• Written By Aditi_M
  • Last Modified 19-07-2022

Career Opportunities in Judicial Services: Check here

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Career in Judicial Services – Judicial Services Examination or the PCS (J)-Provincial Civil Service-Judicial Examination is the entry-level exam for law graduates to become district magistrates, additional district magistrates, ‘munsiffs’, or as a district court judges in India. The lower judiciary exams are conducted by the Public Service Commission of each state. The members of the subordinate judiciary are appointed by the state governments under the supervision of the respective high courts based on the score in this competitive examination. The exam consists of two stages – preliminary exam with multiple-choice questions and mains exam with descriptive type questions. Read on to know more on the job profiles, competencies, and skills of a judge, responsibilities of a judge, level of appointment, eligibility criteria, list of exams, exam pattern, syllabus. To get the complete details about a career in Indian Judicial Services, read the complete article. 

Latest Update: The Haryana Public Service Commission (HPSC) is going to conduct the judicial branch prelims exam for Civil Judge (CV) post on 13th November 2021. The aspirant who applied for CV posts will need to download the HPSC CV Admit Card as soon as it is available. 

Career as a Judge in India 

Becoming a judge in the Indian Judiciary System gives you unparalleled respect and significance in the country. A judge is one of the most respected and crucial positions in the Indian Judiciary system. Apart from these, becoming a judge brings many social and financial benefits to a judicial service aspirant’s life. The responsibility of administering, managing, controlling, interpreting and applying laws as per the constitution of India in the country. Becoming a judge requires a lot of hard work, determination, dedication, and patience. All the decisions in India, in which the question of law arises, are taken by the judiciary system. Judges in India have provided a landmark judgments through which the Indian judiciary system has earned the respect and recognition of the whole world. The judiciary system has the power to provide justice to victims of various types of crimes in India and matters related to a social issue and serious crimes. 

Career in Judicial Services: Job Profiles 

The list of different job profiles related to the judicial services in India is provided below. 

  1. Oath Commissioner
  2. Notary
  3. Magistrate
  4. District and Sessions Judge
  5. Attorney General
  6. Advocate General
  7. Public Prosecutor
  8. Solicitors
  9. Sub-Magistrate

Career in Judicial Services: Competencies and Skills 

The applicants who want to become a judge must have some specific qualities, skills, and competencies as given below. 

  1. Critical Thinking: The judges must have the capacity to wisely evaluate the provided evidence when making a decision accordingly.
  2. Listening Skills: The judges must be able to listen carefully to the statements of defendants during the trials and hearings.
  3. Writing skills: The judges must know how to write their verdicts, decree, and instructions.
  4. Oral Communication skills: The directives that the judges provide during a hearing or trial must be clear and concise.
  5. Reading knowledge: The judges should be able to comprehend complex documents.
  6. Problem-solving: The judges must be able to identify, detect, and solve problems.

Career in Judicial Services: Duties and Responsibilities 

A candidate who has completed graduation in Law is eligible to apply for most of the judiciary exams in India. As judiciary commands huge authority and respect in India, it brings many responsibilities and duties along with it. The important duties of a member of the judiciary are listed below. 

  1. Judges determine whether an evidence is acceptable or not.
  2. They have the authority to write decree on motions presented by counsel.
  3. They have the authority to question witnesses.
  4. They listen to witness the necessary evidence.
  5. They are authorized to instruct the jury.
  6. They hear allegations of the prosecuting and defensive parties.
  7. In civil cases, the judges are authorized to determine liability or damages.
  8. In criminal court, determine the guilt or innocence of criminal defendants and impose sentences on defendants found guilty.
  9. They inform the defendants about their constitutional rights.
  10. They are responsible to interpret the law to specify the way to proceed with a trial.
  11. They interpret and apply laws or precedents to reach judgments
  12. They are responsible to resolve the disputes between parties or determine the outcome of other types of issues
  13. The judges instruct juniors on how to consider facts from the evidence presented in trials
  14. They are responsible to read and evaluate information from motions, claim applications, records, and other documents
  15. The judges write their opinions, verdicts, and instructions regarding cases, claims, and disputes
  16. They preside over administrative hearings and read opposing arguments
  17. The judges are responsible to take part in clearance or plea consultations in advance of trial
  18. They conduct initial proceedings in criminal cases
  19. They are responsible to accept and approve the search and arrest warrants

Career in Judicial Services: Level of Appointment

The Constitution of India has envisaged a three-tier judicial system for the State of India. The hierarchy of the judiciary system in India is provided below in descending order.
i) Supreme Court of India,
ii) High Courts in different states, and
iii)Subordinate Courts.
Thus, the judges at these three levels are appointed by different authorities in India.

