group 16 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; dioxygen : preparation, properties and uses; simple oxides; ozone. Sulphurñ allotropic forms; compounds of sulphur preparation, properties and uses of sulphur dioxide; sulphuric acid : industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses, oxoacids of sulphur (structures only).
Group 17 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens: preparation, properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses
|Unit 8 – d and f Block Elements|
|General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metalsñ metallic character, ionisation enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation. Preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4Lanthanoids: electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contractionActinoids: Electronic configuration, oxidation states|
|Unit 9 – Coordination Compounds|
|Coordination compounds : Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds, bonding; Wernerís theory, VBT, CFT; isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (.in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems).|
|Unit 10 – Haloalkanes and Haloarenes|
|Haloalkanes : Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactionsHaloarenes : Nature of C-X bond, substitution reactions (directive influence of halogen for monosubstituted compounds only)Uses and environmental effects of-dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.|
|Unit 11 – Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers|
|Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (primary alcohols only); identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols; mechanism of dehydration of alcohol uses, some important compoundsñ methanol and ethanol.Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenols, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.|
|Unit 12 – Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic acids|
|Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, and mechanism of nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in aldehydes; uses.Carboxylic acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.|
|Unit 13 – Organic Compounds Containing Nitrogen|
|Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.Cyanides and Isocyanides will be mentioned at relevant places in contextDiazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.|
|Unit 14 – Biomolecules|
|Carbohydrates: Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccharides (glucose and fructose), oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); importanceProteins: Elementary idea of a – amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes.Hormones-Elementary idea (excluding structures)Vitamins : Classification and functions.Nucleic Acids : DNA and RNA.|
|Unit 15 – Polymers|
|Classification: Natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization. Some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon, polyesters, bakelite, rubber|
|Unit 16 – Chemistry in Everyday Life|
|Chemicals in medicinesñ analgesics, tranquillisers, antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.Chemicals in food preservatives, artificial sweetening agents.Cleansing agents ñ soaps and detergents, cleansing action.|
The below-mentioned Biology syllabus entails all the topics that the student may encounter in the exam. Students are advised to study the syllabus in detail for scoring good marks.
|Unit 6 – Reproduction|
|Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms: (i) Asexual Reproduction; (ii) Sexual Reproduction|
|Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants: (i) Flower-A fascinating Organ of Angiosperms; (ii) Pre-fertilization: Structures and Events; (iii) Double Fertilisation; (iv) Post-fertilization: Structures and Events; (v) Apomixis and Polyembryony.|
|Chapter 3: Human Reproduction: (i) The Male Reproductive System; (ii) The Female Reproductive System; (iii) Gametogenesis; (iv) Menstrual Cycle; (v) Fertilisation and Implantation; (vi) Pregnancy and Embryonic Development; (vii) Parturition and Lactation|
|Chapter 4: Reproductive Health: (i) Reproductive Health-Problems and Strategies; (ii) Population Explosion and Birth Control; (iii) Medical Termination of Pregnancy; (iv) Sexually Transmitted Diseases; (v) Infertility.|
|Unit 7 – Genetics and Evolution|
|Chapter 5: Principles of Inheritance and Variation: (i) Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance; (ii) Inheritance of One Gene; (iii) Inheritance of Two Genes; (iv) Sex Determination; (v) Mutation; (vi) Genetic Disorders.|
