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  • Last Modified 11-04-2024

CA Foundation Syllabus 2022: Check Exam Pattern & Syllabus


CA Foundation Syllabus 2022: The Institute of Chartered Accountants of India has released the CA Foundation syllabus 2022 along with the official brochure. Candidates who have taken the exam must adhere to the CA Foundation exam syllabus. The CA Foundation November/ December session exams are are about to happen, so, candidates must refer to the curriculum and gear up their preparation.

Aspirants must understand the CA Syllabus for all four examinations and concentrate on their CA Foundation test preparation. There are 4 papers in total in the CA Foundation exam. Here we have provided the detailed paper-wise syllabus for all 4 papers of CA Foundation. Candidates may also get the CA syllabus in PDF format from the link provided. Moreover, you can check the latest exam pattern to understand the type of questions asked along with marks distribution. Read on to learn more.

Latest Update:
– July 31, 2022: The last date to register for the ICAI CA November/December session is August 31, 2022. Click here for the direct link to fill out the application form.
– August 1, 2022: Candidates can pay the late fee and submit their application form by September 7, 2022.

CA Foundation Syllabus 2022: List of CA Foundation Subjects

CA Foundation exam is the gateway to a career in Chartered Accountancy. Thus, to clear the CA Foundation exam, candidates need to have a thorough knowledge of the syllabus and prepare accordingly.

Before getting into the detailed ICAI CA Foundation 2022 syllabus, let us have an overview of the exam pattern:

  1. There are four papers in the CA Foundation exam.
  2. Each paper is worth a maximum of 100 points and takes 180 minutes to complete.
  3. Papers 1 and 2 are subjective, while Papers 3 and 4 are objective types.
  4. Negative marking is there for the objective questions with incorrect responses. There is a deduction of a quarter mark in this exam for each incorrect answer.
  5. To pass the CA foundation exam, candidates must obtain a minimum of 40% in each paper and a minimum of 50% in the aggregate of all the examinations.
  6. The CA Foundation exam occurs twice a year and in offline mode. The question paper appears in either English or Hindi.

Read More: CA Foundation Exam Dates

CA Foundation Exam Pattern 2022

If you want to prepare effectively for the CA Foundation exam, you should be familiar with the CA Foundation exam pattern. It enables you to create a plan and divide the time effectively to complete all sections of the CA Foundation test 2022. You can go through the table below to get an idea about the exam pattern. 

Exam AttributesDescription
Name of the ExamCA Foundation
Conducting BodyThe Institute Of Chartered Accountants of India (ICAI)
Mode of ExamOnline centre-based exam
Frequency of ExamIt occurs twice a year in May or June, and in November or December
Level of ExamNational level exam
Level of DifficultyModerate
Question PaperThe CA Foundation exam comprises four papers. Paper 1: Principles and Practice of AccountingPaper 2: Business Laws and Business Correspondence and ReportingPaper 3: Business Mathematics, Logical Reasoning and StatisticsPaper 4: Business Economics and Business and Commercial Knowledge
Duration of the question papersPaper 1 and 2 will be of 180 minutes Paper 3 and 4 will be of 120 minutes
Question TypePaper 1 and 2 are Subjective
Paper 3 and 4 are Objective
MarksEach paper carries 100 marks.
Total marks400 Marks
Marking schemeThe subjective kind, which appears in Papers 1 and 2, does not have any negative marking. For Papers 3 and 4 of the objective type, there will be a deduction of a quarter mark for each incorrect answer.
Language English and Hindi Except Section B of Paper 2. It will be in English only.
Subjects in CA Foundation4

CA Foundation Syllabus 2022 Paper 1: Principles And Practice Of Accounting

Paper one carries 100 marks and requires 180 minutes to complete. The syllabus focuses on gaining a basic understanding of accounting ideas and principles. You must have the ability to apply them to the preparation of financial statements and simple problem-solving.

CA Foundation syllabus Paper 1: Principles and Practice of Accounting 

Chapters in Principles and Practice of Accounting 


Theoretical Framework 

  • Meaning and Scope of accounting
  • Accounting Concepts, Principles and Conventions 
  • Accounting terminology – Glossary
  • Capital and revenue expenditure, Capital and revenue receipts, Contingent assets and contingent liabilities
  • Accounting Policies
  • Accounting as a Measurement Discipline – Valuation Principles, Accounting Estimates
  • Accounting Standards – Concepts and Objectives
  • Indian Accounting Standards – Concepts and Objectives

Accounting Process 

  • Books of Accounts 
  • Preparation of Trial Balance
  • Rectification of Errors

Bank Reconciliation Statement 

  • Introduction, reasons, preparation of bank reconciliation statement. 


