• Written By Zeshan Naz
  • Last Modified 28-01-2023

Current Affairs December 2022 – Check Latest Top Stories


Current Affairs December 2022: For most of the competitive exams current affairs section has always been pivotal. It is considered to be the most scoring section in the paper. If candidates prepare well for this section, they can easily get these marks to uplift their overall marking.

We advise you to not take the general awareness section as a mere segment. If prepared well for this part, you can find it easy to score, as the section is scoring in nature. Just stay updated on the recent activities happening around you. Most of the upcoming exams like SBI, IBPS Clerk, UPSC, SSC, and many more will have this particular section. You do not have to get hyper when it comes to knowing current affairs, just stay updated on this page or bookmark this page and we will have your back.

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Current Affairs: National

Measles Outbreak in Mumbai

  • A measles outbreak in Mumbai has raised concerns amongst the country’s public health authorities. The city has reported more than 200 cases in the past two months, and at least 13 children have lost their lives. 
  • As per WHO data, nearly 40 million children globally missed a measles vaccine dose in 2021. As a result, there were an estimated nine million measles cases and 1,28,000 deaths.

Why Are Cases on the Rise in Mumbai?

  • The major reason is poverty, poor hygiene practices, poor quality of nutrition, and lack of vaccination in children have all contributed to the spiralling cases. 
  • Due to religious and cultural backgrounds, some families avoid immunisation.

What Is Measles?

  • Measles is a highly contagious infection that infects the respiratory system of young children and then spreads throughout the body. 
  • However, it is preventable with a vaccine. According to WHO, measles vaccination helped reduce the death rate by 73% between 2000 and 2018 worldwide.

What Causes Measles?

  • Infection with the rubeola virus causes measles
  • The virus infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body
  • Measles is a human disease and is not known to occur in animals 
  • Children below the age of five are the most vulnerable, especially those below the age of two

Symptoms of Measles

The signs and symptoms of measles typically include:

  • High fever which starts 10-12 days after exposure to the virus
  • Runny nose
  • Sore throat and cough
  • Conjunctivitis (red and watery eyes)
  • Skin rash around the face and upper neck, which spreads later
  • Small white spots inside the cheeks

How is Measles Spread?

  • Measles is one of the world’s most contagious diseases 
  • It spreads by coughing, sneezing, close personal contact, or direct contact with infected nasal or throat secretions


  • Measles is one of the most contagious diseases which spreads through direct contact with an infected person. 
  • It can also spread through air or exposure to infected droplets. So, coughing, sneezing or close contact with a measles patient can spread the disease.

The following preventive steps play a crucial role:

  • Vaccination
  • Avoid crowded places
  • Do not ignore the symptoms
  • Avoid contact with someone who is sick
  • Hand hygiene

Previous Initiatives by Government to Curb Measles and Rubella:

  • Measles & Rubella Initiative (M&R Initiative) was Launched by the government in 2001 as a global partnership led by the American Red Cross, United Nations Foundation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), UNICEF and WHO. 
  • The objective of the Initiative is to ensure that no child dies from measles or is born with congenital rubella syndrome. 


Consider the following statements about  measles in India

  1. Infection with the rubeola virus causes measles
  2. The virus infects the respiratory tract and then spreads throughout the body
  3. Measles & Rubella Initiative (M&R Initiative) was Launched by the government in 2001

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

A. Only 1 and 2

B. Only 2 and 3

C. Only 1 and 3

D. All are Correct

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Defence

4th India-France Annual Defence Dialogue

  • Defence Minister Rajnath Singh recently held the 4th India-France Annual Defence Dialogue with the Minister of Armed Forces of the French Republic, Sebastien Lecornu. 
  • The meeting, held in New Delhi, opened up doors of opportunities for both countries. During their meeting, a wide range of bilateral, regional, defence and defence industrial cooperation issues were discussed.

Current Status: 

  • In recent years, military-to-military cooperation has substantially increased between the nations. In this context, both Ministers reviewed the ongoing military-to-military cooperation. 
  • They further discussed means to strengthen maritime cooperation and increase the scope and complexity of bilateral exercises.

Future Collaborations:

  • India and France’s defence relations are growing, and the recently successfully held bilateral Air Exercise ‘Garuda’ at Air Force Station, Jodhpur, is an example. 
  • During the dialogue, one of the key areas of discussion was defence industrial cooperation with a focus on ‘Make in India’. 
  • In this regard, future collaborations and potential co-production opportunities were discussed.

Focussing the Indo-Pacific Region:

  • In addition to defence industrial cooperation, the Ministers recognised their convergences on a number of strategic and defence issues. 
  • They shared the commitment to work together to enhance cooperation in bilateral, regional and multilateral fora, with a focus on the Indo-Pacific region. 
  • Currently, France is the chair of the Indian Ocean Commission (IOC) and the Indian Ocean Naval Symposium (IONS) and both countries cooperate closely in these fora.
  • Minister Sebastien Lecornu also arrived at the Headquarters Southern Naval Command and visited India’s first indigenous aircraft carrier INS Vikrant. 
  • France is one of India’s most trusted strategic partners, and both countries look forward to celebrating 25 years of their strategic partnership in 2023.


The 4th India-France Annual Defence Dialogue with the Minister of Armed Forces of the French Republic, Sebastien Lecornu, was recently held in

A. Pune

B. Jaipur

C. Bhopal

D. Delhi

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Sports Technology

FIFA’s Semi-Automated Offside Technology

  • In the opening match of the FIFA World Cup 2022 between host Qatar and Ecuador, just three minutes of action had passed before the first goal of the tournament was ruled out for offside. 
  • Ecuador forward Enner Valencia’s headed strike was disallowed because the lower half of his right leg was in an offside position. 
  • While such close calls being settled with the help of Video Assistant Referee (VAR) technology is largely commonplace in modern-day football, what surprised fans was the speed with which it was adjudicated. 
  • One three-dimensional animation of the incident was displayed for a fleeting second or two before the play restarted. FIFA’s brand-new Semi-Automated Offside Technology (SAOT) was responsible for the quick decision.

What Is it?

  • There are two parts to the technology — a sensor inside the match ball (Adidas’s Al Rihla) that is held using suspension technology and existing tracking tools that are part of the VAR system.
  • Semi-automated offside technology is a support tool for video match officials and on-field officials to help them make faster, more reproducible and more accurate offside decisions.
  • VAR stands for video assistant referee. Instead of just one person, a team of three people work together to review decisions made by the main referee. They do this by watching video footage of the relevant occurrences.

 How Does it Work?

  • Every time the ball is hit, data is sent in real-time (at a whopping 500 frames per second) to a network of antennas installed around the playing field. 
  • Additionally, there are 12 Hawk-Eye cameras set up around the turf that shadow both the ball and the players, with as many as 29 separate points in the human body track.

Helpful in Better Decisions?

  • The coming together of the ball sensor and the Hawk-Eye cameras is, in effect, SAOT, which allows for decisions that are highly accurate and quick. 
  • These two data sets are run through artificial intelligence software, which generates automated alerts about offsides to the match officials.


Which of the following sporting events extensively uses the Semi-Automated Offside Technology that has recently been in the news?

A. Tennis

B. Football

C. Cricket

D. Basketball

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Person in News

Sundararaman Ramamurthy Appointed as New MD and CEO of BSE

  • Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) has received the nod from the Securities and Exchange Board of India to have 62-year-old Sundararaman Ramamurthy as the new Managing Director (MD) and Chief Executive Officer (CEO). 
  • This post was vacant since July when the then MD and CEO Ashish Kumar Chauhan resigned from the post to join the National Stock Exchange (NSE).

About Ramamurthy:

  • Ramamurthy has previously served as the senior vice president of the NSE. 
  • However, after serving in this role, he took up the position of the Chief Operating Officer (COO) at the Bank of America, India. 

About Bombay Stock Exchange:

  • BSE Limited, also known as the Bombay Stock Exchange, is an Indian stock exchange and is the leading stock exchange under the ownership of the Ministry of Finance, Government of India. It is located on Dalal Street in Mumbai. 
  • Location: Mumbai, India
  • Market cap: ₹276.713 lakh crore (US$3.5 trillion) 
  • Indices: BSE SENSEX; S&P BSE SmallCap; S&P BSE MidCap; S&P BSE LargeCap; BSE 500
  • Founded: 9 July 1875; 147 years ago
  • Number of listings: 5,439
  • Traded as: NSE: BSE

About SEBI:

  • The Securities and Exchange Board of India is the regulatory body for the securities and commodity market in India under the ownership of the Ministry of Finance within the Government of India
  • Founded: 12 April 1992
  • Sector: Securities market
  • Headquarters: Mumbai


Sundararaman Ramamurthy has been recently appointed as the new MD and CEO of which of the following organisations?

A. Bombay Stock Exchange

B. Securities and Exchange Board of India

C. Reserve Bank of India

D. Infrastructure Development Finance Company

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Geography

World’s Largest Active Volcano Erupts for First Time in Nearly 40 Years

  • The world’s largest active volcano, Hawaii’s Mauna Loa, is erupting for the first time in almost 40 years. 
  • Lava flows are contained within the summit area and are not threatening downslope communities. But the US Geological Service (USGS) notification warned the situation could change rapidly.
  • The volcano’s alert level has been upgraded from an “advisory” to a “warning”, the highest classification.

About Mauna Loa Volcano in Hawaii

  • According to the USGS, Mauna Loa has erupted 33 times since its first documented eruption in 1843. The previous eruption in 1984 sent lava flows within 5 miles of the city of Hilo, the island’s most populous town.
  • Mauna Loa’s summit crater sits about 21 miles west of Kilauea, a smaller volcano that has been erupting since 2021. 
  • Their simultaneous eruptions have created a rare dual-eruption event.
  • As per the agency, Mauna Loa has also been in a heightened state of unrest which pointed in an update last month to elevated seismic activity and increased earthquake rates.
  • Earthquake activity increased from 5 to 10 earthquakes a day since June 2022 to some 10 to 20 earthquakes a day in July and August. 
  • Peak numbers of more than 100 earthquakes a day were recorded on 23 September and 29 September 2022.


What is the name of the world’s largest active volcano erupting for the first time in almost 40 years?

A. Mount Kilimanjaro

B. Mauna Loa

C. Mount Fuji

D. Popocatepetl Volcano

Answer: B

Current Affairs: National

Nai Chetna Gender Campaign Launched

  • The Centre recently rolled out a month-long nationwide campaign to sensitise women, especially in rural areas, about gender-based violence and make them aware of various institutional mechanisms available to help them. The Ministry of Rural Development launched the campaign.

About the Campaign:

  • ‘Nai Chetna’, the month-long campaign envisioned as a ‘Jan Andolan’ (people’s movement), was launched by Union Minister for Rural Development to mark International Day for Elimination of Violence Against Women and Girls on 25 November.
  • The idea is to bring the issue of gender-based violence into focus and make women aware of their rights and the mechanisms available to help redress their grievances.

Three Pillars: Awareness, Outreach and Redressal:

  • Women are often unable to identify violence meted out to them because of the normalisation of discrimination and violence; hence, they rarely seek support and continue to suffer in silence. Even if they want to seek support, they are, by and large, unaware of redressal mechanisms and service providers and lack legal awareness.
  • There are 1,200 gender resource centres set up across the country. Women facing gender violence can seek help from these centres.
  • The month-long campaign seeks to enable women to acknowledge situations of violence and guide them to take support from various institutional mechanisms available to them.


Which of the following ministries recently launched the gender campaign, Nai Chetna?

A. Ministry of Rural Development

B. Ministry of Women and Child Development

C. Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs

D. Ministry of Tribal Affairs

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Science and Technology

India’s First Private Launchpad and Control Centre

  • Space-tech startup Agnikul headquartered in Chennai has set up India’s first-ever launchpad that will be operated by a private player at Sriharikota. 
  • The launch pad is divided into two parts:
  • The Agnikul launchpad (ALP) 
  • The Agnikul mission control centre (AMCC)
  • The launchpad and mission control centre, located in ISRO’s Satish Dhawan Space Centre (SDSC) in Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh, is expected to host its first rocket launch in the coming weeks by Agnikul itself.
  • All critical systems connecting these two sections, which are four kilometres away from each other, are redundant to ensure 100% operationality during the countdown.

What Is Agnikul Cosmos?

  • Founded in 2017, Agnikul Cosmos Private Limited is an Indian aerospace manufacturer based in the National Center for Combustion Research and Development (NCCRD) of IIT Madras, Chennai.
  • The startup aims to develop and launch its own small-lift launch vehicle, such as the Agnibaan, capable of placing a 100 kg (220 lb) payload into a 700 km (430 mi) orbit. 
  • The first commercial launch is expected in 2022. The agreement signed under the IN-SPACe initiative sanctioned Agnikul access to the Indian space agency’s expertise and facilities to build Agnibaan and its launchpads.

What Is Agnibaan?

  • Agnibaan is Agnikul’s highly customisable, two-stage launch vehicle, capable of taking up to 100 kg payload to orbits around 700 km high (low Earth orbits) and enables plug-and-play configuration.