|Chapter 6: Molecular Basis of Inheritance: (i) The DNA; (ii) The Search for Genetic Material; (iii)RNA World; (iv)Replication; (v)Transcription; (vi) Genetic Code; (vii) Translation; (viii) Regulation of Gene Expression; (ix) Human Genome Project; (x) DNA Fingerprinting.|
|Chapter 7: Evolution:(i) Origin of Life; (ii) Evolution of Life Formes- A Theory; (iii) Evidences for Evolution; (iv) Adaptive Radiation; (v) Biological Evolution; (vi) Mechanism of Evolution; (vii) HardyWeinberg Principle; (viii) A Brief account of Evolution; (ix) Origin and Evolution of Man.|
|Unit 8 – Biology in Human Welfare|
|Chapter 8: Human Health and Diseases: (i) Common Diseases in Humans; (ii) Immunity; (iii) AIDS; (vi) Cancer; (v) Drugs and Alcohol Abuse|
|Chapter 9: Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production: (i) Animal Husbandry; (ii) Plant Breeding; (iii) Single Cell Protein; (iv) Tissue Culture|
|Chapter 10: Microbes in Human Welfare: (i) Microbes in Household Products; (ii) Microbes in Industrial Products; (iii) Microbes in Sewage Treatment; (iv) Microbes in Production of Biogas; (v) Microbes as Biocontrol Agents; (vi) Microbes as Biofertilisers.|
|Unit 9: Biotechnology|
|Chapter 11: Biotechnology; Principles and Processes: (i) Principles of Biotechnology; (ii) Tools of recombinant DNA Technology; (iii) Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology.|
|Chapter 12: Biotechnology and its Application: (i) Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture;(ii) Biotechnological Applications in Medicine (iii) Transgenic Animals; (iv) Ethical Issues.|
|Unit 10: Ecology|
|Chapter 13: Organisms and Populations: (i) Organism and its Environment; (ii) Populations.|
|Chapter 14: Ecosystems: (i)Ecosystem – Structure and Function; (ii)Productivity; (iii)Decomposition; (iv)Energy Flow; (v)Ecological Pyramids; (vi)Ecological Succession; (vii)Nutrient Cycling; (viii)Ecosystem Services|
|Chapter 15: Biodiversity and Conservation: (i)Biodiversity; (ii)Biodiversity Conservation; (iii)National Park and Sanctuaries of Assam with special reference to conservation of endangered species.|
|Chapter 16: Bioresources of Assam: (i) Medicinal and Timber Yielding Plants; (ii) Sericogenic Resources (Muga and Eri)|
|Chapter 17: Environmental Issues: (i) Air Pollution and its Control; (ii) Water Pollution and its Control; (iii) Solid Wastes; (iv) Agro-chemicals and their effects; (v) Radioactive Wastes; (vi) Greenhouse Effect and Global Warming; (vii) Ozone Depletion in the Stratosphere; (viii) Degradation by Improper Resource Utilisation and Maintenance; (ix) Deforestation.|
|Unit 1 – Protein Engineering and Bioinformatics|
|Protein based products and designing, Proteins, Proteomics: An introduction, Introduction to Bioinformatics, Sequences and Nomenclature, Information Sources, Analysis using Bioinformatics tools|
|Unit 2 – Genetic Engineering and Genomics|
|Recombinant DNA technology-definition and tools, Making recombinant DNA, Construction of DNA library: Genomic and CDNA, Cloning vectors, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), DNA probes, Hybridization techniques: Southern, Northern and Western DNA sequencing, Genomics: An introduction|
|Unit 3 – Environmental Biotechnology & Bioethics|
|Bioremediation of oil pollution reducing environmental impact of chemical herbicides & fertilisers; biosensors to detect environmental pollution. Biofertilizers-definition and uses, Biofuels: definition and application, Genetically Modified Organisms and Ethical Issue, Intellectual Property Rights-Patenting Life forms|
|Unit 4 – Microbial Technology|
|Classification of microorganism, Microbial culture techniques, Measurement and kinetics of microbial growth, Strain Isolation and Isolation of microbial products, Application of microbial culture|
|Unit 5 – Plant cell culture Technology|
|Introduction; Cellular Totipotency, Plant cell and tissue culture techniques and media. Application of plant tissue culture, Gene transfer methods in plants, Transgenic plants for crop improvement|
|Unit 6 – Animal Cell Culture Technology|
|Introduction, Animal Cell Culture Technology and media, Characterization of cell lines, Scale up of animal cell culture process, Application of animal cell culture, Stem cell technology|
All the topics mentioned below for Assam AHSEC Geography Syllabus are to be studied by the students in detail for acquiring good marks.
