• Written By Taufiya Tazeen
  • Last Modified 22-06-2023

Scope of Biology- Branches and Relation With Other Sciences


Scope of Biology: Have you ever wondered why Biology is taught in your school? Can you answer how a tall and gigantic banyan tree just came out from a small seed without knowing the concept of biology? No right? So, why do we need to learn Biology and what is the nature and scope of Biology? How does it help us in understanding the living world around us? Let us dig deep into the world and scope of biological science through this article.

In this article, we will learn what biology is, why it is important for us to learn it, how it can be used for the welfare of society and also how it is misused. So, without wasting any time, let us get started with the scope of Biological Science. In this article, we shall also learn about the History of Biology and Biological Science Scope after the 12th.

What is Biology & Biological Science Scope?

Biology is a branch of science that deals with the study of living organisms (plants, animals and microorganisms), their biological processes and functions and how they are important for the environment. 
It can also be defined as the study of all living organisms and their interactions with the environment. 

History of Biology

The study of biology is dated back to the \(4th\) and \(5th\) century when Greek philosophers were the pioneers to start studying things that have life. Hence the word ‘biology’ came from greek. The first person who was curious about human intelligence and came to be known as the pioneer of the study of anatomy was Alcmaeon from Crotona in the \(5th\) century. He was the first person who had started dissection, and later, many other people started to gain interest in the topic of living creatures. Until then, everyone thought that life and death, disease and health, poverty and wealth, everything is given by divine power. 

Later, many attempts were made to find out the actual theory of life. After Alcmaeon, several other famous philosophers had shown keen interest in studying living beings. Aristotle was one of these pioneers. Later, his favourite student Theophrastus (known as the Father of botany) had done a detailed study on plants and their classification. 

In the \(14th\) century, Leonardo da Vinci and Harvey gave the theory of the circulation of blood. In the \(16th\) century, science flourished, and many important inventions were made like the microscope by Leeuwenhoek and the complete and detailed classification of plants by Linnaeus and many more. This is how the study of living creatures originated. 

Origin of the Term Biology: Scope of Biological Science

The word biology has come from the Greek word ‘bios’ meaning life and, ‘logos’ means to study. All the quests of life can be resolved by this vast branch of science. Aristotle is regarded as the Father of biology because he was the first person who related life and its origin to biology rather than assuming it to be from a divine source, which was the thought of people in that era. The word biology was coined by Lamarck and Trevirances. Continue reading to know more about the scope of biology.

Branches of Biology

Biology can be divided into three main branches, namely:

  1. Botany – Study of plants
  2. Zoology – Study of animals
  3. Microbiology – Study of unicellular and microscopic organisms

These branches of biology can be understood under five main fields that we have explained below:

Branches of Biology

Fig: Branches of Biology

  1. The Main Group of Living Things: Branches, including studies of particular organisms such as bacteriology, virology, zoology, etc., fall under this type.
  2. Living Things and their Environment: Ecology, environment science, and biogeography are some branches that include the study of organisms and their habitats.
  3. Structure and Function: Branching of biology like physiology, histology, etc., are the ones that include structural and functional studies of living things.
  4. Applied Biology: Biotechnology is an example of applied biology.
  5. Changes and Development: Branches of biology like embryology, evolution, and genetics are directly or indirectly involved in changes and development that we observe around us.

Some other branches include Biochemistry, Biophysics, Bioinformatics, Cell Biology, Immunology, Molecular biology, Pathology, Radiobiology, Taxonomy, and many more.

Biological Science Scope After 12th

The fascinating aspect of biology is that it is not only the study that unveils mysterious secrets of the world, but it is also a field of education and employment. 
Literary sources, including books, journals, articles, periodicals, magazines, newsletters, etc., are written and sold by people with knowledge in different fields of biology. Professional scopes are doctors, nurses, pharmacologists, scientists, research scholars, etc. Other vocal sources include lecturers, teachers, professors, etc. 

Scope of Molecular Biology: There is a wide range of employment opportunities in research labs set by the government of India in the Research & Development of numerous private drug companies. They work towards the development of drugs, stem cell research & several domains within the field of medical development.

Following are some points discussed in context to the practical application of the scope of biology in different fields: 


It gives important useful information about fertilizers, pesticides and insecticides that must be used. It has great application in the development of disease-resistant varieties, better production of crops in terms of quality and quantity, etc. A major aspect of agriculture such as the maintenance of field and soil and nutrients requirements of various species of plants are also studied under biology. 


The majority of industries use plant and animal products as their raw material. So basically, it is the study of plants and animals that helps in running an industry. Major industries include dairy, food, leather, textile, paper, jute, etc. 


It can be considered a boon to medicine. Be it a simple disease or contagious disease. Drugs need to be there to cure it. It can be in the form of vaccines or steroids or drugs. For example, the current pandemic situation is being cured by a detailed study of the virus and by creating effective vaccines.

Conservation of the Biosphere

Conserving our ecosystem is an important aspect of the present scenario. It has become very important to maintain stability in the environment. The study of biology helps in preventing the extinction of flora and fauna by conserving the biological hotspots and other endemic places with the help of constructing botanical gardens, zoological parks, sanctuaries, etc.

