In biology, flowering plants are known by the name angiosperms. Male and female reproductive organs can be found in the same plant in flowering plants. The flower is the sexual reproduction organ. Male gametes are created in the anthers of the flower and can be found in pollen grains. Ovules contain female gametes, which are created in the flower’s ovary.
This page will give you a detailed overview of the entire process of sexual reproduction in flowering plants. Keep reading to know more!
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants: Overview
Before diving deep into the reproduction procedure in angiosperms, let us give you the overall anatomy of a flowering plant and its reproductive parts:
A flowering plant consists of four whorls or parts:
Calyx (or sepals): It is the flower’s outermost whorl. It is made up of parts called sepals. The calyx encloses the remainder of the flower at the bud stage. They often have a green colour, although occasionally, they might have a colour similar to petals. The term “petaloid” refers to this Calyx condition. Calyx might be present or can be absent.
Corolla (or petals): It is the flower’s second whorl and has many petals. Sometimes there is a scent to these petals, as they would draw animals and insects. Their colour, thinness, and softness would aid in the pollination process.
Androecium (male reproductive part): It is the third whorl of a flower and consists of stamens, which are the male reproductive organ. An anther and a filament are the two components that make up each stamen. The filament serves to support the anther tip. Meiosis is used to create pollen in this location, which eventually vanishes. An anther is a four-lobed sac-like structure that produces pollen. Anthers are held in place by filaments, structures resembling threadsMicrosporangia, which also develop into a pollen sac, are found in the transverse portion of an anther. Pollen grains are present in the pollen sac.
Gynoecium (female reproductive part): It is the last whorl of the flower and the female reproductive system. It is made of the pistil and is located in the middle of the thalamus. The pistil is made up of the stigma, style, and ovary. The ovary internally produces ovules. Ovules produce megaspores during the process of meiosis, which eventually transforms into female gametophytes. Egg cells are created as a result.
Sexual Reproduction Process in Flowering Plants
The process of sexual reproduction in flowering plants involves two major steps: Pollination followed by Fertilisation.
All flowering plants perform the ecological process of pollination. For the purpose of sexual reproduction in flowering plants, the mature pollen grains are moved from the anther to the stigma during this process.
Pollination comes in two categories:
Self-Pollination takes place when pollen grains from the anther are deposited on the stigma of the same flower or another flower on the same plant, according to the definition of the term.
Cross-pollination takes place when pollen grains go from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another flower on various members of the same type of plant.
Through the pollen tube, the pollens are delivered to the ovary after pollination. One of the male gametes enters the ovary and fertilises the ovule or female gamete, while the other combines with the polar nuclei. A zygote is created when a gamete combines with an egg and eventually matures into an embryo. The endosperm nucleus is created when the second gamete fuses with the polar nuclei. The embryo receives nutrients from it. Ovules are eventually transformed into seeds through fertilisation, and the ovary grows into a fruit.
Plants can reproduce sexually or asexually; asexual reproduction occurs when a portion of the plant, such as a tuber or rhizome, is vegetatively propagated. In most cases, sexual reproduction occurs during the pollination process, in which pollen is transferred from a male flower’s anther to a female flower’s stigma. We all know that pistils and stamens are the male and female reproductive parts of the plant, respectively, and that flowers are the reproductive section of the plant.
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