What Is Agnilet?

  • Agnilet is the world’s first single-piece 3-D printed engine fully designed and manufactured in India and was successfully test-fired in early 2021, making Agnikul the first company in the country to test its engines at ISRO.
  • Agnibaan and Agnilet will be used in Agnikul’s first launch.


Which of the following private space-tech startups recently set up India’s first-ever launchpad?

A. Skyroot Aerospace

B. Agnikul Cosmos

C. Dhruva Space

D. Antrix Corporation

Answer: B

Current Affairs: International

Udaipur to Host First G20 Sherpa Meeting in India

  • The City of Lakes, Udaipur, is gearing up to host the first G20 Sherpa Meeting in India from 4 to 7 December 2022. 
  • The G20 Sherpa meeting is expected to be held at Darbar Hall at the City Palace Udaipur. 
  • The arrangement is being made at Fateh Prakash Palace, Hotel Udai Vilas and Leela Palace to accommodate the delegates for this meeting.


  • The meeting aims to foster growth and build bonds amongst the twenty nations. Among the highlights will be the depiction of Indian culture with wall paintings and the illumination of heritage sites across the city. 

Meaning of Sherpa:

  • A Sherpa is a personal representative of the leader of a member country at an international Summit meeting such as the G8, G20 or the Nuclear Security Summit. 
  • The term is derived from the Nepalese Sherpa people, who serve as guides for mountaineers in the Himalayas.

What Is the Sherpa Meeting of the G20 Summit?

  • The Sherpa Meeting of the G20 Summit is a preliminary meeting of the government representatives before the main G20 Summit.

What Is Done in the G20 Sherpa Meeting?

  • Here the representatives of the member nations hold discussions to firm up possible agreements. 
  • The Heads of State takes final decisions at the G20 summit.
  • Ahead of the main G20 Summit, the Sherpas meeting ensures that the time and resources required during negotiations of the larger heads of state at the final summit are minimised.

Who Is Indian Sherpa for G20?

  • The former CEO of NITI Aayog, Amitabh Kant, is the G20 Sherpa from India.

Major Role of Sherpa:

  • Sherpas meet much before the start of the Summit to iron out differences on various issues. 
  • The Sherpa engages in planning, negotiation and implementation tasks during the Summit. They coordinate the agenda, seek consensus at the highest political levels, and participate in a series of pre-Summit consultations to help negotiate their leaders’ positions. 
  • Sherpas are career diplomats or senior government officials appointed by the leaders of their countries. 
  • There is only one Sherpa per Summit for each member country; several sous Sherpas assist him/her.

About Udaipur:

  • Udaipur, formerly the capital of the Mewar Kingdom, is a city in the western Indian state of Rajasthan. Founded by Maharana Udai Singh II in 1559.
  • Often referred to as the ‘Venice of the East’, the city of lakes Udaipur is located around azure water lakes and is hemmed in by lush green hills of Aravallis. 
  • The famous Lake Palace, located in the middle of Lake Pichola, is one of the most beautiful sights of Udaipur.


Which of the following cities is going to host the first G20 Sherpa Meeting in India in December 2022?

A. Indore

B. Udaipur

C. Delhi

D. Ahmedabad

Answer: B

Current Affairs: National

Global Technology Summit-2022

  • The seventh edition of the Global Technology Summit began recently in New Delhi in a hybrid format. 


  • The three-day Summit is India’s annual flagship event on Geotechnology and is co-hosted by the Ministry of External Affairs and Carnegie India. 
  • The world’s leading minds in technology, government, security, space, startups, data, law, public health, climate change, academics and economy will gather and debate the vital questions related to technology and its future.


  • The theme for this year’s Summit is ‘Geopolitics of Technology’. 

About Global Technology Summit:

  • The Global Technology Summit—Carnegie India’s annual flagship event, is being co-hosted with the Ministry of External Affairs, Government of India.
  • This is the one platform that seriously discusses the policy dimensions around technology.
  • As India takes the G-20 presidency later this year, the seventh iteration of the Global Technology Summit seeks to explore the present climate in the shapeshifting worlds of international alliances, emerging technologies, and geopolitics.


The seventh edition of the Global Technology Summit-2022 is being held in which of the following cities?

A. Bangalore

B. Shimla

C. Jaipur

D. Delhi

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Days and Events

World AIDS Day: 2022

  • World AIDS Day is commemorated every year on 1 December globally. 
  • According to the UNAIDS’ “Dangerous inequalities: World AIDS Day report 2022”, the inequalities are blocking the end of AIDS.
  • This has put millions of lives at stake. 
  • There are only eight years left before 2030, the time by which the United Nations has set the goal of eliminating AIDS as a global health threat.

World AIDS Day 2022- Theme:

  • This year’s theme for World AIDS Day is “Putting Ourselves to the Test: Achieving Equity to End HIV.” 
  • The aim is to encourage people around the globe to unite and work on eliminating the disparities and inequities that create barriers to HIV testing, prevention, and access to HIV care.

World AIDS Day- History:

  • World AIDS Day, adopted in 1988, was the first-ever international day for global health. 
  • Since then, United Nations agencies, governments, and civil society have come together for campaigns related to HIV every year.
  • Until 2004, UNAIDS took the lead in campaigning for World AIDS Day. Post that, the World AIDS Campaign’s Global Steering Committee began choosing a theme for the day. 
  • This happened in consultation with civil society, organisations, and government agencies involved in the AIDS response.

World AIDS Day Significance:

  • World AIDS Day is commemorated as a reminder that HIV has not gone away. People and governments around the globe need to be aware and raise awareness of the reality of AIDS and AIDS-related illnesses. 
  • The day is also a reminder that many communities still have a critical need for increased funding for the AIDS response.


World AIDS Day is commemorated every year globally on which of the following dates?

A. 22 January  

B. 17 May

C. 29 September

D. 01 December

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Art and Culture

23rd Hornbill Festival 2022

  • In Nagaland, the 10-day long Hornbill Festival 2022 has begun today, 1 December.
  • The festival is held at Naga Heritage Village, Kisama, which is about 12 km from Kohima in Nagaland.
  • Vice President Jagdeep Dhankhar will grace the inaugural function as the Chief Guest.

What is the Hornbill Festival?

  • The first festival was held in 2000. The festival is named after the bird “Indian hornbill”, which is displayed in the folklore of most of the state’s tribes.
  • It is also called the ‘Festival of Festivals’.
  • This festival is organised by the “State Tourism and Art and Culture Departments of the Government of Nagaland”.
  • The major objective of the Festival is to encourage inter-tribal interaction and to promote the cultural heritage of Nagaland.

What Is Done During the Festival Celebrations?

  • The Celebration of the Festival includes the traditional Naga Morungs exhibition and the sale of arts and crafts, food stalls, song and dance shows, indigenous games, etc.
  • The major attraction of this festival is the Hornbill International Rock Festival, where local and international rock bands perform.

About Hornbill:

  • There are nine hornbill species in India, of which the Great Hornbill is the most famous
  • Scientific name: Buceros bicornis
  • Common name: Great Indian hornbill or great pied hornbill
  • This bird is also found in the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia
  • IUCN Status: Near Threatened


  • Hornbill is not the State bird of Nagaland
  • Nagaland’s state bird is: Blyth’s tragopan
  • The Great hornbill is the state bird of Kerala and Arunachal Pradesh in India


Consider the following statements

  1. The Hornbill Festival is celebrated in Nagaland every December month
  2. Hornbill is not the State bird of Nagaland
  3. There are nine species of hornbill found in India

Which of the above statements is/are correct

A. Only 1 and 2

B. Only 2 and 3

C. Only 1 and 3

D. All are correct

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Economy

Forbes Top 10 Richest Indians List: Gautam Adani on the Peak.

  • Forbes has launched its annual list of the country’s 100 richest billionaires, and according to the list, the combined wealth of India’s 100 richest grew by $25 billion to touch $800 billion.
  • According to the Forbes data, the cumulative net worth of the top 10 richest stands at $385.2 billion, up 15.1 per cent from 2021.
  • While the richest man in the country has a net worth of $150 billion, the richest Indian woman Savitri Jindal has a net worth of $16.4 billion. There are nine women billionaires on the list this year, according to Forbes data.

Top 10 businessmen List: 

NameBusinessNet Worth (in Rupees)
1Gautam AdaniChairperson of Adani Group₹1,211,460.11 crore
2Mukesh AmbaniChairman and MD of Reliance Industries Ltd₹710,723.26 crore
3Radhakishan DamaniOwns the DMart chain of supermarkets₹222,908.66 crore
4Cyrus PoonawallaChairman of Serum Institute of India, the world’s largest vaccine manufacturing company ₹173,642.62 crore
5Shiv NadarChairman Emeritus of HCL Technologies₹172,834.97 crore
6Savitri JindalChairperson Emeritus of O.P. Jindal Group₹132,452.97 crore
7Dilip ShanghviFounder of Sun Pharmaceuticals₹125,184.21 crore
8Hinduja BrothersHinduja Group₹122,761.29 crore
9Kumar BirlaChairman of the textiles-to-cement conglomerate Aditya Birla Group₹121,146.01 crore
10Bajaj FamilyThe family owns a network of 40 companies under the Bajaj Group₹117,915.45 crore

New Faces on India’s 100 Richest List:

  • Falguni Nayar, Rekha Jhunjhunwala, Nehal Vakil, Venu Srinivasan, Ravi Modi, Nirmal Minda, and Rafique Malik


Who among the following businesspeople topped Forbes’ list of the top 100 Indian billionaires in 2022?

A. Mukesh Ambani

B. Gautam Adani

C. Cyrus Poonawalla

D. Radhakishan Damani

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Person in News

Prasoon Joshi Named Brand Ambassador of Uttarakhand

  • The Uttarakhand government has named Prasoon Joshi, the CEO and CCO of McCann Worldgroup India, the state’s brand ambassador. 
  • The reason why Joshi was appointed as brand ambassador is that he is a native of Uttarakhand and is a prominent and highly awarded member of the Indian advertising and media fraternity.

About Prashoon Joshi:

  • Joshi is known for his work and content creation across advertising, poetry, songwriting, and cinema. 
  • His socially relevant campaigns like Malnutrition Polio eradication, Women empowerment Ministry of tourism, and the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India) have all won accolades and found deep and powerful consumer connect. 
  • He was also one of the key architects for the National Election campaign of 2014.
  • He is currently the Chairman of the Central Board of Film Certification (Censor Board). 
  • He is a famous and highly awarded member of the Indian advertising and media fraternity.
  • Prasoon Joshi has also written the lyrics for songs in popular Bollywood movies such as Rang De Basanti, Fanaa and Taare Zameen Par. He has also written the script for the award-winning film of 2013, Bhaag Milkha Bhaag.
  • He is credited with brand-building for global and Indian brands such as Britannia, Saffola, Dabur, Paytm, Nestle, Coca-Cola and Mastercard.

Awards Given to Prasoon Joshi: 

  • Recently the Uttarakhand government bestowed the Uttarakhand Gaurav Samman honour to Joshi for his contributions to art, literature, culture and advertising. 
  • Joshi received several prestigious international honours, such as Young Global Leader by the World Economic Forum in 2006. 
  • Joshi was the first Asian to become the jury president at the Cannes International Festival of Creativity in 2014 for the prestigious Titanium category. 


Which of the following individuals has recently been appointed by Uttarakhand State as its brand ambassador?

A. Chetan Bhagat

B. Surya Kumar Yadav

C. Prasoon Joshi

D. Neeraj Chopra

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Defence

Indian Army Trains Kite to Hunt Enemy Drones as UAVs

  • The Indian Army may have found a solution to tackle the problem of drones carrying drugs and arms coming from Pakistan in Jammu and Kashmir and Punjab. 
  • In a first of its kind, a kite has been trained to identify and destroy enemy unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).
  • Instances of drones bringing drugs, arms and ammunition along the Punjab and Jammu borders from across Pakistan have more than doubled in 2022, and the BSF is looking for a foolproof solution to check this menace.

Remount Veterinary Corps:

  • It is an administrative and operational branch of the Indian Army and one of its oldest formations. It is responsible for the breeding, rearing and training of all animals used in the army.

Arjun Kite:

  • The kite named “Arjun”, trained to prey on enemy drones, was shown in action during an ongoing joint training exercise ‘Yudh Abhyas’ of India and the US in Uttarakhand’s Auli.
  • The Indian Army is using trained Kites along with dogs for military operations.

What Is a Drone?

  • Drones are also called pilotless aircraft or Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). It is not flown by humans but controlled remotely by humans.
  • It is equipped with infrared cameras, GPS and laser. It is used in Space, in the military, for transporting goods, spraying insecticides, land mapping, etc. 

About Yudh Abhyas Exercise:

  • The 18th edition of India-US joint military exercise Yudh Abhyas aims to enhance interoperability and share expertise between both armies in peacekeeping and disaster relief operations. 
  • The exercise is conducted annually between India and the US to exchange best practices, tactics, techniques and procedures between the armies of the two nations. 
  • The previous edition of the exercise was conducted at Joint Base Elmendorf Richardson, Alaska, the US, in October 2021.