Supreme Court (SC) Jurisdiction 

At the top of the three-tier judicial system in India is teh Supreme Court of India. The Supreme Court is the biggest and final court of appeal as per the Indian Constitution. The Chief Justice of India (CJI) is the the most prominent jurisdictional post in the country and is the senior-most and highest judge in the Supreme Court of India. The Supreme court of India has the Chief Justice of India (CJI) and 30 Additional Judges and their jurisdiction covers the whole nation. The President of India appoints the CJI after consultation with other judiciary members of the supreme court and high court. The maximum age limit for the position of SC judge is 65 years of age. 

High Court (HC) Jurisdiction 

Every judge of state high court is appointed by the President of India by consulting with the Chief Justice of India, Chief Justice of High Court, and the governor of the state. The number of high court judges in a state varies as per the state. The total number of judges depends on two factors as the average rate of distribution of the cases per Judge per year in that HC, or by dividing the average institutions of chief cases during the preceding five years by the national average, whichever is higher. The maximum age limit for the position of a high court judge is 62 years of age. 

District Court (DC) Jurisdiction 

The district courts in India are governed by the sessional judges and district judges. The judge presiding over a criminal case is known as Session Judge, and the judge presiding over a civil case is known as District Judge. They are considered as the highest authority in the state after the high court judge. The state also has Additional District Judges and Assistant District Judges which depends upon the number of cases in the state. The appointment of district judges is done by the governor after consulting with the chief justice of state high court. To become a district judge, applicants must have completed seven years of practice as an advocate.  

Magistrates or Munsiff

They are appointed by the Central or State Government after consultation with the Chief Justice of the HC of the concerned State.

Career in Judicial Services: Eligibility Criteria 

Lower Judiciary Services– The eligibility criteria for appearing in Judicial Services Examination is:
i) Candidates must be citizens of India
ii) Candidate must have a degree in LL.B and
iii) He/she has enrolled or qualified to be enrolled as an Advocate under the Advocates’ Act 1961.
Final year candidates can also give the exam and no experience is required for the exam.. The age limit is usually between 21 to 35 years. However, it varies according to the state.

Higher Judiciary Services– Candidates must be law graduates with a minimum number of years of litigating practice; usually seven years.

Career in Judicial Services: List of Exams 

The judiciary exams in India are conducted for various posts by the state authorities. To appear in the judiciary exam, the minimum eligibility criteria is graduation in Law from a recognized university. Find below the list of exams conducted by different authorities to crack for the judicial posts in India as District, Sessional Judge, Magistrate, and Sub Magistrate. 