Genetic Engineering

It is an advanced study that has gotten its fame recently. Right now, it is the most flourished scope of biology where recombinant DNA technology, somatic hybridisation, cloning, tissue culture etc., is getting advanced every day.

Art and Aesthetics

In the form of museums, art galleries, planetariums, exhibitions etc., the study of biology has never failed to prove its importance. Apart from these, there is a vast scope in sectors like biochemistry, biophysics, animal husbandry, etc. New technologies keep developing in every field and require biology as their primary source of knowledge. 


It includes learning about the history of human lives through archaeology to understand the biological and physiological characteristics of humans and also their evolution through different eras.

Biology and Its Relation With Other Sciences

As studied earlier, biology can be blended with many science subjects based on the requirement. Some of these are given below:


It is the study of chemical reactions, chemical composition, structural orientation, acid and base equilibrium and everything related to chemistry in living organisms.


It is the study of mechanics like force, pressure or any other physical factors that concern living beings. 


It is used to study the statistical data of living species, population density, ecological balance, etc. 

Sociology in Relation to Biology

It involves the study of human behaviour. It can only be done when one knows about the brain and nervous system in human beings and also about hormonal changes.

Geology in Relation to Biology

Many geological instances include biological factors. For example, weathering of rocks happens only when there are biological factors like the growth of lichens or growth of several microorganisms or precipitation of water, etc.


It is an interdisciplinary subject that combines biology with computer science that is a compilation of data related to biomolecules, the human genome and other macromolecules in software.

Nature and Scope of Biology in Human Welfare

Biology plays a vital role in human welfare. A very few of these are mentioned below as there are no limits to the importance of this subject:

  1. The study of human health and diseases is the most important criterion for humans, wholly dependent on biology. 
  2. The strategies that are related to the enhancement of food are the second most important criterion.
  3. The study of microorganisms under this subject plays a crucial role in decomposition, biogeochemical cycles, pharmaceutical needs, etc.
  4. It is applied in several essential industrial processes like the production of enzymes, antibiotics and several other by-products.  
  5. To understand the interdependence of biotic and abiotic factors of the environment and use this knowledge to maintain a balance between both.

Therefore, we can say that life on earth can be studied only through biology and the comfort and luxury we get is all because of the advancement in the subject. 

Misuse of Biology

An abundance of power and knowledge always comes with a catch; the same applies to biology as well. 

  1. Advance technology in fields like biotechnology and genetics is leading to the creation of many deadly pathogens or bioweapons like antibiotic-resistant microbes that cause deadly diseases.
  2. Amniocentesis is a technique used to diagnose abnormalities of the fetus in an early stage of pregnancy. It is misused to know the gender and abort it if it is a female child.

Career Opportunities in the Field of Biology

There are plenty of career opportunities in the field of biology. 
1. A student studying biology can work in various fields as a doctor, nurse or pharmacist, as a lecturer, a scientist or a research scholar. 
2. A biologist can work in the food, dairy, and leather industries, in biotechnological labs, airports, as a food quality manager and a lot more. 
3. Almost all the fields hire biology graduates as basic knowledge of the subject is one of the primary requirements in any field.
There is a diverse range of opportunities for students of biology, just that one must be passionate and persistent about the subject. 


Biology includes information about all forms of life such as plants, animals, including us and even the smallest organisms like bacteria and viruses. It helps us to understand everything that is happening around and inside us. Development in different branches of biology is impacting our lives to a great extent. Basic knowledge of this subject is essential for each one of us to lead life.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) on Scope of Biology

Let’s look at some of the commonly asked questions about the scope of Biological Science:

Q.1: What are the main branches of Biology?
Ans: Biology is a major subject that is branched into various sub-subjects like botany (study of plants), zoology (study of animals), and microbiology (study of microorganisms that are not visible to the naked eye)  are the major ones.  The scope of Microbiology is vast as it has its branches spread into various domains such as clinical research, agriculture, dairy industry, pharmacy & medicine, water industry, nanotechnology & chemical technology.

Q.2: What are the careers in Biology?
Ans: Research scientist, forensic scientist, biotechnologist, pharmacologist, biologist, ecologist, and nature conservation officer are some careers that a biology student can choose according to his/her interest.

Q.3: What is Biology? 
Ans: Biology is a branch of science that deals with studying living organisms (plants, animals and microorganisms), their biological processes and functions, and how they are important for the environment. It can also be defined as the study of all living organisms and their interactions with the environment. 

Q.4: What is the nature and scope of Biology for students?
Ans:  Almost all the fields hire biology graduates as basic knowledge of the subject also plays an important role. A student of biology can work in various fields from a doctor to a nurse or a pharmacist, as a lecturer, as a scientist or a research scholar. A biologist can also work in the food, dairy, and leather industries, in biotechnological labs, airports, as a food quality manager and a lot more. 

Q.5: Explain the Scope of Biology with an example?
Ans: Professional scopes of biology are doctors, nurses, pharmacologists, scientists, research scholars, etc. Other vocal sources include lecturers, teachers, professors, etc. Practical application of biology applies in different fields such as agriculture, medicines, genetic engineering, food industries, etc.

We hope this detailed article on the Scope of Biology helps you in your preparation. If you get stuck do let us know in the comments section below and we will get back to you at the earliest.

Practice Scope of Biology Questions with Hints & Solutions