Telangana’s Garuda Squad:

  • In 2020, the Telangana government gave the state’s Integrated Intelligence Training Academy (IITA) the go-ahead to create the Garuda Squad.
  • It trains birds to neutralise drones during VIP/VVIP visits/programmes in the state.


Which of the following is the Indian Army’s latest biological companion in hunting down enemy drones and UAVs in border areas?

A. Kites

B. Horses

C. Camels

D. Foxes

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Awards and Rankings

Mumbai Holds 22nd Rank in Global Prime Cities Index by Knight Frank

  • According to Knight Frank, Mumbai, India’s financial capital, stood at 22nd rank in a global index that measures annual price appreciation of premium residential properties. 
  • Mumbai moved up to 22nd rank in the third quarter of 2022 from 39th rank in the year-ago period.
  • In its report on ‘Prime Global Cities Index Q3 (July-September) 2022’, Property consultant Knight Frank said that all three Indian cities—Mumbai, Bengaluru and New Delhi—registered an increase in average annual prices in the third quarter of 2022.

What Is the Prime Cities Index?

  • The prime global cities index is a valuation-based index tracking the movement in prime residential prices in local currency across 45-plus cities worldwide.

About Knight Frank?

  • Knight Frank LLP is an estate agency and residential and commercial property consultancy founded in London by John Knight, Howard Frank and William Rutley in 1896. 
  • Knight Frank, together with its American affiliate Cresa is one of the world’s largest global property consultancies.
  • Headquarters: London, United Kingdom
  • Founded: 1896
  • Founder: Howard Frank
  • Subsidiaries: Knight Frank Asia Pacific Pte Ltd


Which of the following rankings did Mumbai recently get in the Prime Cities Index, published by Knight Frank?

A. 12th

B. 15th

C. 22nd

D. 39th

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Awards and Recognitions

National Sports and Adventure Awards 2022

  • The President of India, Droupadi Murmu recently presented the National Sports and Adventure Awards 2022 at a function held at Rashtrapati Bhavan in New Delhi.
  • National Sports Awards are given every year to recognise and reward excellence in sports.


  • This year, a total of 44 Awards have been presented in the National Sports and Adventure Awards in seven Categories in 2022. 
  • This year 25 athletes across the sports related to Olympics, Paralympics and Deaflympics have received the Arjuna Awards. 

Details of Awards:

Major Dhyan Chand Khel Ratna Award-2022: Shri Sharath Kamal Achanta- Table Tennis

  • It is given for the spectacular and most outstanding performance in the field of sports by a sportsperson over the period of the previous four years.

Arjuna Award 2022: Given to 25 Sportspersons of Various Disciplines

  • It is given to sportspersons for their outstanding performance in ‘Sports and Games’. It is given for their performance over the previous four years and for showing qualities of leadership, sportsmanship and a sense of discipline.

Dronacharya Award 2022: Four persons 

  • It is given to outstanding coaches in ‘Sports and Games’ for doing outstanding and meritorious work on a consistent basis and for enabling sportspersons to excel in International events.
  1. Shri Jiwanjot Singh Teja–Archery
  2. Shri Mohammad Ali Qamar-Boxing
  3. Ms Suma Siddharth Shirur–Para Shooting
  4. Shri Sujeet Maan–Wrestling

Dhyan Chand Award 2022: Four Sportspersons

  • Lifetime achievement in Sports and Games’ is given to honour sportspersons who have contributed to sports through their performance and continue to contribute to promoting sports events after their retirement.
  1. Ms Ashwini Akkunji C.–Athletics
  2. Shri Dharamvir Singh–Hockey
  3. Shri B.C Suresh–Kabaddi
  4. Shri Nir Bahadur Gurung–Para Athletics

Rashtriya Khel Protsahan Puruskar 2022:

  • It is given to corporate entities (both in the private and public sector), Sports Control Boards, NGOs, and sports bodies at the State and National levels, who have played a visible role in sports promotion and development.
  1. Identification and Nurturing of Budding and Young Talent–TransStadia Enterprises Private Limited.
  2. Encouragement to sports through Corporate Social Responsibility–Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology.
  3. Sports for Development–Ladakh Ski and Snowboard Association.

Maulana Abul Kalam Azad (MAKA) Trophy 2022: Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar:

  • This trophy is given to the overall top-performing university in inter-university tournaments.

Tenzing Norgay National Adventure Awards-2021- Three Persons:

  • Tenzing Norgay National Adventure Awards are given every year to recognise the achievements of persons in the fields of adventure, to encourage young people to develop the spirit of endurance, risk-taking, cooperative teamwork and quick, ready and effective reflexes in very challenging situations and to provide an incentive to the young people for getting exposed to the adventure activities.
  1. Ms Naina Dhakad–Land Adventure.
  2. Shri Shubham Dhananjay Vanmali–Water Adventure
  3. Group Captain  Kunwar Bhawani Singh Samayal–LifeTime Achievement

Details of Each award given in the following Link:


Major Dhyan Chand Khel Ratna Award-2022 was recently given to Shri Sharath Kamal Achanta. He is a famous player of

A. Squash

B. Kabaddi

C. Table Tennis

D. Tennis

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Defence

Indian Coast Guard Commissions Advanced Light Helicopter Mk-III Squadron

  • In a major boost to further strengthening the Coast Guard Region East, 840 Sqn (CG), an Indian Coast Guard Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) Mk-III squadron, was commissioned by DG Shri VS Pathania at ICG Air Station, Chennai recently.
  • The commissioning of 840 Sqn (CG) is indicative of the leap towards self-reliance in the field of helicopter manufacturing, in line with the government’s vision of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’. 
  • It will provide a major fillip to the abilities of the Indian Coast Guard in the security-sensitive waters off Tamil Nadu and Andhra region.

About Helicopter:

  • The ALH Mk-III helicopters, indigenously manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), feature state-of-the-art equipment including advanced RADAR as well as Electro optical sensors, Shakti engines, full glass cockpit, high-intensity searchlight, advanced communication systems, automatic identification system as well as search-and-rescue homer. 


  • This feature enables the helicopter to undertake maritime reconnaissance and carry out search and rescue at extended ranges while operating from ships, both day and night.
  • The aircraft has the ability to switch roles from an offensive platform with a heavy machine gun to that of a benign one carrying a Medical Intensive Care Unit to facilitate the transfer of critically ill patients.


  • A total of 16 ALH Mk-III aircraft have been inducted into the Indian Coast Guard in a phased manner, and four of these aircraft are positioned in Chennai. 
  • Since induction, the squadron has flown over 430 hours and conducted numerous operational missions.


Indian Coast Guard recently commissioned an Advanced Light Helicopter Mk-III squadron, 840 Sqn (CG), in which of the following cities?

A. Pune

B. Chennai

C. Thiruvananthapuram

D. Mumbai

Answer: B

Today’s Fact Book: 1 December

1. Monkeypox Disease Now Has a New Name: mpox

  • WHO announced the change, saying the disease’s original name plays into “racist and stigmatising language”.
  • The first human monkeypox case was recorded in 1970. The virus was initially detected years earlier in captive monkeys.
    • Monkeypox is caused by the monkeypox virus, which is a member of the Orthopoxvirus genus in the family Poxviridae
    • Monkeypox is a viral zoonotic disease that occurs primarily in tropical rainforest areas of central and West Africa and is occasionally exported to other regions

2. Perennial Rice Variety- PR23 

  • Farmers in China are now growing a perennial variety of rice that does not need to be planted every year
  • This cultivar of rice doesn’t have to be replanted each season and could reap up to eight harvests
  • In 2018, researchers from Yunnan University finally developed a commercial-grade perennial variety of rice called PR23

3. Scientists discover New Drought-Resilient Wheat Gene, Suitable for Drier Soil Conditions

  • The new ‘reduced height’ or semi-dwarf gene is called Rht13
  • Reduced height gene means seeds that can be planted deeper in the soil, giving access to moisture, without the adverse effect on seedling emergence seen with existing wheat varieties
  • The varieties of wheat with the Rht13 gene could be rapidly bred into wheat varieties to enable farmers to grow reduced-height wheat in drier soil conditions

4:-Shiveluch Volcano:

  • Scientists predicted that the Shiveluch volcano in Russia’s far eastern Kamchatka peninsula is gearing up for its first powerful eruption in 15 years
  • Shiveluch Volcano is one of the largest and most active volcanoes in the Kamchatka peninsula, Russia

5:- Mariner-4 Spacecraft 

  • It was the first spacecraft that undertook the first flyby of mars, becoming the first-ever spacecraft to take close-up photographs of another planet 
  • It was a mission of NASA, launched in 1964  
  • Its day of launch is commemorated as Red Planet Day

Current Affairs: Days and Events

World Computer Literacy Day-2022

  • The growth of computer technology is a hallmark of the 21st century. Greater knowledge about the use of these machines can empower people to make their lives easier. 
  • Nations across the globe mark World Computer Literacy Day every year to generate awareness about the benefits of using computers, thereby encouraging digital literacy.
  • The day, which has been observed on 2 December each year since 2001, promotes technological skills amongst groups that have traditionally had limited access to computers, especially children and women.

World Computer Literacy Day 2022: Theme

  • Every year, the day is marked with a focus on different themes. The theme for World Computer Literacy Day 2021 was “Literacy for human-centred recovery: Narrowing the digital divide”. However, this year’s theme has not been disclosed yet.

World Computer Literacy Day: History

  • The concept of celebrating the day spawned from the efforts of the leading Indian computer company NIIT. 
  • This global talent development corporation celebrated the first World Computer Literacy Day on 2 December 2001 – the 20th anniversary of the company. This year will mark the 22nd anniversary of the day.

World Computer Literacy Day 2022: Significance

  • There is a vast digital divide in place in the world today. As of 2021, half of the world’s population was still not online. 
  • The real-world impact of lack of access to computers, the internet, and other similar technologies was starkly highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic. 
  • In a rapidly digitising world, it is imperative to address the digital divide and promote computer and digital literacy.


The World Computer Literacy Day is observed every year on which of the following dates?

A. 27 January

B. 28 April

C.19 September

D. 02 December

Answer: D


When was World Computer Literacy Day first launched?

A. 2001

B. 2005

C. 2007

D. 2009

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Days and Events

International Day for the Abolition of Slavery 2022

  • The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery is celebrated each year on 2 December. 
  • The day is observed to remind us of the evils of enslavement, forced labour, child labour, and sexual exploitation and trafficking and to eliminate slavery practised in our time.


  • The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery highlights the history of slavery and why its complete abolition is necessary. 
  • Slavery continues to persist today through forced labour, child labour, trafficking of women and children and illegal organ harvesting, among others.

International Day for the Abolition of Slavery 2022 History:

  • Slavery has existed since the Sumerian and Mesopotamian times. 
  • In modern times, ISIS and Boko Haram terrorists have used non-Muslim women as sex slaves. 
  • Slavery was practised by Egyptian empires, ancient Greece and Rome and during the Viking rule of Britain. 
  • The transatlantic slave trade of African people began with the Portuguese and was also practised by the Dutch, English and French merchants.
  • Countless African people were taken to the Americas to be slaves in the 17th and 18th centuries until Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United States, abolished slavery in the United States altogether in 1865.
  • On 2 December 1949, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted the United Nations Convention for the Suppression of the Traffic in Persons and the Exploitation of the Prostitution of Others via resolution 317 (IV). 
  • The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery is celebrated on 2 December to mark the above convention.

Significance of This Day:

  • In the last five years, there has been an increase in instances of forced labour and forced marriages, as noted by the United Nations (UN). 
  • The UN mentions that the number of modern slaves was increased to 50 million by the end of 2021. 
  • The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery is a significant day as it encourages us all to bring an end to such atrocities.


The International Day for the Abolition of Slavery is celebrated each year on which of the following dates?

A. 02 January

B. 16 July

C. 19 November

D. 02 December

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Defence

12th Edition of Exercise Agni Warrior Concludes

  • The 12th Edition of Exercise Agni Warrior, a bilateral exercise between Singapore and the Indian Army, concluded at Field Firing Ranges, Devlali Maharashtra.

About Exercise:

  • Exercise Agni Warrior involved showcasing joint firepower planning, execution and use of new-generation equipment by the artillery arm of both armies 
  • Exercise also included participation by both sides in a joint computer war-game as part of the joint planning process
  • Expert academic discussions were conducted on modern trends in artillery and the refinement of the artillery planning process


  • The exercise achieved its aim of enhancing mutual understanding of drills and procedures and improving interoperability between the two armies.

India-Singapore Relations:

  • India was among the first countries to set up diplomatic relations after the independence of Singapore on 24 August 1965. The close relationship shared by India and Singapore is based on the convergence of economic and political interests. 
  • Singapore has played an important role in reconnecting us to the countries of Southeast Asia since the inception of our Look East Policy in the early 1990s.


Indian Army recently concluded the 12th edition of Exercise Agni with the army of which of the following nations?