List of Judiciary Exams in India 

List of Organisations Exam Category Minimum Eligibility 
Bihar District Judge High Court of Patna Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law, Post-graduation Degree in Law
Delhi Junior Judicial Assistant Delhi High Court Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Karnataka State Oath Commissioner High Court of Karnataka Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Tamil Nadu District Judge Madras High Court Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Tamil Nadu Civil Judge Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission (TNPSC)Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Civil Judge of Maharashtra Maharashtra Public Service Commission (MPSC)Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Patna Judge Personal Assistant High Court of Patna Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Uttarakhand Civil Judge Uttarakhand Public Service Commission (UKPSC)Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Gujarat Civil Judge High Court of Gujarat Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Jharkhand Civil Judge (Junior Division) Jharkhand Public Service Commission (JPSC)Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Judicial Services High Court of Delhi Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Madhya Pradesh Civil Judge Madhya Pradesh High Court Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Civil Judge of Jammu and Kashmir Jammu & Kashmir Public Service Commission (JKPSC)Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Chhattisgarh District Judge High Court of Chhattisgarh Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Uttar Pradesh District Judge Allahabad High Court Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Gujarat Civil JudgesHigh Court of Gujarat Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Karnataka State District Judge High Court of Karnataka Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Civil Judge in West Bengal West Bengal Public Service Commission (PSCWB)Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Madhya Pradesh District Judge (Entry Level) High Court of Madhya Pradesh (MPHC)Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Gujarat Civil Judge High Court of Gujarat Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Delhi Judicial ServiceDelhi High Court Examination Council Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Karnataka Civil Judge High Court of Karnataka Exam Member of BCI, and Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Rajasthan Court Commission Rajasthan High Court Civil JudgeBachelor’s Degree in Law
Delhi Junior Judicial Assistant Office of The District & Sessions Judge, DelhiBachelor’s Degree in Law
Madhya Pradesh Civil Judge Madhya Pradesh High Court (MPHC)Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Himachal Pradesh High Court Service Commission Clerks, Junior Office Assistants & Process Servers vacanciesBachelor’s Degree in Law
Bihar Provincial Civil ServicesBihar PCS ExamBachelor’s Degree in Law
Chhattisgarh Public Service Commission State Service ExamJudiciary Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law, and a minimum of two years’ experience as an advocate 
Himachal Pradesh Administrative Services Combined Competitive ExamCompetitive State Exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law
Rajasthan Administrator Services ExamState Level administrator exam Bachelor’s Degree in Law

Career in Judicial Services: List of States 

A total of 24 states in India conducts the judicial services exam. The eligibility criteria, exam pattern, pay scale, the recruitment process of all states differs. The list of states is provided below. 

List of States conducting Judiciary Exams 

State Name State NameState Name
JharkhandKarnatakaMaharashtra
Jammu and KashmirPunjabWest Bengal
Himachal PradeshOdishaUttarakhand
HaryanaNagalandUttar Pradesh
GoaMizoramSikkim
DelhiManipurRajasthan
ChhattisgarhMadhya PradeshAssam
BiharKeralaArunachal Pradesh

Career in Judicial Services: Exam Pattern 

Judicial Service Examination is held in three successive stages: Preliminary Examination, Mains and Viva-Voice/Interview

Preliminary Examination– The preliminary examination serves as a screening test for the mains round. It consists of objective type questions. However, the marks obtained in the preliminary exam are not added in the final marks. The minimum qualifying marks in the preliminary exam vary as per state. It is around 60 per cent for general and 55 per cent for reserved categories.

Mains Examination– The Judicial Services Mains examination consists of subjective type questions and consists of three to four papers. The marks secured by candidates in the mains are added to the final marks. From those who appear fo the mians exam, candidates numbering up to three times the number of vacancies are called for viva-voice.

Viva-Voice/Personal Interview– This is the final stage of selection where candidates are assessed on general interest, personality and intelligence among other factors.

Exam Pattern of Indian Judiciary Services

Exam Category Exam Type Qualifying Marks 
Preliminary ExaminationThe preliminary examination serves as a screening test for the mains round. It consists of objective type questions. However, the marks obtained in the preliminary exam are not added in the final marks.The minimum qualifying marks in the preliminary exam vary as per state. It is around 60 per cent for general and 55 per cent for reserved categories.
Mains ExaminationThe Judicial Services Mains examination consists of subjective type questions and consists of three to four papers. The marks secured by candidates in the mains are added to the final marks. From those who appear fo the mians exam, candidates numbering up to three times the number of vacancies are called for viva-voice.The qualifying exam percentage differs as per the state exam conducting body.
Viva-Voice and Personal InterviewThis is the final stage of selection which consists of a personal interview and aptitude test where candidates are assessed on general interest, personality and intelligence among other factors.The personal interview round includes a maximum of fifty marks out of which twenty marks are required to get selected. 

Career in Judicial Services: Syllabus 

The syllabus for Judicial Services exam varies from state to state. The syllabus is broadly divided into Civil law, Criminal Law and Language paper. The weightage of the language paper is around 20 per cent to 35 per cent. The mains examination consists of six to seven papers and almost 70 per cent of the questions are of law.

