• Written By sandeep
  • Last Modified 04-07-2022

Solutions and Their Properties: Components, Basic Properties, Colligative Properties


Solutions and their properties are crucial concepts in Chemistry. Every time a substance dissolves or coalesce well with another, it forms a solution. Above all, a solution is a homogeneous mixture of two or more substances whose composition is the same throughout or remains in a single phase. In a homogenous mixture, the particle size of the substances is very minute but similar to that of a molecule. 

In other words, we can define the solutions as a class of chemical compounds with similar chemical composition and whose molecule is sufficiently reduced so that it can more easily dissolve in a solvent, similar to the compound being dissolved. This article explores the meanings, components, properties of solutions, and so on, depending on their nature. Read on to learn all about the solutions and their properties.

What Are the Components of a Solution?

Let us discuss the substances or components of a solution first before moving on to the solutions and their properties.

A solution is a mixture of solutes and solvents. When we start talking about components of a solution, we have to have a basic understanding of what solute and solvent are specifically. 

1. Solvent: It is the component of the solution that is abundant and in which other substances can easily dissolve. The solvent is also the medium of the solution. For example, in a sugar solution in water, the component water acts as the solvent.

2. Solute: It is the substance that is dissolved in the solvent to make the solution. Sugar, for example, is the solute in a solution of sugar in water.

Components of a Solution

What Are the Properties of a Solution?

Solutions are substances that dissolve or mix with other substances to form a saturated solution. They differ in several ways, the most important being their solubility in water, which primarily determines how strong a particular chemical solution is. 

Solutions can also dissolve salts and metals, so they may be classified as acidic or basic depending on whether they contain ions. Solutions and their properties depend on the type of chemical, how much and what is dissolved into it. 

Basic Properties of a Solution

Let us now discuss some basic properties of a solution:

  1. A solution is a homogeneous mixture.
  2. The particles dissolved in a solution easily pass through a filter paper. Therefore, using the filtration process, we cannot separate a solution.
  3. When light passes through a true solution, it can not scatter light as its particles are very small.
  4. When a solution is kept, the solute particles will not separate. Consequently, most of the solutions are quite stable.

Colligative Properties of a Solution

Colligative properties are those properties of the solution that are dependent on the ratio between the number of solute particles and the number of solvent particles in a solution and not the chemical type.

The colligative properties of a solution are as follows:

  1. Lowering of vapour pressure
  2. Elevation of boiling point
  3. Depression of freezing point 
  4. Osmotic pressure

The reverse osmosis process can happen when a pressure greater than the osmotic pressure acts on the solution.

Colligative properties of a solution assist in the determination of the molar mass of the solutes. Solutes that dissociate in a solution have a molar mass lower than the actual molar mass, and those associated with it have a molar mass higher than their real values.

How to Effectively Practise?

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We hope this article on the solutions and their properties helps you. If you have any academic queries, do reach out to us. 

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