A. Singapore

B. Malaysia

C. Vietnam

D. Indonesia

Answer: A

Current Affairs: International

India to Assume Chairmanship of Wassenaar Arrangement

  • India will assume chairmanship of the plenary of the Wassenaar Arrangement for a year on 1 January 2023, just five years after joining the 42-member voluntary export control regime that monitors transfers of conventional weapons and dual-use goods.


  • At the 26th annual plenary of the Wassenaar Arrangement held in Vienna during the days of 30 November and 1 December, Ireland’s ambassador Eoin O’Leary handed over the chairmanship to India’s ambassador Jaideep Mazumdar, who is the permanent representative to the UN and international organisations in Vienna.

About Wassenaar Arrangement:

  • India joined the Wassenaar Arrangement in December 2017 as its 42nd participating state.
  • The body is a multilateral export control regime that works to promote transparency and greater responsibility in the transfers of conventional arms and dual-use goods and technologies through regular exchanges of information among its members.


  • The regime aims to track such transfers and prevent “destabilising accumulations” of conventional arms and dual-use goods.

Indian Role after Owing Chairmanship:

  • The plenary of the Wassenaar Arrangement is the main decision-making body that operates on consensus. 
  • As the incoming chair of the body, India “remains ready and committed to work in close cooperation with other members to further the WA goal of contributing to regional and international security and stability.
  • Membership of the Wassenaar Arrangement has also bolstered India’s efforts to gain access to sensitive goods and technologies from leading players in the West.


India will assume the chairmanship of the Wassenaar Arrangement next month. This agreement is basically about

A. Chemicals weapons disarmament

B. Multilateral export control regime

C. Global Zoonotics control regime

D. Global order on cryptocurrency

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Technology

World’s 1st Hydrogen-Run Aircraft Engine

  • Airline EasyJet and aircraft engine maker Rolls-Royce recently successfully tested a hydrogen-powered aircraft engine in what the British companies described as a world first for aviation.
  • Green hydrogen is widely seen as better for the environment than jet fuel.


  • The two companies used a converted Rolls-Royce AE 2100 – A regional aircraft engine, for the ground test conducted in the UK. The European Marine Energy Centre produced the fuel for the test at a hydrogen production and tidal test facility on Eday in the UK’s Orkney Islands. 
  • Since the hydrogen was made with wind and tidal power, it’s called green hydrogen.

What Is Green Hydrogen?

  • Green hydrogen (GH2 or GH2) is hydrogen generated by renewable energy or from low-carbon power. 
  • Green hydrogen has significantly lower carbon emissions than grey hydrogen, which is produced by steam reforming of natural gas, which makes up the bulk of the hydrogen market. 
  • Green hydrogen produced by the electrolysis of water is less than 0.1% of total hydrogen production.

Why Is Green Hydrogen Used?

  • Turning planes electric like cars is not feasible as using batteries charged with renewable solar and wind energy will require a massive restructuring due to their bulkiness.
  • This is why there is an attempt to develop planes that can run on cleaner fuels like green hydrogen.

About EasyJet:

  • EasyJet plc, styled as easyJet, is a British multinational low-cost airline group headquartered at London Luton Airport.

About Rolls-Royce:

  • Rolls-Royce was a British luxury car and later an aero-engine manufacturing business established in 1904 in Manchester by the partnership of Charles Rolls and Henry Royce.

What Are the Challenges?

  • Aviation is often called the most difficult sector to clean up. Even if the company has successfully tested the hydrogen-fueled flight, huge infrastructure changes would still be required to implement the technology on the ground.
  • A Boeing 747 jumbo jet would require more than 1m litres of hydrogen to deliver the equivalent range of 250,000 litres of jet fuel.
  • “Fuel tanks” of that size – which would also have to be kept at high pressure – would probably require a complete redesign of the plane.
  • This would automatically require the induction of aircraft with newer designs so that they can carry larger fuel tanks.
  • Also, the appropriate logistics would be required to be developed worldwide to facilitate pipelines for supply.


Which of the following Airlines, along with Rolls-Royce, recently successfully tested a hydrogen-powered aircraft engine?

A. Jet2.com

B. British Airways

C. easyJet

D. AirTanker

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Sports

Avani Lekhara Receives Para Sports Person of Year Award

  • Avani Lekhara, who won two medals at the Tokyo 2020 Paralympics, was recognised as the Para Sports Person of the Year at the Turf 2022 and India Sports Awards of the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) 
  • Apart from Lekhara, former Ranji cricketer Sarkar Talwar was honoured with the Lifetime Achievement of the Year award
  • Talwar, the Director-Sports, Manav Rachna Education Institutions, is also the recipient of the Dronacharya Lifetime Award, given by the President of India

About Avani Lekhara:

  • Avani Lekhara is an Indian Paralympian and rifle shooter 
  • She won a Gold Medal in the 10m air rifle standing and a Bronze Medal in the 50m rifle three positions at Tokyo 2020 Paralympics 
  • Avani Lekhara wins the gold medal in the shooting event
  • Awards: Padma Shri, Major Dhyan Chand Khel Ratna Award for Paralympic Shooting

What Are Paralympic Games?

  • The Paralympic Games or Paralympics, also known as the Games of the Paralympiad, are a periodic series of international multisport events involving athletes with a range of physical disabilities, including impaired muscle power and impaired passive range of movement, limb deficiency, leg length difference, short stature, hypertonia, ataxia, athetosis, vision impairment and intellectual impairment. 
  • The first Paralympic Games were held in Rome in 1960, and the first Winter Paralympics in 1976 in Örnsköldsvik, Sweden. 
  • The Summer Paralympic Games were held in Tokyo in 2021, and the Winter Paralympics were held in 2022 in Beijing, China.


Which of the following sportspersons recently received the Para Sports Person of the Year award?

A. Deepa Malik

B. Varun Singh Bhati

C. Avani Lekhara

D. Sumit Antil

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Science and Technology

Bharat Biotech’s Intranasal Vaccine Gets Approval as Heterologous Booster

  • Bharat Biotech, a global leader in vaccine innovation and developer of vaccines for infectious diseases, recently announced that iNCOVACC has received approval from the Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation (CDSCO) under Restricted Use in Emergency Situations for ages 18 and above, in India, for heterologous booster doses.


  • iNCOVACC is the world’s first Intranasal vaccine to receive primary series and heterologous booster approval.
  • iNCOVACC recently received approval under Restricted Use in Emergency Situation for ages 18 and above for heterologous booster doses.
  • iNCOVACC is the world’s first Intranasal vaccine for COVID to receive approval for the primary 2-dose schedule and the heterologous booster dose.

What Is Homologous and Heterologous Boosting?

  • In homologous boosting, a person is injected with the same vaccine that was used for the two previous doses. 
  • In heterologous boosting, a person is injected with a different vaccine from that was used for the primary dose.


  • The iNCOVACC is a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus vectored vaccine with a pre-fusion stabilized spike protein. 
  • This vaccine candidate was evaluated in phases I, II and III clinical trials with successful results.
  • This vaccine has been specifically formulated to allow intranasal delivery through nasal drops. 
  • The nasal delivery system has been designed and developed to be cost-effective in low and middle-income countries.
  • It was developed in partnership with Washington University, St. Louis, which had designed and developed the recombinant adenoviral vectored constructs and evaluated them in preclinical studies for efficacy. 

About Bharat Biotech:

  • Bharat Biotech International Limited (BBIL) has established an excellent track record of innovation with more than 145 global patents, a wide product portfolio of more than 19 vaccines, four bio-therapeutics, registrations in more than 125 countries, and the World Health Organization (WHO) Prequalification.
  • It has established large manufacturing capabilities at multiple sites across India, including Gujarat, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Telangana, with operations across pan India.


Recently which of the following companies’ intranasal vaccine, “iNCOVACC”, got approval as a heterologous booster for COVID vaccination?

A. Serum Institute of India 

B. Bharat Biotech

C. Pfizer-BioNTech

D. Cansino Biologics

Answer: B

Current Affairs: National

Ministry of Power Launches Scheme for SHAKTI Policy

  • The Ministry of Power has launched a scheme for the procurement of aggregate power of 4500 MW for five years under SHAKTI Policy. 
  • The Ministry said that the scheme would help states that are facing power shortages and help generation plants to increase their capacities.
  • PFC Consulting Limited has been designated as the nodal agency. It has invited bids for the supply of 4,500 MW of electricity. The supply will commence from April next year.
  • The utilities that have shown interest in the scheme are Gujarat Urja Vikas Nigam Ltd, Maharashtra State Electricity Distribution Company Ltd, Madhya Pradesh Power Management Company Ltd, New Delhi Municipal Corporation and Tamil Nadu Generation and Distribution Corporation Ltd.

About SHAKTI Scheme:

  • SHAKTI, or Scheme for Harnessing and Allocating Koyala Transparently in India, was launched in 2018.
  • It aims to provide coal to stressed power units which lack coal supply.


  • Under the scheme, PFC Consulting Ltd has invited bids for the supply of 4,500 MW
  • The supply of electricity will commence from April 2023
  • The Ministry of Coal has been requested to allocate around 27 MTPA for this
  • The last date for the bid submission is 21 December 2022
  • This scheme is expected to help the states facing power shortages and also help generation plants increase their capacities


The Ministry of Power recently launched a scheme to procure aggregate power. What aggregate power is the Ministry intended to procure for five years under SHAKTI Policy?

A. 4500 MW

B. 6900 MW

C. 7500 MW

D. 9500 MW

Answer: A

Today’s Fact Book – 2 December 2022

1) UN Security Council Presidency:

  • Recently India took over the presidency of the UNSC in the final month of its two-year 2021-22 term as a non-permanent member of the UNSC.
  • India began its two-year Term (overall India’s eighth Term) in January 2021.
  • UNSC is one of the six principal organs of the UN with a primary responsibility of maintaining international peace and security.  
  • Under the UN Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions. UNSC is composed of 15 Members.

2) 30X30 Target:

  • According to recent reports, Asia is not likely to meet the 30X30 goal proposed under the Post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework of the CBD.
  • First launched in 2019, 30X30 aims to protect and conserve 30% of the world’s terrestrial, freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems.
  • Presently more than 100 countries (including India) are part of it. 

3) Sangai Festival Manipur:

  • PM Modi recently addressed the Manipur Sangai Festival through a video message. 
  • This Festival is Named after the State animal, Sangai, brow-antlered Deer found only in Manipur.  
  • This Deer is found in Keibul Lamjao National Park and is seen over floating biomass called Phumdi.
  • This is the Biggest annual cultural festival of Manipur, organised every year in November. 

4) Asian Tiger Mosquitos:

  • Recently, a man from Germany underwent the worst experience of his life after an Asian tiger mosquito bit him.
  • Found in tropical and subtropical areas of Southeast Asia, this mosquito is also known as Aedes Albopictus, and the forest mosquito usually bites during the daytime.  
  • Tiger mosquitoes are an exotic species that get their “tiger” name from the single white stripe down the centre of their head and back.
  • It spread to many countries in Europe as well.
  • This mosquito is a Host to many diseases, including yellow fever virus, Chikungunya fever, as well as filarial nematodes like Dirofilaria immitis, Zika virus, and dengue fever.

5) MoSPI India’s Economic Growth Data:

  • The Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation released India’s economic growth data for the second quarter (July-Sept – Q2) of the current fiscal year (FY 2022-23).
  • India’s gross domestic product (GDP) grew by 3% year-on-year in Q2, slower than in 2021.
  • The gross value added (GVA) has grown by 6% year on year in Q2, against 8.3% in 2021.
  • Output growth in India’s eight core sectors (Electricity, Steel, Refinery products, Crude oil, Coal, Cement, Natural gas, and Fertilisers) slowed drastically to 0.1% in October 2022, down from 7.8% the previous month.
  • Since the pandemic, the economy has recovered, but the manufacturing sector’s contraction (by 4.3%) has put doubt on future demand, as the sector has a great potential for job creation and can absorb excess farm labour.
  • Agriculture (together with forestry and fishing) has performed better than projected, rising at a 4.6% annual rate.
  • Private consumption expenditure is the most important driver of GDP growth, incentivising businesses to make new investments.
  • The biggest surprise is the decrease in government final consumption expenditures, which can boost the economy when consumers and businesses reduce spending.
  • Higher interest rates and no significant increase in demand, along with a slowing global economy, may create challenges in the current fiscal year.

6) Zombie Virus

  • French scientists have recently warned of the onset of another outbreak after they revived a 48,500-year-old Zombie virus.
  • Zombie virus is the term used for those viruses which have been dormant for thousands of years.
  • The oldest Zombie virus, Pandoravirus yedoma, named after the mythological character Pandora, was discovered in a lake in Yukechi Alas in Yakutia, Russia.
  • The virus emerged due to the thawing of permafrost as the global temperature rose.
  • All of the “zombie viruses” have the potential to be infectious and hence pose a “health danger”.