  • Cost of inventory, Net realizable value, Basis and technique of inventory valuation and record keeping.

Concept and Accounting of Depreciation

  • Concepts, Methods of computation and accounting treatment of depreciation, Change in depreciation methods. 

Accounting for Special Transactions

  • Bills of exchange and promissory notes
  1. Meaning of Bills of Exchange and Promissory Notes and their Accounting Treatment; Accommodation bills
  2. Sale of goods on approval or return basis
  3. Meaning of goods sent on approval or return basis and accounting treatment
  • Consignments
  1. Meaning and Features of consignment business, Difference between sale and consignment, Accounting treatments for consignment transactions and events in the books of consignor and consignee. 
  • Average due Date
  1. Meaning, Calculation of the average due date in various situations
  • Account Current
  1. Meaning of Account Current, Methods of preparing Account Current.

Final Accounts of Sole Proprietors 

  • Elements of financial statements, Closing Adjustment Entries, Trading accounts, Profit and Loss Accounts and Balance Sheets of Manufacturing and Non-manufacturing entities

Partnership Accounts 

  • Final Accounts of Partnership Firms
  • Admission, Retirement and Death of a Partner, including Treatment of Goodwill 
  • Introduction to LLPs and Distinction of LLPs from Partnership

Financial Statements of Not-for-Profit Organizations 

Significance of Receipt and Payment Account, Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet, Difference between Profit and Loss Account and Income and Expenditure Account. Preparation of Receipt and Payment Account, Income and Expenditure Account and Balance Sheet

Introduction to Company Accounts

  • Definition of shares and debentures 
  • Issue of shares and debentures, forfeiture of shares, re-issue of forfeited shares 
  • Statement of Profit and Loss and Balance Sheet as per Schedule III to the Companies Act, 2013.

Download CA Foundation Study Material Here

CA Foundation Paper 2: Business Laws And Business Correspondence & Reporting

In the CA Foundation syllabus 2022, the Business Laws and Business Correspondence & Reporting paper has two parts. The exam will last 3 hours and is equivalent to 100 marks. It would be best for you to understand the critical sections of relevant business legislation and the competence to deal with fundamental application-oriented challenges.

CA Foundation Syllabus Section A: Business Laws (60 Marks)

CA Foundation Syllabus Paper 2: Business Laws 

Chapters in Business Laws


The Indian Contract Act, 1872

An overview of Sections 1 to 75 covers the general nature of the contract, consideration, other essential elements of a valid contract, performance of the contract, breach of contract, Contingent and Quasi Contract. 

The Sale of Goods Act, 1930

Formation of the contract of sale, Conditions and Warranties, Transfer of ownership and delivery of goods, Unpaid seller and his rights.

The Indian Partnership Act, 1932

General Nature of Partnership, Rights and duties of partners, Reconstitution of firms, Registration and dissolution of a firm

The Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008

Introduction- covering nature and scope, Essential features, characteristics of LLP, Incorporation and differences with other forms of organizations

The Companies Act, 2013

Essential features of the company, corporate veil theory, Classes of companies, types of share capital, Incorporation of company, Memorandum of Association, Articles of Association, Doctrine of Indoor Management 

CA Foundation Syllabus Section B: Business Correspondence And Reporting (40 Marks)

CA Foundation Syllabus Paper 2: Business Correspondence And Reporting

Chapters in Business Correspondence And Reporting


The Indian Contract Act, 1872

An overview of Sections 1 to 75 covers the general nature of the contract, consideration, other essential elements of a valid contract, performance of the contract, breach of contract, Contingent and Quasi Contract. 

The Sale of Goods Act, 1930

Formation of the contract of sale, Conditions and Warranties, Transfer of ownership and delivery of goods, Unpaid seller and his rights.

