• Written By Manisha Minni
  • Last Modified 25-01-2023

Parts of a Flowering Plant: Definition, Explanation, Characteristics

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Have you ever noticed that plants provide selfless service to all living organisms? Have you ever felt how important the existence of plants is in our life? Without plants, we cannot imagine life on this planet. Plants are the main element of a healthy ecosystem. The parts of a flowering plant have their significance and functions.

The flowering plant is divided into two parts namely, the root system and the shoot system. Flowering plants have certain parts compulsorily namely, root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit, and seed. In this article, we will discuss about parts of a flowering plant in detail. Scroll down to learn more!

What are the Parts of a Flowering Plant?

Angiosperms or flowering plants are the most advanced group of plants. The flowering plants show a large diversity in their external structures. The flowering plants compulsorily have root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit, and seed.

Explain Different Parts of a Flowering Plant

The plant body consists of the main axis which is branched or unbranched, bearing lateral appendages. The main axis is divided into two parts: The root system, and the Shoot System.
1. The Root System: The underground parts form the root system. It is the foundation part of the plant which holds it and helps in the absorption of water and minerals.
2. The Shoot System: The upper part develops from the plumule of the embryo, and it grows above the ground.

The flowering plant body consists of root, stem, leaves as vegetative parts and flower, fruit, and seed are considered as the reproductive parts.

Parts of Flowering Plants

Fig: Parts of Flowering Plants

Different Parts of a Flowering Plant

The different parts of flowering plants are mentioned below:

1. Roots
The roots are non-photosynthetic underground descending parts of the plant body. In most dicot plants, the roots are developed by the radicle of the embryo. The elongation part of the radicle is the primary root. The branches of the primary root are known as secondary roots. The secondary roots are branched to form tertiary roots. The primary root and its branches constitute the taproot system.

Characteristics of Roots
The characteristics of roots are as follows:
(a) Roots do not have nodes and internodes. They do not bear leaves, buds, or reproductive organs.
(b) The roots of most dicot plants form a tap root system which consists of the primary root and its branches—for example, the Mustard plant.
(c) The primary roots of monocots are short-lived and are replaced by many roots. These roots constitute the fibrous root system—for example, the Wheat plant.
(d) In some plants, roots develop from parts of the plant other than the radicle and are known as adventitious roots—for example, Grass, Monstera and the Banyan tree.
(e) The root is covered by a root apex which is protected by a root cap.
(f) The root has four regions: a root cap, a zone of division, a zone of elongation and a zone of maturation.
(g) Roots are negatively phototropic, positively geotropic, and positively hydrotropic.

Parts of root

Fig: Parts of Root

Functions of Roots
The functions of roots are as follows:
1. The root helps the absorption of water and minerals from the soil.
2. They provide a proper anchorage to the plant body.
3. Some roots stores reserve food material.
4. They help in the upward movement of the absorbed water and minerals into the stem.
5. They synthesize certain plant growth regulators.

2. Stem
The stem is the main ascending cylindrical axis of the plant body. It develops from the plumule of the embryo. The stem of a flowering plant bears leaves, branches, flowers, and fruits.

Characteristics of Stems
The characteristics of stems are as follows:
(a) The stem apex bears a terminal bud. It is always apical in position.
(b) The stem has nodes and internodes. The nodes are the region of the stem where leaves are borne, and the portions between two nodes are known as internodes.
(c) Stem may be aerial, subaerial, or underground.
(d) Stem tendrils are developed from axillary buds. These are slender and spirally coiled and help plants to climb —examples: Gourds (cucumber, pumpkins, watermelon) and Grapevines.
(e) Some axillary buds are modified into woody, straight and pointed thorns.
(f) The stem is negatively geotropic and positively phototropic.

Parts of Stem

Fig: Parts of Stem

Functions of Stems
The functions of stems are as follows:
1. The stem of a flowering plant bears leaves, branches, flowers, and fruits.
2. It helps in the conduction of water and minerals to roots, leaves, flowers, fruits, etc.
3. It keeps flowers in a suitable position so that pollination and fertilisation can take place.
4. Some stems store food materials.
5. Stems help in support and protection to the body parts.
6. They help in photosynthesis and vegetative propagation.

3. Leaf
The leaf is a flattened and thin part of the stem which develops at a node and bears a bud in its axil. The leaf is green in colour due to the presence of chlorophyll pigment.

Characteristics of Leaf
The characteristics of leaf are as follows:
(a) A leaf consists of three main parts: Leaf base (Hypopodium), Petiole (Mesopodium) and Lamina (Epipodium).
(b) The leaf base is the basal part that is attached to the stem.
(c) The petiole is the stalk of the leaf.
(d) The leaf blade or lamina is the green expanded part of the leaf, which has a prominent median vein called the midrib. The leaf blade produces thinner lateral veins, which in turn branch to form veinlets.
(e) The arrangement of veins and the lamina is known as venation. The reticulate venation and parallel venation are the two main types of venations. Reticulate venation is present in dicots and the parallel venation is present in monocots.
(f) There are two main types of leaves: simple and compound leaves.