Current Affairs: Days and Events

World Soil Day 2022

  • A mixture of various minerals, organic compounds, and living organisms, soil forms the foundation of life on Earth. 
  • 5 December is celebrated annually as World Soil Day to highlight the importance of healthy soil and promote sustainable management of soil resources.


  • The 2022 World Soil Day theme is ‘Soils: Where Food Begins’. 
  • It emphasises the importance of maintaining healthy ecosystems and human well-being. 
  • The theme aims to highlight the growing changes in soil management, increase soil awareness, and inspire efforts and people to improve soil health.


  • In 2002, the International Union of Soil Sciences (IUSS) proposed an international day to celebrate soil. 
  • The Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United States (FAO) supported the move and helped formally establish World Soil Day under the leadership of the Kingdom of Thailand within the framework of the Global Soil Partnership.
  • The FAO Conference endorsed the day in June 2013 and urged at the 68th United Nations General Assembly that World Soil Day be formally adopted. 
  • The same year in December, the UNGA designated 5th December 2014 as the first World Soil Day.
  • The date was chosen as it coincides with the official birthday of the King of Thailand, H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej. 
  • He had officially sanctioned the event. 
  • World Soil Day was first officially marked in memory of the monarch in 2016, the year he passed away after serving as the head of state for seven decades.


  • According to the FAO, there are more living organisms in a tablespoon of soil than there are people on Earth!
  • Plants depend on soil to draw water and nutrients, providing 95% of the food we consume. 
  • Despite being this essential, 33% of soil is degraded. 
  • The degradation occurs when soil loses its nutrients due to multiple reasons, including bad management.
  • This impacts the plants that are grown in the degraded soil and, in turn, affects the food we eat. 
  • It has been observed that the level of vitamins and nutrients in food had declined drastically over the last 70 years. 
  • World Soil Day is geared towards raising awareness of how crucial it is to maintain healthy soil.


5th December is celebrated annually as World Soil Day. What is the Theme for the 2022 World Soil Day?

A. Halt soil salinization, boost soil productivity

B. Keep Soil Alive, Protect Soil Biodiversity

C. Stop Soil Erosion, Save our Future

D. Soils: Where Food Begins

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Economics

India, World’s First Country to Receive $100 billion in Remittances

  • The World Bank Report has stated that India, the third largest economy in Asia, is set to become the first country to receive $100 billion in remittances from migrant workers abroad.
  • India received $89.4 billion in remittances in 2021.
  • Remittance flows to India were enhanced by wage hikes and a strong labour market in the United States and other rich countries.

Key Points from the Report by the World Bank:

  • Highly-skilled Indian migrants living in wealthy nations such as the US, UK, and Singapore were sending more money home
  • Remittances to low and middle-income countries have grown by 5% in 2022 to around $626 billion, around half the rate of growth seen in 2021
  • The amount of money sent back home by migrants around the world has grown by 5% in 2022
  • Other top recipient countries for remittances include Mexico, China, Egypt and the Philippines
  • Domestic and International shocks have affected countries like Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka, for whom remittances earned by migrants are expected to drop this year
  • Barring India and Nepal, other south Asian countries saw a decline of more than 10% in their remittances from 2021 due to the end of government incentives introduced during the pandemic

What Does the $100 billion Remittance Mean for India’s Economy?

  • In recent years, many Indians have moved to well-paid jobs in high-income countries, such as the US, UK and Singapore 
  • Remittances account for nearly 3% of India’s gross domestic product (GDP). These are also important for filling fiscal gaps
  • A significant source of cash for India is retained by the inflow of money from Indians abroad 
  • The World Bank Report comes at a time when India lost almost $100 billion of foreign exchange reserves in the past year amid tightening global conditions that weakened currencies, including the rupee against the dollar


According to the recent World Bank report, which is the first country in the world to receive $100 billion in remittances?

A. India

B. Mexico

C. China

D. Egypt

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Defence

Parakram Diwas

  • To mark the 51st anniversary of India’s victory in the Longewala battle during the 1971 war, Parakram Diwas is celebrated at Jaisalmer Military Station and Longewala War Memorial in Rajasthan today.
  • The Longewala battle between India and Pakistan in 1971 was one of the biggest and most decisive wars, which is registered in the Golden words in History.

What Was the Battle of Longewala?

  • The Battle of Longewala was one of the major decisive battles fought in the Western sector during the India – Pakistan War of 1971. 
  • On the night of 04/05 Dec 1971, Pakistan forces comprising 4000 soldiers, T-59 and Sherman tanks, and a medium artillery battery attacked the Longewala border post in Rajasthan held by 23 PUNJAB. 
  • In spite of being outnumbered,  a company of the Indian Army’s 23rd Battalion, Punjab Regiment, commanded by Major Kuldip Singh Chandpuri, Indian soldiers gallantly held the post and requisitioned support from IAF. 
  • At the dawn of 5th Dec 1971, the Hunter aircraft based at Jaisalmer wreaked havoc on the Pakistani troops with their devastating firepower. 
  • The Hunters of 122 Squadron flew 18 sorties and destroyed 36 enemy tanks and 100 vehicles, and killed 200 Pakistan soldiers in a very short span of time, thwarting the advance of the Pakistani Army in its tracks.

Why Is the Battle of Longewala Important?

  • The battle of Longewala was crucial in preventing an incursion into the western theatre of the 1971 Indo-Pak conflict allowing military operations in the east to proceed without any hindrance. 
  • More importantly, it denied Pakistan any bargaining chip which it could use against India when the war would end.


Parakram Diwas celebrated recently to mark the 51st anniversary of India’s victory in which of the following battles/wars?

A. Kargil war 1999

B. Battle of Longewala

C. Battle of Saragarhi

D. Burma campaign

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Geography

Indonesia’s Mount Semeru Volcano Erupts

  • Indonesia’s Mount Semeru volcano has erupted, sending ash billowing into the sky and sparking evacuations on the country’s main island, Java.


  • Authorities raised the volcano’s warning status to the highest level, meaning its activity had escalated. 
  • No injuries have been reported, but nearly 2,000 people were evacuated from the area around the volcano.
  • Semeru – also known as “The Great Mountain” – is the highest volcano in Java at 3,676 metres (12,060 ft) and one of the most active.

About Indonesia:

  • An archipelago of 270 million that sits along the Pacific Ring of Fire, where tectonic plates collide, causing frequent volcanic activity as well as earthquakes, Indonesia is one of the most disaster-prone nations on earth.
  • Pacific “Ring of Fire”: It is a horseshoe-shaped series of fault lines and is prone to earthquakes and volcanic activity.
  • With 142 volcanoes, Indonesia has the largest population globally living in close range to a volcano, including 8.6 million within 10 km (6.2 miles).


The recently erupted Mount Semeru volcano is located in which of the following countries?

A. Ecuador

B. Japan

C. Indonesia

D. Philippines

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Appointments and Nominations

Rajeeva Laxman Karandikar Appointed Chairperson of the National Statistical Commission

  • The government of India has recently appointed Rajeeva Laxman Karandikar, Professor Emeritus at CMI, as the part-time chairperson of the National Statistical Commission (NSC) of India for a period of three years.

About National Statistical Commission:

  • NSC is an autonomous body formed in June 2005 under the recommendation of the Dr C Rangarajan commission. 
  • The objective of its constitution was to reduce the problems faced by statistical agencies in the country with respect to the collection of data and strengthen public trust in the numbers released by the Government of India.

About Rajeeva Laxman Karandikar:

  • Mr Karandikar is widely known for his three decades of work on probability theory as well as applications of mathematics and statistics to real-world questions.
  • He has designed, supervised and analysed nationwide opinion polls for the Indian parliamentary elections and State assemblies since 1998. 
  • He is known for developing a new model and methodology for seat prediction, which has been quite successful over the last 20 years.
  • Mr Karandikar was a member of the committee constituted by the Election Commission (EC) of India to advise the EC on the sampling scheme for EVM-VVPAT verification.
  • He was also a member of the expert committee constituted by the Supreme Court in 2019 to suggest steps to deal with fraud in online examinations.


Who among the following was recently appointed as the chairperson of the National Statistical Commission?

A. Dr G P Samanta

B. T C A Anant

C. Prof Bimal Kumar Roy

D. Prof Rajeeva Laxman Karandikar

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Defence

US Unveiled New B-21 Stealth Bomber

  • America’s newest nuclear stealth bomber is making its public debut after years of secret development and as part of the Pentagon’s answer to rising concerns over a future conflict with China.
  • Northrop Grumman Corp recently rolled out its new B-21 “Raider” jet, the first of a new fleet of long-range stealth nuclear bombers for the United States Air Force.
  • The B-21 Raider is the first new American bomber aircraft in more than 30 years. Almost every aspect of the programme is classified.

What Is B-21 Stealth Bomber?

  • The B-21 Raider will employ cutting-edge stealth technologies to carry out nuclear missions and long-range bombing
  • Each aircraft costs about $2 billion or ₹1624 crore to be built
  • The B-21 Raider will be a subsonic aircraft
  • Speed: Average of 563 miles per hour
  • The B-21 Raider, which takes its name from the 1942 Doolittle Raid over Tokyo, will be slightly smaller than the B-2 to increase its range
  • Other changes likely include advanced materials used in coatings to make the bomber harder to detect and new ways to control electronic emissions
  • So the bomber could spoof adversary radars and disguise itself as another object, using new propulsion technologies

Importance in Geopolitics:

  • The bomber is part of the Pentagon’s efforts to modernise all three legs of its nuclear triad, which includes silo-launched nuclear ballistic missiles and submarine-launched warheads, as it shifts from the counterterrorism campaigns of recent decades to meet China’s rapid military modernisation.
  • The U.S. Air Force plans to build such 100 warplanes that can deploy either nuclear weapons or conventional bombs and can be used with or without a human crew.
  • B-21 is multi-functional. It can handle anything from gathering intel to battle management and integrating with our allies and partners. And it will work seamlessly across domains, theatres, and the joint force.


Which of the following is the first new American bomber aircraft launched recently in more than 30 years?

A. McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle

B. B-21 Stealth Bomber

C. B-2 Strategic Bomber

D. B-52-H  Strategic Bomber

Answer: B

Current Affairs: National

Millets-Smart Nutritive Food Conclave

  • Union Minister for Commerce and Industry, Shri Piyush Goyal, initiated the ‘Millets-Smart Nutritive Food’ Conclave in New Delhi today. 
  • The Conclave is being organised by the Ministry of Commerce and Industry through its apex agricultural export promotion body, the Agricultural and Processed Food Products Export Development Authority (APEDA) with the objective of promoting the export of millets. 
  • This Conclave is a pre-launch event of the ‘International Year of Millets – 2023’ (IYoM-2023).

About Conclave:

  • At the first-of-its-kind Millets Conclave, the government has released an e-catalogue on 30 potential importing countries and 21 millet-producing states of India. 
  • Also, a knowledge book on Millets prepared in association with Knowledge partner ‘Yes Bank’ was released on this occasion.
  • For exports of Indian millets’ promotion, the government has planned to facilitate the participation of exporters, farmers and traders in 16 international trade expos and Buyer Seller Meets (BSMs).


  • Millets have superior nutritional values in comparison to highly consumed cereals such as rice and wheat. 
  • Millets are rich in calcium, iron, and fibres that help fortify essential nutrients for children’s healthy growth. Also, the usage of millet in infant food and nutrition products is increasing.

Facts about Millet:

  • India is one of the leading producers of millet in the world, with an estimated share of around 41 per cent in global production.
  • There are 16 wide varieties of millet, which are produced and exported, including Sorghum (Jowar), Pearl Millet (Bajra), Finger Millet (Ragi), Minor Millets (Kangani), Proso Millet (Cheena), Kodo Millet (Kodo), Barnyard Millet (Sawa/Sanwa/Jhangora), Little Millet (Kutki), Two Pseudo Millets (BuckWheat/Kuttu), Amaranthus (Chaulai) and Brown Top Millet.
  • India’s major millet exporting countries are U.A.E, Nepal, Saudi Arabia, Libya, Oman, Egypt, Tunisia, Yemen, the U.K. and the U.S.A. 
  • The major millet-importing countries in the world are Indonesia, Belgium, Japan, Germany, Mexico, Italy, the U.S.A, the U.K., Brazil and the Netherlands.


Consider the following statements

  1. India produces 41 per cent of the total millets production in the world
  2. Millets contain a high percentage of Vitamin B complex
  3. The year 2023 was recently declared the International Year of Millets

Which of the above statements is/are correct

A. Only 1 and 2

B. Only 2 and 3

C. Only 1 and 3

D. All are Correct

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Sports

Odisha CM Launches Trophy Tour of FIH Hockey Men’s World Cup 2023

  • Odisha Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik launched the trophy tour of the FIH Odisha Hockey Men’s World Cup 2023 in Bhubaneswar, handing over the trophy to Hockey India President Dilip Tirkey today.
  • The trophy will travel across 13 states and one union territory before returning to Odisha on 25 December.