The Indian Partnership Act, 1932

General Nature of Partnership, Rights and duties of partners, Reconstitution of firms, Registration and dissolution of a firm

The Limited Liability Partnership Act, 2008

Introduction- covering nature and scope, Essential features, characteristics of LLP, Incorporation and differences with other forms of organizations

The Companies Act, 2013

Essential features of the company, corporate veil theory, Classes of companies, types of share capital, Incorporation of company, Memorandum of Association, Articles of Association, Doctrine of Indoor Management 


(i) Types 

(ii) Directions 

(iii) Network 

(iv) Process 

(v) Problems 

(vi) Barriers 

(vii) Types of Communication

a) Interpersonal Skills

b) Listening Skills

c) Emotional Intelligence

(Sample Questions with Answers (ix) Exercises.

Sentence Types (Direct-Indirect, Active-Passive Speech) 

(i) Sentence: Definition 

(ii) Classification of sentence based on connotation 

a) Assertive sentences 

b) Interrogative sentences 

c) Imperative sentences d) Exclamatory sentences 

e) Optative sentences

(iii) Sentence Structure 

a) Subject and Predicate 

b) Verb (Auxiliary, Finite) 

c) Object (Direct, Indirect) 

d) Complement 

e) Adjunct or Adverbial 

f) Clause Structure 

g) Types of Clauses – Independent clauses – Dependent clauses – Relative or noun clauses 

(iv) Types of sentences

a) Simple sentence

b) Compound sentence

c) Complex sentence

d) Compound-complex sentence

(v) Direct-Indirect Speech

a) Introduction

b) Procedure for converting Direct speech into Indirect speech

– Rules for converting Direct speech into Indirect speech

– Change in pronouns

– Change in tenses

– Change in models

– Changes for Imperative sentences

– Changes for Exclamatory sentences

– Changes for Interrogative sentences

– Punctuation in Direct speech

c) Rules for converting Indirect speech into Direct speech

(vi) Active Passive Voice: Introduction

a) Usage: Active vs. passive voice

b) Reasons for using Passive voice

c) Changing Passive voice to Active voice

d) Changing Active voice to Passive voice

e) Suggestions for using Active and Passive voice

(vii) Verbs Voice Active or passive

(viii) Exercises

Vocabulary Root Words Synonyms, Antonyms, Prefixes, Suffixes), Phrasal verbs, Collocations and Idioms.

(i) Introduction

(ii) Significance of improving vocabulary

(iii) How to improve vocabulary

(iv) Root words

(v) Synonyms and Antonyms

(vi) Words formed by using Prefixes

(vii) Words formed by using Suffixes

(viii) Phrasal verbs

(ix) Collocations

(x) Idioms

(xi) Exercises

Comprehension Passages and Note Making

(i) Introduction to Comprehension Passages

(ii) Points to Ponder

(iii) Sample Passages with answers

(iv) Exercises

Note Making

(i) Introduction to Note Making

(ii) Significance of Note Making

(iii) Detailed Format Heading(Title)

a) Sub-heading

b) Indentation

c) Points

d) Use of abbreviations

e) Summary

f) Content

g) Expression

(iv) Steps to Comprehend and summarize the text

(v) Helpful Hints

(vi) Sample Passages with Notes

(vii) Exercises

Developing Writing Skills

Introduction to Basic Writing

(i) Introduction

(ii) Process of writing

(iii) Styles of Writing

(iv) Significance of writing skills for students

(v) Writing Conventions

(vi) Characteristics of good writing

(vii) Do’s and Don’ts of good writing 

Précis Writing

(i) What is Précis writing?

(ii) Features of good Précis writing

(iii) How to write a Précis

(iv) Do’s and Don’ts of Précis writing

(v) Examples (Passages with Précis) (vi) Exercises 

Article Writing 

(i) What is an Article?

(ii) Essential elements of Article Writing

(iii) Detailed Format

a) Title

b) By- Writer’s Name

c) Body – Introduction – Main Idea-Support – Conclusion

d) Sample Articles

e) Exercises

Report Writing

(i) What is a Report?

(ii) Essential elements of Report Writing

(iii) Kinds of Reports

a) Reporting for a Meeting/Assembly

b) Reporting for a Newspaper

c) Reporting for a Magazine

(iv) Detailed Format for (iii) above

a) Title

b) By- Writer’s Name

c) Place, Date

d) Body – What – When – Where – Who – How

e) Tips and Conventions of Report Writing

f) Sample Reports

g) Exercises 

Writing Formal Letters 

(i) Types of Letters

a) Circulars

b) Complaints

c) Memos

d) Promotional Content

e) Sales

f) Recovery/Remittances

(ii) Detailed format for (i) above

a) Date

b) Salutation

c) Subject

d) Body of the Letter – First paragraph – Second paragraph

e) Complimentary Closure

(iii) Points to Remember

(iv) Sample Letters

(v) Exercises 

Writing Formal Mails

(i) How to Write a Formal Mail?