Syllabus for Preliminary Examination 

In preliminary exams the questions are covered generally from the following topics: 

  1. Constitutional law
  2. Contract Law and Tort Law
  3. General Knowledge and Current Affairs
  4. IPC, CPC, CrPC, and The Indian Evidence Act
  5. Proficiency in English Language and Aptitude
  6. Transfer of Property law

However, some states cover a few additional topics in their preliminary exams as provided below: 

  1. Delhi: Principles Governing Arbitration Law, the Partnership Act
  2. Goa: Sales of Goods Act, Land laws of Goa, The Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste (Prevention of Atrocities Act, 1989)
  3. Kerala: Kerala Building (Lease and Rent Control) Act
  4. Madhya Pradesh: Madhya Pradesh Accommodation Control Act, Madhya Pradesh Land Revenue Code
  5. Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Maharashtra, Manipur, and Nagaland: Proficiency in the official language of Assam
  6. Bihar: Elementary general Science, Administrative law, Hindu and Muslim personal laws, Principles of Equity, Law of trusts, Specific Relief Act, Commercial law
  7. Chhattisgarh:  Accommodation Control Act, Court fees act, Registration Act and Chhattisgarh Land revenue code, Limitation, and Specific relief acts
  8. Karnataka: Karnataka Rent Act

Syllabus for Judiciary Mains Exam 

The syllabus for the judiciary mains exam in India varies for every state. The state-wise list of subjects in brief for the judiciary mains exam is provided below. 

