What is Difference Between Plant Cell & Animal Cell? - Embibe
  • Written By Anu_V
  • Last Modified 19-07-2022
  • Written By Anu_V
  • Last Modified 19-07-2022

Difference Between Plant Cell and Animal Cell

Difference Between Plant Cell and Animal Cell: A cell is a structural and functional unit of life. These cells perform essential functions in living organisms. According to the cell theory, all living things are composed of cells. We all have seen cells in onion peels which has a cell wall as its boundary and within it is the cell membrane. Each cell has a membrane-bound structure known as the nucleus which has chromosomes consisting of genetic material. There are two types of cells i.e., eukaryotic cells (have nuclei) and prokaryotic cells (lack nuclei).

Plants and animals cells are eukaryotes. These have organised nucleus with nuclear envelope along with locomotory and cytoskeletal structure. But, there are differences between plant and animal cells. The plant cell has plastids, cell walls, vacuoles and on the other hand animal cells possess centrioles. Students learn about plant and animal cells from an early age. You can check NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 5 on the fundamental unit of life for better understanding. We have provided detailed information on the difference between a plant cell and an animal cell in this article. Read on to find out.

Difference Between Plant Cell and Animal Cell

Some of the important differences between a plant cell and an animal cell are mentioned below:

Plant CellAnimal Cell
Cell wall is presentCell wall is absent
Square or rectangular in shapeIrregular shape
Cell membrane is presentPlasma membrane is present
Nucleus is present in side of the wallNucleus is present in center of the cell
Centriole is absentCentriole is present
Plastid is presentPlastid is absent
Chlorophyll is presentChlorophyll is absent
Microvilli is absentMicrovilli is present
Mode of nutrition is autotrophicMode of nutrition is heterotrophic
Mitochondria few in numberMitochondria more in number

To better understand the differences between an animal cell and a plant cell, see the images below

Animal Cell
Plant Cell

We all know that the cell is the fundamental unit of life. Organisms are classified based on the number of cells present in them. For example, organisms having a single cell are called unicellular organisms and the ones having a large number of cells are called multicellular organisms. The plant cell and animal cell varies in their functions and structural organization.

Definition of Plant Cell and Animal Cell

Now that you know the differences between animal and plant cells, let’s understand what are they made of.

Plant Cell: Plant cells are eukaryotic cells that consist of rigid cell walls. It protects the cell and provides shape to the plant. It has different types of cell organelles such as Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Chloroplast, Cytoplasm, Peroxisome, Microtubule, Plasmodesmata, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, Lysosome, Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Golgi Apparatus, Nuclear Envelope, Plasma Membrane, Vacuole, Middle Lamella and Cell Wall.

Functions of Plant Cell

  1. It undergoes photosynthesis to produce food by using sunlight, carbon dioxide and water.
  2. The cell wall not only gives shape but also protects the cell from damage.
  3. Vacuole occupies around 90 percent of the plant cell. It consists of a single membrane called tonoplast which facilitates the transport of ions and other materials into the vacuole.
  4. Collenchyma cells are elongated which grows as the plants grow.
  5. Sclerenchyma cells are the supporting cells.
  6. Parenchyma cells play important role in photosynthesis, cellular respiration and plant repair.
Plant Cell
Source: NCERT Textbook

Animal Cell: Animal cells are eukaryotic cells without a cell wall. The animal cell has a membrane-bound nucleus consisting of chromosomes as genetic material. There are different cell organelles found in the animal cell which performs different functions. It includes Golgi Apparatus, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nuclear Envelope, Nucleolus, Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Lysosomes, Peroxisome, Centriole, Plasma Membrane and Microvilli.

Functions of Animal Cell

  1. The animal cell does not make its own food.
  2. The nucleus provides direction to the cells and has genetic material.
  3. The cell membrane protects the animal cells.
  4. The cytoplasm is found in the cell giving shape and keeping the organelles in place.
  5. Group of cells combine together to form tissues and eventually organs and organ system.
Animal Cell
Source: NCERT Textbook

Important Points on Difference b/w Plant & Animal Cells

Here are some of the important points when you want to study the differences between plant and animal cells:

? Mainly animal cells are found to be smaller than plant cells. Where the length of plant cells is 10-100 micrometres, on the other hand, the length of animal cells is 10-30 micrometres.

? Animal cells are found in many types such as irregular and round in shape and while plant cells are mainly found in rectangular or cube shape.

? The energy that the plant cell stores is in the form of starch and on the other hand the energy that the animal cell stores are in the form of carbohydrate glycogen.

? In animal cells only stem cells change their form whereas in plant cells most of all cells can change their form.

? Plant cells enlarge themselves to grow their cells, for which they need water whereas animal cells increase the number of cells to grow their cells.

? 20 amino proteins in the animal cells can produce only 10 proteins whereas plant whole can synthesize complete 20 amino proteins.

?Both cell wall and cell membrane are found in plant cell whereas only cell membrane is found in animal cell.

FAQs

Q. What are the types of cells?
A. There are two types of cells – Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic

Q. What is a cell?
A. Cell is the fundamental unit of life

Q. What are the cell organelles found in an animal cell?
A. Golgi Apparatus, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nuclear Envelope, Nucleolus, Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Lysosomes, Peroxisome, Centriole, Plasma Membrane and Microvilli.

Q. What is the difference between plant cells and animal cells?
A. Plant cell has a cell wall and the animal cell do not. Find other differences between plant cells and animal cells in this article.

Q. What are the cell organelles found in a plant cell?
A. Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Chloroplast, Cytoplasm, Peroxisome, Microtubule, Plasmodesmata, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, Lysosome, Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Golgi Apparatus, Nuclear Envelope, Plasma Membrane, Vacuole, Middle Lamella and Cell Wall.

Q. What are the cell organelles found in animal cell?
A. Golgi Apparatus, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nuclear Envelope, Nucleolus, Nucleus, Cytoplasm, Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Lysosomes, Peroxisome, Centriole, Plasma Membrane and Microvilli.

Q. What is the difference between plant cell and animal cell?
A. Plant cell has a cell wall and the animal cell do not. Find other difference between plant cell and animal cell in this article.

Q. What are the cell organelles found in plant cell?
A. Mitochondria, Ribosomes, Chloroplast, Cytoplasm, Peroxisome, Microtubule, Plasmodesmata, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, Lysosome, Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, Nucleus, Nucleolus, Golgi Apparatus, Nuclear Envelope, Plasma Membrane, Vacuole, Middle Lamella and Cell Wall.

We have provided detailed information on the difference between plant cells and animal cells in this article. Read and try to solve the exercise questions on your own. If you face any difficulty, refer to the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 5 provided here.

Practice Plant & Animal Cell Questions with Hints & Solutions