(ii) Writing Effective Mails

(iii) Essential elements of Mails

a) Subject line

b) Formal Greetings

c) Target Audience(Reader)

d) Clarity and Conciseness

e) Formal Closing

f) Proofread

g) Feedback

(iv) Tips and Conventions of Mails

(v) Sample Mails

(vi) Exercises 

Resume Writing

(i) Essential Elements of Resume

a) Name and contact details

b) Objective Summary

c) Academic Qualifications and Achievements

d) Co-curricular Achievements

e) Training Programs attended/completed

f) Strengths

g) Interests/Hobbies

h) Declaration

i) Signature

(ii) Resume Writing Tips and Conventions

(iii) Sample Resumes

(iv) Exercises


(i) Notice

(ii) Agenda

(iii) Drafting minutes

(iv) Action Taken Report 

CA Foundation Paper 3: Business Mathematics, Logical Reasoning And Statistics

Paper 3 is divided into three sections, with 120 minutes of writing time. Part A is Business Mathematics, and Part C is Statistics, both of which carry 40 points. Part B is Logical Reasoning, which has 20 points, for a total of 100 points. It would be best to grasp better basic mathematical and statistical methods and learn how to use them in business, finance, and other fields. Practice logical reasoning, and apply it to minor problems.

CA Foundation Syllabus Part A: Business Mathematics (40 Marks)

Candidates can check the CA Foundation Maths syllabus from the table below.

Chapters in Business MathematicsSub-topics
1. Ratio and Proportion, Indices and Logarithms Ratio and Proportion (Business Applications related to Ration and Proportion) Laws of Indices, Exponents and Logarithms and Anti Logarithms. 
2. Equations Simultaneous linear equations up to three variables, Quadratic and Cubic equations in one variable.
3. Linear Inequalities with Objective Functions and Optimization w.r.t. objective function. 
4. Time value of Money (i) Simple Interest (ii) Compound interest (iii) Depreciation (iv) Effective Rate of Interest (v) Present Value (vi) Net Present Value (vii) Future Value (viii) Perpetuity (ix) Annuities (x) Sinking Funds (xi) Valuation of Bonds (xii) Calculating of EMI (xiii) Calculations of Returns: a) Nominal Rate of Return b) Effective Rate of Return c) Compound Annual growth rate (CAGR) 
5. Permutations and Combinations Basic concepts of Permutations and Combinations: Introduction, the Factorial, Permutations, results, Circular Permutations, Permutations with restrictions, Combinations with standard results. 
6. Sequence and Series Introduction Sequences, Series, Arithmetic and Geometric progression, Relationship between AM and GM and Sum of n terms of special series 
7. Sets, Relations and Functions 
8. Basic applications of Differential and Integral calculus(Excluding the trigonometric applications), Applications of Marginal Cost and Marginal Revenue etc

CA Foundation Syllabus Part B: Logical Reasoning (20 Marks)

CA Foundation Logical Reasoning Syllabus

Sl.No.Chapters in Logical Reasoning
1. Number Series, Coding &Decoding and the odd man out. 
2. Direction Tests 
3. Seating Arrangements 
4. Blood Relations

CA Foundation Syllabus Part C: Statistics (40 Marks)

Sl.No.Chapters in StatisticsSub-topics
1. The statistical description of Data Statistical Representation of Data, Diagrammatic representation of data, Frequency distribution, Graphical representation of Frequency Distribution – Histogram, Frequency Polygon, Ogive, Pie-chart. 
2. Measures of Central tendency and Dispersion Measures of Central Tendency and Dispersion: Mean Median, Mode, Mean Deviation, Quartiles and Quartile Deviation, Standard Deviation, Coefficient of Variation, Coefficient of Quartile Deviation. 
3. Probability Probability: Independent and dependent events; mutually exclusive events. Total and Compound Probability and Mathematical Expectation. 
4. Theoretical Distributions Theoretical Distributions: Binomial Distribution, Poisson distribution – Basic application and Normal Distribution – Basic applications.
5. Correlation and Regression Correlation and Regression: Scatter diagram, Karl Pearson’s Coefficient of Correlation Rank Correlation, Probable Error and Probable limits. Regression lines, Regression equations, Regression coefficients. 
6. Index Numbers Uses of Index Numbers, problems in constructing Index Numbers, Methods of construction of Index Numbers.