|A.Fundamentals of Human GeographyUnit 1: Human Geography: Nature & Scope|
|Unit 2: People: Population of the world – distribution, density and growth; Population change-spatial patterns and structure; determinants of population change; Age-sex ratio; rural-urban composition;Human development– concept; selected indicators, international comparisons.|
|Unit 3: Human Activities: Primary activities – concept and changing trends; gathering, pastoral, mining, subsistence agriculture, modern agriculture; people engaged in agriculture and allied activities – some examples from selected countries;Secondary activities– concept; manufacturing : agro-processing, household, small scale, large scale; people engaged in secondary activities– some examples from selected countries;Tertiary activities– concept; trade, transport and communication; services; people engaged in tertiary activities– some examples from selected countries;Quaternary activities– concept; knowledge based industries; people engaged in quaternary activities– some examples from selected countries.|
|Unit 4: Transport, Communication and Trade:Land transport– roads, railways– rail network; trans– continental railways;Water transport– inland waterways; major ocean routes;Air transport– Intercontinental air routes;Oil and gas pipelines;Satellite communication and cyberspace;International trade– Basis and changing patterns; ports as gateways of international trade, role of WTO in international trade.|
|Unit 5: Human Settlements:Settlement types– rural and urban; morphology of cities (case study); distribution of mega cities; problems of human settlements in developing countries.|
|B.India People and EconomyUnit 1: PeoplePopulation – distribution, density and growth; composition of population : linguistic and religious;rural-urban population change through time– regional variations; occupation;Migration : international, national– causes and consequences;Human development– selected indicators and regional patterns;Population, environment and development|
|Unit 2: Human SettlementsRural settlements– types and distribution;Urban settlements– types, distribution and functional classification|
|Unit 3: Resources and DevelopmentLand resources– general land use; agricultural land use– major crops; agricultural development and problems, common property resources;Water resources– availability and utilisation– irrigation, domestic, industrial and other uses;scarcity of water and conservation methods– rain water harvesting and watershed management (one case study related with participatory watershed management to be introduced);Mineral and energy resources– metallic and non-metallic minerals and their distribution;conventional and non-conventional energy sources;Industries– types and distribution; industrial location and clustering; changing pattern of selected industries– iron and steel, cotton textiles, sugar, petrochemicals and knowledge based industries; impact of liberalisation, privatisation and globalisation on industrial location;Planning in India– target area planning (case study); idea of sustainable development (case study).|
|Unit 4: Transport, Communication and International TradeTransport and communication– roads, railways, waterways and airways; oil and gas pipelines;national electric grids; communication networkings– radio, television, satellite and internet;International trade– changing pattern of India’s foreign trade; sea ports and their hinterland and airports.|
|Unit 5: Geographical Perspective on Selected Issues and Problems (One case study to be introduced for each topic)Environmental pollution; urban-waste disposal;Urbanisation-rural-urban migration; problem of slums;Land Degradation.|
|C. Assam – Land, People & EconomyUnit I : Physiography, Drainage Climat.Unit II : People : Composition, Distribution, DensityUnit III : Economy : Agriculture and Industrial base and DevelopmentUnit IV :Transport and Communication|
Syllabus of other subjects in Science stream
Students belonging to the Science stream can find the detailed syllabus of all the subjects from below.
|Subject||Syllabus PDF Link|
|Computer Science and Application||Link|
|Logic and Philosophy||Link|
|Multimedia and Web Technology||Link|
The below-mentioned links provide the syllabus for all the subjects of Commerce stream. Students can click on the links provided below & download the syllabus for the subject of their choice.
|Subject||Syllabus PDF Link|
|Computer Science and Application||Link|
|Business Mathematics And Statistics or Mathematics||Link or Link|
|Multimedia and Web Technology||Link|
Below mentioned are the frequently asked questions related to Assam Board Class 12.
Ans. It is reported that the Assam Board will likely be reduced the AHSEC syllabus by 30 per cent for the academic year 2024.
Ans. The pass mark for all the subjects is 30%. For the subjects having practicals, the qualifying marks is 30% for theory and 40% for practicals. It is mandatory for the students to pass both theory and practical separately.
Ans. Yes, the Assam HS Maths syllabus is same for the Science and Arts streams
Ans. The following are the compulsory subjects for all streams of Assam Board Class 12
(i) Any one of the following Modern Indian Language (MIL) subjects:
a) Assamese b) Bodo c) Hindi d) Nepali e) Urdu f) Khasi g) Garo h) Mizo i) Manipuri j) Hamar k) Bengali
2.(ii) Alternative English
Ans. Students can download the syllabus for all the subjects of Assam Board Class 12 from the official website.
We hope this detailed article on the Assam Board Class 12 Syllabus helps you. If you have any queries regarding this article, please ping us through the comment box below. We will get back to you as soon as possible.
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