About Hockey World Cup 2023:

  • The 2023 Men’s FIH Hockey World Cup will be the 15th edition of the Men’s FIH Hockey World Cup, the quadrennial world championship for men’s national field hockey teams organised by the International Hockey Federation
  • Teams: 16 (from 5 confederations)
  • Venue(s): Kalinga Stadium; Birsa Munda International Hockey Stadium, Odisha
  • Australia, Belgium, Netherlands, India, Argentina, Germany, New Zealand, England, France, Korea, Malaysia, Spain, South Africa, Japan, Chile, and Wales are the 16 teams participating in the World Cup 2023
  • Chief Minister of Odisha: Mr Naveen Patnaik
  • The International Hockey Federation (FIH) was established in 1924 in Paris, France
  • Headquarters of FIH: Lausanne, Switzerland
  • President of FIH: Mr Narinder Batra


  • India last won the Men’s Hockey World Cup in 1975. This match was played in Malaysia.
  • Hockey world cup 2023 India will host this tournament for the fourth time. Earlier it had hosted the tournament in Mumbai in 1982, New Delhi in 2010 and Bhubaneswar in 2018. 
  • The special thing is that in 2023, India will complete 75 years of independence. In such a situation hosting the Hockey World Cup will be even more special for it.
  • Apart from India, Holland has hosted the Men’s Hockey World Cup thrice.

FIH World Cup 2023 Groups:

  • Pool A:- Australia, South Africa, France, Argentina
  • Pool B:- Belgium, Japan, Korea, Germany
  • Pool C:- Netherlands, Chile, Malaysia, New Zealand
  • Pool D:- India, Wales, Spain, England

Todays Fact Book-05 December 2022

  1. India Observes Navy Day on 4th December Every Year
  • India observes Navy Day on 4th December every year to recognise the role and achievements of the Indian Navy 
  • It also commemorates the launch of Operation Trident in the Indo-Pakistan War in 1971 
  • This year, for the first time, Navy Day Celebrations were conducted outside the National Capital
  • This year, as India celebrates 75 years of her independence, the Indian Navy has demonstrated India’s combat prowess and capability through an ‘Operational Demonstration’ at Visakhapatnam
  • The Operational Demonstration has showcased the capability and versatility of Indian Naval ships, submarines, aircraft, and Special Forces
  • The Navy Day celebrations foster greater outreach, renew maritime consciousness amongst our citizens, and highlight the Navy’s contributions towards national security
  1. Japan Successfully Propelled a Moon Spacecraft Using Steam
  • In a world first, Japan’s space agency, JAXA, announced it successfully used steam to propel a spacecraft- Equuleus, toward the Moon
  • Japan’s space agency used steam to propel Spacecraft toward the Moon
  • It was the world’s first successful orbit control beyond low-earth orbit using a water propellant propulsion system
  • Equuleus (EQUilibriUm Lunar-Earth point 6U) is a deep-space 6U spacecraft launched by NASA’s Orion Spacecraft 
  • It aims to demonstrate low-energy trajectory control technologies by reaching the Earth-Moon Lagrange point 2 (EML2) 
  • Lagrange points are positions in space where objects sent there tend to stay put due to the precisely equal gravitational pull of two large bodies
  1. SS Rajamouli Bags Best Director Award at New York Film Critics Circle for ‘RRR’
  • The New York Film Critics Circle just presented their annual awards, and there was a name on the list of winners that was a pleasant surprise – S. S. Rajamouli 
  • The ace director, who is already responsible for the most successful Indian film of all time, might also make history by becoming the first Indian to be nominated for the ‘Best Director’ category at the Oscars
  • A pre-Independence fictional story, “RRR” stars Ram Charan and Jr NTR as real-life Indian revolutionaries in the 1920s Alluri Sitarama Raju and Komaram Bheem, respectively
  • Other winners at the NYFCC awards include Cate Blanchet for Tár (Best Actress), Colin Ferrell for The Banshees of Inisherin and After Yang (Best Actor)
  1. Coastal Red Sand Dunes of Vizag
  • Geologists have said that the coastal red sand dunes of Vizag have much significance geologically, archaeologically, and anthropologically and it needs to be protected
  • Coastal red sand dunes are popularly known as Erra Matti Dibbalu
  • It dissected and stabilised coastal red sediment mounds located between Visakhapatnam and Bheemunipatnam in Andhra Pradesh
  • They have very low water and nutrient retention capacity
  • The dunes are susceptible to aerodynamic lift. This is the push that lets something move up. It is the force that is the opposite of weight.
  1. Wages for MGNREGA Mates Prioritised
  • Recently, there have been regular complaints from Mates (site supervisors) that their wages under the MGNREGA are delayed, for which the Union Rural Development Ministry has devised a protocol which would prioritise payment to Mates 
  • Mates are frontline supervisors of the programmes
  • Mates are listed as semi-skilled workers because of the specialist nature of their job
  • Payments under MGNREGA:
    • Wages of unskilled workers are to be paid within 15 days, and if there is a delay in payment, then the Centre has to compensate them
    • Wages of Mates come from the material component, of which the Union government pays 60%

Current Affairs: Awards and Recognitions

21 Uninhabited Andaman and Nicobar Islands Named After Decorated Soldiers

  • The government has named 21 uninhabited islands in the union territory of Andaman and Nicobar after recipients of Param Vir Chakra, the country’s highest wartime gallantry award.
  • Of the 21 islands, 16 are located in the North and Middle Andaman district, while five are in South Andaman.


  • The first uninhabited island, numbered ‘INAN370’ in the North and Middle Andaman, was named after Major Somnath Sharma. 
  • Now ‘INAN370’ will be known as ‘Somnath Dweep’. He was the first and the first recipient of the Param Vir Chakra. 
  • Sharma lost his life in the line of duty on 3 November 1947 while handling Pakistani infiltrators near Srinagar Airport. 
  • He was posthumously awarded the highest military award for his gallantry and sacrifice during the Battle of Badgam.
  • Some of the 21 islands fall under reserved forest, while some have great potential for water sports, creek tourism and fishing.

Connection of Andaman anddom Fighters:

  • The Andamans, in general, and the Cellular Jail, in particular, played a prominent part in the history of ourdom struggle. 
  • People who took part in various anti-British movements, such as the 1857 revolt, the Wahabi Movement, and the Burmese Rebellion, were deported to the Andamans, where they lived there under barbaric conditions. 
  • Great stalwarts of thedom struggle were confined in the solitary cells of the Cellular Jail.

What Is Param Vir Chakra?

  • Param Vir Chakra means ‘Wheel of the Ultimate Brave’
  • It is the highest honour given to officers and other personnel of the military throughout India for their bravery during times of war in the presence of the enemy
  • The honour of Param Vir Chakra is equivalent to the Medal of Honour in the United States and the Victorian cross of the United Kingdom
  • The medal has been awarded 21 times, of which 14 were posthumous, and 16 originated from actions in Indo-Pakistani disputes
  • The Param Vir Chakra was designed by Savitribai Khanolkar (née Eve Yvonne Maday de Maros)


Recently the first uninhabited island numbered ‘INAN370’ in the North and Middle Andaman was named after which of the following war heroes?

A. Captain Karam Singh

B. Major Rama Raghoba Rane

C. Second Lieutenant Arun Khetarpal

D. Major Somnath Sharma

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Rankings

India Ranked 48th in Global Aviation Safety Rankings 2022

  • India has jumped to the 48th position—its highest-ever spot—in the global aviation safety ranking by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO).
  • Four years ago, the country was at the 102nd spot in the rankings.

What Does Higher Ranking Mean?

  • The higher ranking means that India has improved its air safety processes. 
  • Better aviation safety in home skies also allows Indian carriers to expand faster in overseas markets as permissions for new services are easier to get.


  • Singapore is at the top of the list, followed by the UAE and South Korea in second and third place, respectively. China is in position 49.

About the Report:

  • Under its Universal Safety Oversight Audit Programme (USOAP) Continuous Monitoring Approach, an ICAO Coordinated Validation Mission (ICVM) was undertaken from 9 to 16 November. The country’s score in terms of effective implementation of key safety elements has improved to 85.49 per cent.
  • According to the DGCA audit was conducted in the areas of legislation, organisation, personal licensing, operations, airworthiness, and aerodromes. As per the initial reports, the mission was highly successful. 
  • India has done extremely well and our scores will see a substantial improvement putting us in the company of nations with the best safety standards and oversight systems.


What is India’s ranking in the recently published Global Aviation Safety Rankings 2022?

A. 33rd

B. 48th

C. 67th 

D. 102nd

Answer: B

Current Affairs: National

India’s First Drone Station Set Up in Meghalaya

  • The air delivery of 1.5 kg of medicines to a remote location recently marked India’s unveiling of the first drone station for transporting drugs at the Jengjal Sub-divisional Hospital in Meghalaya’s West Garo Hills district.
  • The drone, a Vertiplane X3 designed by a start-up, took 36 minutes to deliver the payload at the Pedaldoba Primary Health Centre, almost 2 hours less than the time taken by a semblance of a road.

About Drone Delivery :

  • The drone delivery hub intends to improve universal access to healthcare in the state by delivering vital supplies like drugs, diagnostic samples, vaccines, blood and blood components quickly and safely to remote regions of the state using a dedicated drone delivery network.
  • Funded by the World Bank, the drone service is a joint initiative of the Meghalaya Health Systems Strengthening Project and Techeagle, a drone delivery start-up.


India’s First drone station has recently been set up in which of the following states/UT for the delivery of drugs?

A. Jammu and Kashmir

B. Himachal Pradesh

C. Arunachal Pradesh

D. Meghalaya

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Awards and Honours

India’s Greenhouse-in-a-Box Startup Kheyti Wins Earthshot Prize 2022

  • A Greenhouse-in-a-Box sustainable solution for small farmers devised by Telangana startup Kheyti has won the 1 million pound Earthshot Prize, founded by Britain’s Prince William and dubbed the Eco Oscars’.
  • Kheyti, one of the five winners at a gala green carpet awards ceremony in Boston on Friday, 02 December night, won the prize in the ‘Protect and Restore Nature’ category from hundreds of entries worldwide.
  • Protect and Restore Nature: Kheyti, India – A pioneering solution for local smallholder farmers to reduce costs, increase yields and protect livelihoods in a country on the frontlines of climate change.

What Is Kheyti?

  • This company provides Technology solutions for small farmers and design, adapt and implement low-cost farming solutions that help small farmers increase yield and predictability of produce. 
  • They combine these technologies with end-to-end support to give these farmers a seamless path towards income increase. 
  • They have developed a “Greenhouse-in-a-box”, an affordable, modular greenhouse bundled with full-stack services, which uses 90% less water, grows seven times more food and gives farmers a steady, dependable income.

What Is the Earthshot Prize?

  • The Earthshot Prize is awarded to five winners each year for their contributions to environmentalism. It was first awarded in 2021 and is planned to run annually until 2030. Each winner receives a grant of £1 million to continue their environmental work. 
  • Awarded for: Solutions to climate change and environmental issues from 2021 to 2030
  • First awarded: 2021
  • Presented by: The Royal Foundation (first edition)
  • Reward(s): £1 million

About ‘The Royal Foundation’:

  • The Royal Foundation of the Prince and Princess of Wales is a charity which supports the work of the Prince and Princess of Wales. 
  • Their projects revolve around conservation, the early years, mental health, and emergency services.


Recently India’s Greenhouse-in-a-Box startup Kheyti won the Earthshot Prize 2022 for which of the following achievements?

A. Clean our Air

B. Protect and Restore Nature

C. Revive our Oceans

D. Build a Waste-World

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Environment and Ecology

Assam Project on Forest and Biodiversity Conservation

  • Artificial highlands where animals can escape during floods; more than 200 anti-poaching camps; alternate livelihood training for local communities — these measures at the Kaziranga National Park in Assam will form the cornerstone of an Indo-French initiative announced earlier this year.


  • The Kaziranga project is a part of a larger Assam Project on Forest and Biodiversity Conservation (APFBC) for which the Agence Française de Développement (AFD) has committed funding of €80.2 million for a period of 10 years, between 2014-2024. 
  • There are 35 six-seven-foot tall embankments or highlands constructed in various areas around the park that animals can climb onto and seek refuge during the annual flooding. 
  • The project has also developed infrared-based early warning systems triggered by elephant footfall to either scare off herds from human habitats or warn villagers.


  • The project conceptualised the reforestation of 33,500 hectares of land and the training of 10,000 community members in alternate livelihoods by 2024.
  • But it is the 457 sq km Kaziranga National Park that remains the heart of the programme.

What Is the Assam Project on Forest and Biodiversity Conservation Society (APFBC Society)?

  • APFBC Society was created by the State Government of Assam as a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) registered under the Societies Registration Act, 1860.
  • The Society has the mandate for planning, implementation, monitoring, coordination and management of all the activities proposed under the project.
  • With French and Indian technical and financial support, the Indo-Pacific Parks Partnership will facilitate partnership activities for interesting natural parks of the Indo-Pacific region. These activities include biodiversity conservation, wildlife management and engagement with local communities.