CA Foundation Paper 4: Business Economics and Business & Commercial Knowledge

Paper four is broken into two sections and has a total writing period of 120 minutes. Part A, Business Economics, carries 60 marks, while Part B, Business and Commercial Knowledge, has 40 marks. It would be best to understand business economics ideas and theories and then apply those concepts and theories to easy problem-solving.

CA Foundation Syllabus Part A: Business Economics (60 Marks)

Business EconomicsSub-topics included in Business Economics
1. Introduction to Business Economics (i) Meaning and scope of Business Economics
(ii) Basic Problems of an Economy and Role of Price Mechanism.
2. Theory of Demand and Supply(i) Meaning and determinants of demand, Law of demand and Elasticity of demand ─ Price, income and cross elasticity
(ii) Theory of consumer’s behaviour – Marshallian approach and Indifference curve approach
(iii) Meaning and determinants of supply, Law of supply and Elasticity of supply.
(iv) Demand Forecasting
3. Theory of Production and Cost(i) Meaning and Factors of production
(ii) Laws of Production – The Law of Variable proportions and Laws of Returns to Scale, Producer’s equilibrium
(iii) Concepts of Costs ─ Short-run and long-run costs, Average and marginal costs, Total, fixed and variable costs.
4. Price Determination in Different Markets(i) Various forms of markets – Perfect Competition, Monopoly, Monopolistic Competition and Oligopoly
(ii) Price determination in these markets.
5. Business Cycles (i) Meaning
(ii) Phases
(iii) Features.
(iv) Causes behind these Cycles. 

CA Foundation Syllabus Part B: Business & Commercial Knowledge (40 Marks)

Business & Commercial KnowledgeSub-topics included in Business & Commercial Knowledge
1. Business and Commercial Knowledge – An Introduction Nature of Business, Profession and Employment. Objectives of Business. Economic and Non-Economic Activities, Forms of Business Organizations.
2. Business EnvironmentMicro and Macro Environment, Elements of Micro Environment – Consumers/Customers, Competitors, Organization, Market, suppliers, Intermediaries, Elements of Macro Environment – Demographic, Economic, Political-legal, Socio-cultural, Technological, Global Environment.
3. Business Organizations Overview of selected Indian and Global Companies.
4. Government Policies for Business Growth Policies creating a conducive business environment such as Liberalization, Privatization, and Foreign Direct Investment.
5. Organizations Facilitating Business (i) Indian Regulatory Bodies – RBI, SEBI, CCI, IRDAI
(ii) Indian Development Banks – NABARD
6. Common Business Terminologies (i) Finance and Stock & Commodity Markets Terminology.
(ii) Marketing Terminology.
(iii) Banking Terminology.
(iv) Other Business Terminology.

Along with this, students should also go through at least one financial newspaper and one business newspaper or watch a business news channel to remain updated about recent developments.

CA Foundation Syllabus 2022 PDF Download

This is all about ICAI CA Foundation 2022 Syllabus. Students planning to prepare for the exam will have to go through the detailed syllabus and exam pattern. This is a must if you want to prepare a well-structured study plan. Following a methodological way of studying will help you a lot and will increase the possibility of you cracking this exam.

FAQs on CA Foundation Syllabus 2022

Q.1: What is the best way to prepare for CA Foundation before the exam?

Ans: The best way is to start the preparation early and solve as many mock tests as possible. Also, make sure to do the revision every day.

Q.2: Is the CA Foundation exam syllabus lengthy?

Ans: Yes, it is a little lengthy. But with timely preparation, you can easily pull it off. Also, make sure to give each subject proper time.

Q.3: How many attempts can one take for the CA Foundation exam?

Ans: The registration for the CA Foundation course will be valid for three years, i.e. up to six attempts. Even after three years, you can revalidate your registration for a further three years by depositing Rs 300/- as revalidation fees.

Q.4: What is the minimum eligibility requirement for each subject?

Ans: The candidates are supposed to score a minimum of 40% marks in each subject in the exam.

Also, Check,

CA Foundation Exam DatesCA Foundation Notification
CA Foundation RegistrationCA Foundation Study Material

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