Judiciary Mains Exam Syllabus 

State Name Syllabus 
DelhiPaper I: General Knowledge and Language (250 marks) – Current affairs, Essay, Translation, and precise writing Paper-II: Civil Law 1 (200 marks)- Indian Sale of Goods Act, Indian Partnership Act, Indian Contract Act, Specific Relief Act, Hindu Law, Muslim Law, Delhi Rent control Act, and Law of TortsPaper III: Civil law 2 (200 marks) – Law of Evidence, Law of Limitation, Civil Procedure Code, and Law of RegistrationPaper IV: Criminal Law (200 marks) -Criminal Procedure Code, Indian penal code and Indian Evidence Act
BiharPart I: Compulsory Paper- General knowledge including current affairs (150 marks), Elementary Science (100marks), General Hindi (100 marks), General English (100 marks), Law of evidence and procedure (150 marks), Hindi and English are compulsory papers but only qualifying in nature which requires only 30 marks out of 100Part II: Optional paper (150 marks each)- Constitutional Law of India and England, Hindu and Muslim Law, Transfer of property, Principles of Equity, Law of Trusts and Specific Relief Act, Law of Contract and Torts, Commercial law
Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Nagaland, Mizoram, Maharashtra, and Jammu & KashmirPaper I (To test English; 100 marks, 2 hours):  Essay, precise writing, GrammarPaper-II (To test General Knowledge; 100 marks,2 hours): Objective test, Aptitude TestPaper III (Law; 100marks, 2 hours): Transfer of Property, Civil procedure code, Indian Contract Act, Constitution of IndiaPaper IV (Law; 100 marks, 2 hours): Indian Penal Code, CrPC, Law of Torts, Indian Evidence Act
GoaPaper I: The Indian Contract act, 1872, The Specific Relief Act, 1963, The Limitation Act, 1963, Sales of Goods Act, 1930, Indian Partnership Act, 1932, The Code of Civil Procedure Code, 1908, Transfer of Property Act, 1882, The Easement Act,1882, Family Laws in Goa, Land Laws in GoaPaper-II: The code of Criminal procedure Code, 1973, The Indian Penal Code, 1860 The Evidence Act,1872, The Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (Prevention of Atrocities) Act, 1989, The Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881, Essay on Current Legal Topics
JharkhandPaper I: Indian Penal Code, Code of Criminal Procedure Code, Indian Evidence Act, Limitation ActPaper-II: Civil Procedure Code, Transfer of Property, Indian Contract Act, Sales of Goods Act, Arbitration and Conciliation ActPaper III: Hindu Law, Muslim Law, Rent Control Law, Specific Relief Act, and JurisprudencePaper IV: Hindi and English
Madhya PradeshPaper I: Civil Law and procedure Paper-II: Criminal law and procedure Paper III: Writing Skill, Court Practice, Translation, and Current Legal KnowledgePaper V: Judgment writing
Haryana and PunjabPaper I: Civil Law I ( 200 marks)-Code of Civil procedure, Punjab Courts Act, Indian Contract Act, Indian Sale of Goods Act, Indian Partnership Act, Specific Relief ActPaper-II: Civil Law II (200 marks)- Hindu Law, Muslim Law and Customary Law, Law of Registration and LimitationPaper III: Criminal Law (200 marks)- Indian Penal Code, Code of Criminal procedure, Indian Evidence ActPaper IV:  English- Essay (25 marks), Words and phrases (25 marks), Comprehension (25 marks), Corrections (25 marks)Paper V: Language- Hindi in Devanagari Script (100/150 marks)
ChhattisgarhFraming of issues and writing of judgment in Civil Cases (40 marks), Framing of charges and writing of judgment in Criminal Cases (40marks), Translation: English to Hindi (10marks), Hindi to English(10marks)
OdishaPaper I: General EnglishPaper-II: Procedural laws- Civil procedure code, Criminal procedure code, Indian Evidence ActPaper III: Optional papers- Law of Crime and Law of torts, Hindu and Muslim Law, Law of Property, Law of Contract, Jurisprudence, and Constitution of India
KarnatakaPaper I: Translation Paper (100 marks) – Depositions, Judgments, and DocumentsPaper-II: Law paper I (100 marks) – Civil procedure Code, Criminal Procedure Code, Indian Evidence Act, Principles of Pleading and Indian ConstitutionPaper III: Law paper II (100 marks) – Framing of issues and writing judgments in civil cases Paper IV: Law paper III (100 marks)-Framing of charges and writing judgments in criminal cases
RajasthanPaper I: Law paper I- Constitution of India, Civil procedure Code< Contact law, Tort laws, Motor vehicle law, Rent control law, Personal laws, Law of Transfer of PropertyPaper-II: Law paper II- Criminal law, Narcotic Law, Law relating to cybercrimes and electricity theft, Law of probation, Law on juvenile delinquency Paper III: Language paper I- Hindi essay writing and grammar Paper IV: Language paper II- English essay writing, translation, and grammar
Himachal PradeshPaper I: Civil Law I( 200 marks)-Code of Civil procedure, Indian Stamp Act, Indian Evidence Act, Himachal Pradesh Courts Act, Specific Relief ActPaper-II: Civil Law II (200 marks)- Indian Contract Act, Hindu Law, Transfer of Property Act, Himachal Pradesh Urban Rent Control Act, Indian Limitation ActPaper III: Criminal Law (200 marks)- Indian Penal Code, Code of Criminal procedure, Chapter XVII of  Negotiable Instruments Act, HP Excise Act, Wildlife Protection Act, Indian Forest ActPaper IV:  English Composition (200 marks)Paper V: Language (100 marks)
SikkimPaper I: Procedural law, Local law, Indian evidence Act, Limitation ActPaper-II: Hindu Law, Contract law, Sales of goods act, Partnership Act, Specific Relief Act, General Clauses Act, transfer of property Act, Indian Penal Code, Constitutional law
UttarakhandPaper I: Substantive LawPaper-II: Evidence and procedure Paper III: Revenue and criminal law Paper IV: The present-day- Current affairs and general knowledge Paper V: Language
West BengalPaper I: Compulsory papers- English composition, Bengali, general knowledge, Civil law, Criminal law, Contract law, Transfer of Property ActPaper-II: Optional papers- Hindu law, Muslim law, Jurisprudence and principles of legislation, Laws relating to companies and insurance, Law of Trusts and Specific Relief, Partnership Act, Law of limitation, Constitutional law
Uttar Pradesh Paper I: General knowledge- History of India and Indian Culture, Geography of India, Indian Polity, Indian economy, international affairs Paper-II: Law- Jurisprudence, International Organizations, Indian constitution, Transfer of property, Indian Evidence Act, Code of criminal procedure, Code of Civil procedure, Contract laws
Kerala Paper I: English Grammar, General Essays, Translation of Malayalam Documents and Depositions to English, Precise writing Paper-II: Indian Contract Act, Transfer of Property, Limitation Act, Specific Relief Act, Easements Act, Kerala Building Act, Hindu Succession Act, Indian Succession Act, Dissolution of Muslim Marriage Act, Kerala Court Fees and Suits Valuation Act, Kerala Stamp Act, Legal Services Authorities act, The Kerala Panchayat Raj Act, Kerala Municipality Act, Negotiable Instruments Act and Registration ActPaper III- Indian Penal Code, Indian Evidence Act, Abkari Act, Negotiable Instruments Act, the Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act, Juvenile Justice Act, Kerala Police Act, Probation of Offenders Act, Forest Act, NDPS ActPaper IV: Code of Civil Procedure, Civil Rules of Practice, Kerala Civil Courts Act Code of criminal procedure, Criminal Rules of Practice, Framing of charges and issues, Judgment writing