About Kaziranga National Park:

  • Kaziranga National Park is a protected area in the northeast Indian state of Assam. 
  • Spread across the floodplains of the Brahmaputra River, its forests, wetlands and grasslands are home to tigers, elephants and the world’s largest population of Indian one-horned rhinoceroses. 
  • Ganges River dolphins swim in the park’s waters. Many rare migratory birds visit it, and grey pelicans roost near Kaziranga village.


Assam Project on Forest and Biodiversity Conservation recently developed artificial highlands where animals can escape during floods is an initiative developed with which of the following countries?

A. Germany

B. France

C. Israel


Answer: B

Current Affairs: Sports

Shooter Rudrankksh Patil clinches ISSF President’s Cup in Egypt

  • Indian shooter Rudrankksh Patil has clinched the International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) President’s Cup held recently in Cairo, Egypt. 


  • He defeated Italy’s Danilo Sollazzo in the 10-metre rifle play-off by 16-8. 
  • Athletes from 42 nations representing 43 ISSF Member Federations from all continents took part in this competition, which was held from 28 November to 4 December.
  • 18-year-old Rudrankksh Patil also bagged India’s first quota for the 2024 Paris Olympics when he clinched a gold in the men’s 10-metre air rifle in the ISSF Rifle-Pistol World Championships 2022, also held in Cairo in October this year.

What Is the International Shooting Sport Federation?

  • The International Shooting Sport Federation is the governing body of the Olympic shooting events in rifle, pistol and shotgun disciplines and several non-Olympic shooting sports events. 
  • Headquarters location: Munich, Germany
  • President: Vladimir Lisin
  • Founded: 1907


Which of the following Indian shooters recently clinched the International Shooting Sport Federation President’s Cup held in Cairo, Egypt?

A. Rudrankksh Balasaheb Patil

B. Aishwarya Pratap Singh Tomar

C. Anish Bhanwala

D. Bhavesh Shekhawat

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Economy

RBI Announces Four-Tiered Regulatory Framework for Urban Co-operative Banks

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) on, 1 December, announced a four-tiered regulatory framework for the categorisation of Urban Co-operative Banks (UCBs).
  • Based on the size of deposits of the UCBs, the four-tiered regulatory framework will come into force with immediate effect. 
  • As per details, the extant regulatory framework classifies UCBs into – Tier I and Tier II.

The UCBs Have Been Categorised into the Following Four Tiers for Regulatory Purposes:

  1. Tier 1 – All unit UCBs and salary earners’ UCBs (irrespective of deposit size), and all other UCBs having deposits up to ₹100 crores
  2. Tier 2 – UCBs with deposits of more than ₹100 crores and up to ₹1000 crores
  3. Tier 3 – UCBs with deposits of more than ₹1000 crores and up to ₹10,000 crores
  4. Tier 4 – UCBs with deposits of more than ₹10,000 crores

Norms on Net Worth and Capital Adequacy:

  • RBI also has come out with norms pertaining to the net worth and capital adequacy of these banks.
  • Tier 1 UCBs operating in a single district should have a minimum net worth of ₹2 crores.
  • For all other UCBs (in Tier 1, 2 and 3) tiers), the minimum net worth should be ₹5 crores.
  • The UCBs, which currently do not meet the revised minimum net worth requirement, will have to achieve the minimum net worth of ₹2 crores or ₹5 crores (as applicable) in a phased manner.

Minimum Capital to Risk Weighted Assets Ratio:

  • Tier 1 UCBs have to maintain a minimum capital to risk weighted assets ratio of 9 per cent of Risk Weighted Assets (RWAs) on an ongoing basis. 
  • Tier 2 to Tier 4 UCBs have to maintain a minimum capital to risk weighted assets of 12 per cent of RWAs on an ongoing basis.


What is the new regulated deposited amount for Tier-4 Urban Co-operative Banks, according to RBI’s recently announced four-tiered regulatory framework for UCBs?

A. Deposits up to ₹100 crores

B. Deposits of more than ₹100 crores and up to ₹1000 crores

C. Deposits of more than ₹1000 crores and up to ₹10,000 crores

D. Deposits of more than ₹10,000 crores

Answer: D

Fact Book: 6 December 2022

  1. Ruling Nepali Congress Emerges as Largest Party
  • As the counting of votes under the direct system concluded in Nepal, Prime Minister Sher Bahadur Deuba’s Nepali Congress emerged as the largest party by winning 57 seats.
  • Elections to the House of Representatives (HoR) and seven provincial assemblies were held on 20 November.
  • This election is crucial as political instability has been a recurrent feature of Nepal’s Parliament since the end of the decade-long Maoist insurgency.
  • No prime minister has served a full term after the civil war ended in 2006.
  1. India’s First Gold ATM and World’s First Real-Time Gold ATM Launched in Hyderabad
  • Goldsikka, with technology support from Hyderabad-based startup OpenCube Technologies, has launched its first Gold ATM at Begumpet.
  • It is India’s first Gold ATM and the world’s first real-time gold ATM.
  • This ATM can dispense gold coins in different denominations ranging from 0.5 gm to 100 grams.
  • The prices are displayed live on the screen, making it transparent and clear for the customers and the coins are dispensed in tamper-proof packs certified with 999 purity.
  1. Shri Hansraj Gangaram Ahir Assumed Charge as Chairperson, National Commission for Backward Classes
  • Following the 102nd Constitutional Amendment Act, 2018, NCBC became a constitutional body established under Article 338B of the Indian Constitution.
  • The commission was the outcome of the Indra Sawhney case (1992) and was a statutory body.
  • The Chairperson, Vice-Chairperson and other Members of the Commission shall be appointed by the President.
  • Shri Hansraj Gangaram Ahir had been elected four times Member of Parliament from Parliamentary Constituency Chandrapur, Maharashtra and also he was a Member of the Maharashtra Legislative Council. 
  • He had been a Member of various Standing Committees of Parliament and also served as the Chairperson of the Parliamentary Standing Committee on Coal and Steel. He had been the Union Minister of State for Home Affairs and Union Minister of State for Chemicals and Fertilisers in the 16th Lok Sabha, Government of India.
  1. Social Hostilities Index (SHI)
  • Recently India topped the index on social hostilities relating to religion.
  • The report was released by the Washington-based think tank Pew Research Centre.
  • The SHI measures acts of religious hostility by private individuals, organisations or groups. The index comprises 13 metrics, including religion-related armed conflict or terrorism and mob or sectarian violence.
  • At 9.4 out of a maximum possible score of 10, India’s Social Hostilities Index (SHI) in 2020 was worse than neighbouring Pakistan and Afghanistan.
  • The study has recorded the targeting of minorities in India during the pandemic.
  1. Mahaparinirvan Diwas
  • 6 December is observed as the Mahaparinirvan Diwas, or the death anniversary, of Dr BR Ambedkar, the Father of the Indian Constitution. 
  • ‘Parinirvan’ can be translated as ‘nirvana’ after death, ordom from the cycles of life and death. 
  • Dr Ambedkar breathed his last on 6 December 1956, less than two months after he had converted to Buddhism, fulfilling his declaration that “I will not die a Hindu”.
  • Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar (14 April 1891 – 6 December 1956) was an Indian jurist, economist, social reformer and political leader who headed the committee drafting the Constitution of India from the Constituent Assembly debates, served as Law and Justice minister in the first cabinet of Jawaharlal Nehru, and inspired the Dalit Buddhist movement after renouncing Hinduism.

Current Affairs: Days and Events

Armed Forces Flag Day 2022

  • Every year on 7 December, India commemorates Armed Forces Flag Day in order to raise donations for the welfare of the Armed Forces Staff. 
  • This day is observed to honour Indian soldiers, sailors, and pilots. The day also pays tribute to hundreds of thousands of men who have died protecting the country.


  • On 28 August 1949, a committee was constituted under the then Defence Minister of India. 
  • The Committee decided that Flag Day would be observed on 7 December every year. 
  • The initial idea behind celebrating the Indian Armed Forces Flag Day was to distribute small flags to civilians and, in return, collect donations for the soldiers. 
  • Over the years, the day has held great significance as it is believed that it is the responsibility of the common people of India to take care of the families of the armed forces personnel who have fought battles to defend the country.


  • This day is observed to encourage public engagement and support across the country for the following goals:
    • To provide rehabilitative assistance to the relatives of war victims
    • To take initiatives to safeguard the well-being of service members and their families
    • To assist former service veterans and their families with their welfare and resettlement


Every year on December 7, India commemorates Armed Forces Flag Day. In which year was this day first observed?

A. 1946

B. 1949

C. 1952

D. 1965

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Science and Technology

IIT Madras Researchers Develop ‘Sindhuja’, Which Generates Electricity from Sea Waves

  • Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras) Researchers have developed an ‘Ocean Wave Energy Converter’ that can generate electricity from sea waves. 
  • The trials of this device were successfully completed recently.


  • The device was deployed at a location about 6 km off the coast of Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu, at a location with a depth of 20 metres. 
  • This device targets generating 1 MW of power from ocean waves in the next three years.

Helpful in Achieving UN Environment Targets:

  • The success of this project will help fulfil several objectives, such as the UN Ocean Decade and Sustainable development goals. 
  • India’s goals include deep water missions, clean energy and achieving a blue economy. 
  • It could help India meet its climate change-related goals of generating 500 GW of electricity by 2030 through renewable energy.

About the Development:

  • IIT Madras faculty Prof Abdus Samad, who has been working for over a decade on wave energy, leads the mission. 
  • He established a state-of-the-art ‘Wave Energy and Fluids Engineering Laboratory’ (WEFEL) at IIT Madras. 
  • His team designed and tested a scaled-down model. 
  • The lab is also researching other applications for this technology, such as producing power for smaller devices for the ocean like navigational buoys and data buoys, among others.

What Is Sindhuja-I and How Does It Work?

  • The product has been named ‘Sindhuja-I,’ which means ‘generated from the ocean.’ 
  • The system has a floating buoy, a spar, and an electrical module. The buoy moves up and down as the wave moves up and down. 
  • In the present design, a balloon-like system called a ‘buoy’ has a central hole that allows a long rod called a spar to pass through it.
  • The spar can be fixed to the seabed, and passing waves will not affect it, while the buoy will move up and down and produce relative motion between them. 
  • The relative motion gives rotation to an electric generator to produce power. In the present design, the spar floats, and a mooring chain keeps the system in place.


What is the name of the ‘device’ recently developed by IIT Madras that can generate electricity from sea waves?

A. Jaladhi-I

B. Udadhi-I

C. Sindhuja-I

D. Sagar-I

Answer: C

Current Affairs: International

India, Germany sign Migration and Mobility Agreement

  • India and Germany recently inked an agreement on a Comprehensive Migration and Mobility Partnership, which will help the citizens of both nations study, research and work in each other’s country.


  • The agreement aims at facilitating the two-way movement of students, professionals and researchers and is also set to address the challenges of illegal migration.

How Is the Deal Set to Benefit Indians?

  • The migration and mobility partnership is set to encourage an increased exchange of students between the two countries. 
  • Further, the deal ensures active people-to-people exchanges, including among students, academia and the professional workforce. 
  • This will enhance the internationalisation of higher education systems.
  • This means Indian students can now get an increased opportunity to participate in research programs in Germany. 
  • The migration and mobility partnership also ensures that Indian students can now get joint degrees and dual degrees. 
  • Apart from academia, this deal also ensures a joint and collaborated effort in tackling future pandemics. 
  • The pact will also facilitate German business owners to travel to India and invest here. This, in turn, will also create more employment opportunities for the country’s skilled labourers. 


Recently India has inked an agreement on a Comprehensive Migration and Mobility Partnership with which of the following countries?

A. France

B. Germany

C. Israel


Answer: B

Current Affairs: National

Technotex 2023

  • India’s premier show on Technical Textiles – ‘Technotex 2023’, will be held in Mumbai from 22nd to 24th February 2023.


  • The largest event of the technical textile industry in India will be held during the G-20 Presidency. 
  • It offers an exceptional opportunity for India to contribute to the global agenda on insistent matters of global importance.
  • The Ministry of Textiles is organising the event Government of India, in collaboration with the Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce Industry, under National Technical Textiles Mission (NTTM).

What Are Technical Textiles?

  • These products are broadly classified into 12 different categories: Agrotech, Oekotech, Buildtech, Meditech, Geotech, Clothtech, Mobiltech, Hometech, Sportstech, Indutech, Protech, and Packtech.
  • Technical textiles are defined as textile materials and products used primarily for their technical performance and functional properties rather than their aesthetic or decorative characteristics.
  • As a component or part of another product, they are used to enhance the strength, performance or other functional properties of that product.
  • Technical textile accounts for approximately 13% of India’s total textile and apparel market and contributes to India’s GDP at 0.7%.

What Is the National Technical Textiles Mission (NTTM)?