Parts of Leaf

Fig: Parts of Leaf

Functions of Leaf
The functions of leaf are as follows:
1. Photosynthesis is the most important function of leaves. In this process, plants prepare food with the help of sunlight and carbon dioxide.
2. The leaves play an important role in the removal of excess water through the stomata, and this process is known as transpiration.
3. They protect the axillary, floral and terminal buds from mechanical injuries.
4. Leaves store food in the leaf base, as seen in onions.
5. The leaves are modified into phyllodes to protect against transpiration.
6. Leaves of Bryophyllum help in the reproduction of a new plant of Bryophyllum.

4. Inflorescence
The flower is a reproductive structure of a plant, which may occur individually or in clusters.
The branches with a cluster of flowers are known as inflorescence.

Characteristics of Inflorescence
The characteristics of Inflorescence are as follows:
(a) Peduncle is known as the main axis of the inflorescence.
(b) Racemose inflorescence and cymose inflorescence are two types of inflorescences based on the mode of branching.

Fig: Inflorescence

Functions of Inflorescence
The functions of Inflorescence are as follows:
1. Inflorescence makes flowers more apparent to attract insects that provide the chance of cross-pollination.
2. Inflorescence facilitates effective fruit and seed dispersal.

5. Flower
A flower is a reproductive unit in the angiosperms. It is meant for sexual reproduction. A flower forms in the axis of a leaf-like structure called a bract.

Characteristics of Flower
The characteristics of flower are as follows:
(a) The thalamus is a slightly swollen structure present in flower.
(b) The calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium (pistil) are four different parts of a flower.
(c)  The calyx and corolla are the accessories or non-essential whorls.
(d) Androecium and gynoecium are essential whorls that directly take part in reproduction.
(e) A flower is bisexual when it has both androecium and gynoecium, and a flower is unisexual when it contains only stamens or only carpels.

Parts of Flower

Fig: Parts of Flower

Functions of Flower
The functions of flower are as follows:
1. The main function of flowers is to carry out sexual reproduction in plants.
2. Flower secretes nectars to attract insects for pollination.

6. Fruit
A Fruit is a mature or ripened ovary that develops after fertilisation. It is a characteristic feature of flowering plants.

Characteristics of Fruit
The characteristics of the fruit are as follows:
(a) The fruit consists of two parts: the pericarp (ovary wall) and the seeds.
(b) The pericarp consists of three parts: the outer epicarp, which forms the skin of the fruit; the middle mesocarp, which forms the flesh region or edible part of fruit; and the inner endocarp.
(c) True fruits and false fruits are the two types of fruits based on development.
(d) Parthenocarpic fruit is formed without fertilisation of the ovary.

Parts of Fruit

Fig: Parts of Fruit

Functions of Fruit
The functions of fruit are as follows:
1. The main function of fruit is to protect the immature seed against climatic conditions.
2. The fruits help in seed dispersal.
3. Fruits are an important source of vitamins and minerals.

7. Seed
Seeds are the most efficient means of propagation in plants. The ovule develops into the seed after fertilisation.

Characteristics of Seed
The characteristics of seeds are as follows:
(a) The seed is made up of a seed coat, endosperm, and an embryo.
(b) There are two types of seeds: dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous.

Parts of Seed

Fig: Parts of Seed

Functions of Seed
The functions of seeds are as follows:
1. Seed protects and nourishes the embryo or young plant.
2. Reproduction in flowering plants takes place through seeds.

Interesting Facts

Some of the interesting facts of a flowering plant are as follows:

  1. Cabbage is the largest axillary bud.
  2. Bamboo is considered the tallest grass.

Summary

Flowering plants show variation in shape, size, structure, mode of nutrition, life span, and habitat. The flowering plants have two parts: the root system and the shoot system. The root of flowering plants absorbs minerals and water from the soil; it also gives anchorage and stability to the plant body. The shoot system is differentiated into stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits.

The stems bear leaves, branches, flowers, and fruits and help in the conduction of food material to different parts of the plant body. Leaves are green coloured, thin and flattened parts of the stem and perform the function of photosynthesis. The flower is meant for sexual reproduction. The ovary is converted into fruits and ovules into seeds after fertilisation.

FAQs on Parts of a Flowering Plant

Q.1. What do you mean by parts of a flowering plant?
Ans: Angiosperms or flowering plants are the most advanced group of plants. The flowering plants show a large diversity in their external structures.

Q.2. What is the major function of a part of a flowering plant?
Ans:
a. The root helps in the absorption of water and minerals from the soil.
b. The stem helps in the conduction of water and minerals to roots, leaves, flowers, fruits, etc.
c. Photosynthesis is the process where plants prepare food with the help of sunlight and carbon dioxide.

Q.3. Which part of a flowering plant serves as the main site of photosynthesis?
Ans:
The plant leaves serve as the main site of photosynthesis.

Q.4. What are the different parts of a flower?
Ans:
The different parts of a flower are calyx, corolla, androecium, and gynoecium.

Q.5. What are the main parts of a typical flowering plant?
Ans:
The main parts of a typical flowering plant are root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit, and seed.

Learn About Parts of a Flower Here

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