Earlier, in March 2002, the SC had removed the precondition that a 3-year experience at the Bar is required for appearing in the JSE. In a press release issued on January 2, 2021, the Bar Council of India has stated that Judicial Officers who are inexperienced as advocates are found to be inept and incapable of handling matters related to the services. However, if the SC overturns its 2002 order and reinstates a minimum three-year experience as a precondition for appearing in the Judicial Services Exam, it will rule out many fresh law graduates from the competition. The state bar councils may also apply a similar eligibility criteria for the state judicial services examinations.

Career in Judicial Services: FAQs

Some of the frequently asked questions related to a career in judicial services to resolve the remaining queries of the students are provided below. 

Question 1: In how many stages the judiciary exams in India are conducted?
Answer: The judiciary exams in India are conducted in three stages as preliminary, mains, and personal interviews respectively. 
Question 2: For which posts the judiciary exams are conducted in India?
Answer: The judiciary exams in India are conducted for the post of District judge, Sessional Judge, District Magistrate, and Sub Magistrate.
Question 3: What are the skills required to clear the exams for judicial services in India? 
Answer: To clear the exams for judicial services in India the required skills are critical thinking, listening skills, writing skills, oral communication skills, and reading knowledge. 
Question 4: What are the job profiles related to judicial services in India?
Answer: The job profiles related to judicial services in India are advocate general, attorney general, district and sessions judge, magistrate, notary, oath commissioner, public prosecutor, solicitors, and sub-magistrate.
Question 5: What is the three-tier judicial system as per the constitution of India?
Answer: As per the Constitution of India, the three-tier judicial system includes the Supreme Court of India, the High Courts in different states, and the Subordinate Courts.
Question 6: What are the subjects covered in the judiciary preliminary exams? 
Answer: The subjects covered in the judiciary preliminary exams areconstitutional law, contract law and tort law, general knowledge and current affairs, IPC, CPC, CrPC, and the Indian evidence act, proficiency in the English language, and aptitude, and transfer of property law. 
Question 7: Is there an age requirement to appear in the judiciary exam in India?
Answer: To appear in the judiciary exam in India, the applicant must be of 21 to 35 years of age. 
Question 8: Is the Bar Council of India (BCI) membership required to apply for the judicial exam in India?
Answer: Yes, to apply for the judiciary exams in India, the applicant must be a member of the Bar Council of India (BCI). 
Question 9: What are the subjects covered in Madhya Pradesh judiciary mains exams in India?
Answer: The subjects covered in Madhya Pradesh judiciary mains exams in India are civil law and procedure, criminal law and procedure, writing skill, court practice, translation, and current legal knowledge, and judgment writing.
Question 10: What are the educational eligibility criteria to appear in the lower level judiciary exams in India?
Answer: To appear in the lower level judiciary exams in India, the required educational qualifications are LL. B degree from a recognized University in India. 

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