  • The Ministry of Textiles has launched NTTM to increase the penetration level of technical textiles in India while leveraging the extraordinary growth rate of the sector.
  • The aim of the mission is to position India as a global leader in Technical Textiles.
  • The mission will comprise four components: Research, Innovation and Development; Promotion and Market Development; Export Promotion; Education, Training, and Skill Development.
  • Implementation period: Four years starting from FY 2020-21 till FY 2023-24. The total outlay of the mission is ₹1480 Cr.
  • Target: To take the domestic market size of the technical textile sector to $ 40-50 Bn by 2024 with an average growth rate of 15-20% per annum.


Which of the following cities will host ‘Technotex 2023’, India’s premier show on technical textiles, in February?

A. Delhi

B. Panjim

C. Mumbai

D. Ahmedabad

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Defence

Exercise Sangam

  • The 7th edition of Exercise Sangam, a joint Naval Special Forces exercise between Indian Navy MARCOs and US Navy SEALs commenced in Goa recently.
  • The present edition, which will see personnel from SEAL Team Five based in San Diego, USA and Indian Navy MARCOs from INS Abhimanyu together, aims at the exchange of ideas and experiences on various aspects of Maritime Special Operations.

About Sangam:

  • Exercise Sangam was first conducted in 1994 and is an important military and diplomatic initiative between the two nations, reflective of their trust and friendship.
  • The exercise is planned for three weeks, wherein personnel will exercise and hone their skills in Maritime Interdiction Operations, Direct Action Missions, Combat Fall Jumps, Special Heliborne Operations, and various other evolutions.

About MARCOs?

  • Indian Navy MARCOs were raised in 1985 as the Indian Maritime Special Force (IMSF).
  • 2 Years later, ‘MARCOs’ was renamed the Marine Commando Force (MCF) with the deadliest motto, “The Few The Fearless”.


The 7th edition of Exercise Sangam, a joint Naval Special Forces exercise between Indian Navy MARCOs and US Navy SEALs recently held in which of the following states?

A. Andhra Pradesh

B. Kerala

C. Tamil Nadu

D. Goa

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Reports and Index

India Inequality Report 2022

  • India Inequality Report 2022, with the name Digital Divide, was recently released by the NGO Oxfam India.


  • Indian women are 15 per cent less likely to own a mobile phone and 33 per cent less likely to use mobile internet services than men.
  • India’s growing inequality is accentuated due to the digital divide as it gets replicated in the digital space.
  • The reach of digital technologies remains largely limited to male, urban, upper-caste, and upper-class individuals.
  • India fares the worst, with the widest gender gap of 40.4% in the Asia-Pacific region.

Major Outcomes of the Report:

  • Women constitute only one-third of internet users in India.
  • The likelihood of a digital payment by the richest 60% is four times more than the poorest 40% in India.
  • The report also highlights that the use of computer devices decreased in rural areas post-pandemic.
  • 3% of the rural population used to own a computer before the pandemic, and the number slipped to just 1% post-COVID.

Internet Penetration among States

  • Highest – Maharashtra, Goa, Kerala
  • Lowest – Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand
Digital DivideAccess to phone
Salaried permanent workers95%
Unemployed (willing and looking for a job)50%
CasteAccess to a computer or a laptop


According to the India Inequality Report 2022 recently released by Oxfam India, which of the following has the highest internet penetration among states?

A. Uttarakhand

B. Gujarat

C. Maharashtra

D. Uttar Pradesh

Answer: C

Current Affairs: National

Sweden India Nobel Memorial Week, SHE STEM 2022

  • As part of the Sweden-India Nobel Memorial Week, SHE STEM, the annual event to celebrate women in science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and sustainability, was successfully held for the third year in a row.
  • The annual event has been organised by the Embassy of Sweden in India in partnership with the Atal Innovation Mission, NITI Aayog, the Government of India and the German Centre of Innovation and Research (DWIH New Delhi).

About the Event

  • SHE STEM 2022 kicked off with a musical performance by students from Darbari Lal DAV Model School in New Delhi, the host school for SHE STEM 2022. 
  • This was followed by talks and a panel discussion with women in STEM and business, including Dr Sridevi Annapurna Singh, Director of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. 
  • She spoke to the audience about the importance of women in STEM fields bringing their unique perspectives to problem-solving to ensure a sustainable future.
  • Following the success of the Insta-reels Video Challenge in 2021, ‘SHE STEM’ hosted the SHE STEM 2022 Video Challenge across Instagram, YouTube, Facebook, and Google Drive for students aged 13 to 17, asking them to imagine themselves in the year 2047 and speak about an innovation that has aided in the fight against climate change.

What Is Atal Innovation Mission (AIM)?

  • Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) is the Government of India’s flagship initiative to create and promote a culture of innovation and entrepreneurship across the length and breadth of our country.


The annual event, SHE STEM, was held recently to celebrate women in which of the following fields?

A. Sports

B. Science

C. Defence

D. Finance

Answer: B

Todays FactBook – 7th December 2022

  1. Advisory Group for streamlining the development of the Bamboo sector
  • Agriculture Minister Narendra Singh Tomar has approved the formation of an Advisory Group for streamlining the development of the Bamboo sector.
  • The Advisory Group has a representation of various stakeholders, including academicians, researchers, innovators, progressive entrepreneurs, designers, farmer leaders, marketing specialists, and policymakers. 
  • The inter-ministerial and public-private consultation is envisaged to help revamp the developmental architecture of the sector by incorporating synergy between all the sections related to the bamboo value chain.
  • The restructured National Bamboo Mission was launched during 2018-19 as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme. 
  • It mainly focuses on the development of a complete value chain of the Bamboo sector to link growers with consumers. The bamboo industry is witnessing a phase change by the opening of multiple avenues of resource utilisation.
  1. Matiri Diwas
  • The 51st anniversary of ‘Maitri Diwas’, marking the recognition granted to Bangladesh by India in 1971, was celebrated in Dhaka on Tuesday, 6th December.
  • Liberation warfighters, Parliamentarians, members of civil society, media, dignitaries,  and other prominent people took part in the event organised by the High Commission of India in Dhaka. 
  • Minister for Liberation War Affairs of Bangladesh A.K.M Mozammel Haque was the Chief Guest on this occasion. 
  • Minister Mozammel Haque thanked India for its support extended to the people of Bangladesh during the Liberation War in 1971.
  1. International Lusophone Festival begins in Goa
  • The Ministry of External Affairs (MEA), in association with the Indian Council of Cultural Relations (ICCR) and the Government of Goa, has recently organised the International Lusophone Festival, a four-day colourful event in Goa.
  • The Lusophone Commonwealth, or the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, is a multilateral forum.
  • It was founded on 17th July 1996 at the 1st CPLP Heads of State and Government Summit in Lisbon.
  • The founding members were Angola, Brazil, Cabo Verde, Guinea Bissau, Mozambique, Portugal, and Sao Tome and Principe.
  • India joined CPLP as an associate observer in July 2021.
  1. New minerals discovered in a meteorite found in Somalia
  • Recently researchers have discovered two new minerals that have been named ‘Elaliite’ and ‘Elkinstantonite’.
  • These two new minerals have never been seen on Earth before and were found in a meteorite in Somalia.
  • At 15 tonnes, the meteorite is the ninth-largest meteorite ever found.
  1. Stepwell at Bansilalpet in Hyderabad won the prestigious Big 5 Construction Impact Award in Dubai
  • Big 5 Construction Impact Awards was created to inspire the Middle East, Africa and South Asia’s construction industry.
  • The Sustainable Initiative of the Year award is given to a single initiative demonstrating successful implementation, showing Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) principles in its work.
  • The Big 5 Construction Impact Award was given to Bansilalpet Stepwell under the Sustainable Initiative of the Year category.
  • The 6-layer Bansilalpet stepwell is located in Hyderabad.
  • The stepwell was disused and turned into a dump yard in the area.
  • The Rain Water Project along with the architectural firm Kshetra carried out the restoration work.
  • The 17th-century well was originally part of a garden of tamarind and palmyra trees before.
  • A British Resident, TH Keyes developed a well-planned model village around the stepwell in 1933.
  • This was funded by Seth Bansilal, and hence the village (Bansilalpet) was named after him.
  • The boundary wall with arches was also built around the well’s periphery.
  • The stepwell can hold nearly 22 lakh litres of water.
  1. ChatGPT
  • Recently an artificial intelligence tool called ChatGPT was released on the internet.
  • The tool has been developed by OpenAI, a research institute founded in 2015.
  • This tool ‘knew’ every topic under the sun; it could answer questions and carry on a conversation.
  • This tool interacts with humans in natural language and is impressive because, aside from answering general queries, it has many other functions.
  • ChatGPT is much more than a chatbot. For example, you can ask it to write a program or even a simple software application.
  • It can also do creative tasks such as writing a story. It can explain scientific concepts and answer any question that needs factual answers.
  1. RBI MPC Meeting-RBI hikes repo rate by 35 basis points to 6.25%
  • The Reserve Bank of India’s (RBI’s) Monetary Policy Committee (MPC) today hiked the repo rate by 35 basis points (bps) to 6.25% with immediate effect.
  • The RBI policy rate is now at its highest level since August 2018. 
  • Consecutive rate hikes by the RBI this year were aimed at re-anchoring inflation expectations and maintaining financial stability.
  • This is the fifth rate hike by the central bank in this financial year. 
  • The move by the RBI was quite expected to keep the economy on track in the current highly volatile scenario.
  • The rate hike is likely to shrink liquidity in the economy overall, especially impacting the investor’s sentiments. 
  • There will be a short-term pause on the minds of the investors while assessing the volatility of the current market dynamics. However, there is hope that the investors are bound to return soon to the market once things stabilise.

Current Affairs: Days and Events

38th SAARC Charter Day 2022

  • SAARC Charter Day is observed annually on 8th December. 
  • This day marks the signing of the SAARC Charter in 1985 by the leaders of SAARC Countries at the First SAARC Summit held in Dhaka (Bangladesh).

About SAARC: 

  • South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), an intergovernmental organisation, was established by Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka to promote economic growth in South Asia. Afghanistan acceded to SAARC later. 
  • Secretariat: Kathmandu (Nepal).

Main Features of SAARC Charter :

  • To promote the welfare of the peoples of SOUTH ASIA and to improve their quality of life
  • To accelerate economic growth, social progress and cultural development in the region and to provide all individuals with the opportunity to live in dignity and to realise their full potential
  • To promote and strengthen collective self-reliance among the countries of SOUTH ASIA
  • To contribute to mutual trust, understanding and appreciation of one another’s problems
  • To promote active collaboration and mutual assistance in the economic, social, cultural, technical and scientific fields
  • To strengthen cooperation with other developing countries
  • To strengthen cooperation among themselves in international forums on matters of common interests
  • To cooperate with international and regional organisations with similar aims and purposes

Current Status:

  • SAARC has failed abjectly in accomplishing most of its objectives 
  • South Asia continues to be an extremely poor and least integrated region in the world 
  • The intraregional trade and investment in South Asia are very low when compared to other regions, such as the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) and Sub-Saharan Africa

Pakistan killed the Organisation:

  • Pakistan has adopted an obstructionist attitude within SAARC by repeatedly blocking several vital initiatives, such as the motor vehicles agreement, aimed at bolstering regional connectivity. 
  • Deepening hostility between India and Pakistan has made matters worse. Since 2014, no SAARC summit has taken place, leaving the organisation rudderless and practically dead.


SAARC Charter Day is observed annually on which of the following dates?

A. 25 April

B. 19 September

C. 29 November

D. 08 December

Answer: D

Current Affairs: National

New Delhi Hosts the First India-Central Asia Meeting of NSAs

  • Speaking at the first India-Central Asia meeting of the National Security Advisers in New Delhi, Mr Doval said peaceful, secure and prosperous Central Asia is in our common interest.
  • He also urged that connectivity with Central Asian countries remains India’s key priority.
  • It coincided with the 30th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between India and Central Asian countries.


  • All UN members should refrain from supporting organisations that engage in terrorist acts, and everyone should prioritise stopping the financing of terrorism. 
  • The security situation in Afghanistan is an important issue concerning all.
  • On Pakistan, India should appeal to all UN members to fulfil obligations enshrined in relevant counter-terror conventions. 

About the Event: 

  • This is the first time India is hosting a conclave of top security officials from Central Asian countries, including Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, focussing on the evolving security situation in Afghanistan and ways to deal with the threat of terrorism emanating from that country.

Significance of Central Asia for India:

Energy Security –

  • Central Asia contains vast hydrocarbon fields and Uranium reserves.
  • With India projected to become ever more reliant on imported energy, cultivating alternative sources of energy has become a vital concern.

Geostrategic Importance –

  • Being placed in the middle of the Eurasian Continent, Central Asia is one of the most convenient routes of transit.

Commercial Interest –

  • Both India and Central Asia have economic complementarity in terms of resources, human resources and markets.

Geopolitical Interest –

  • Today, Europe, the US, China, and Iran are trying to increase their influence in this region. All this is likely to bring in high-stakes power politics in Central Asia.

Internal Security –

  • India sees this region as a source of religious extremism and is concerned about checking the rise of radical Islamist groups, which may present a terrorist threat.
  • These security concerns are compounded by the proliferation of drug trafficking in Central Asia.


Which country recently hosted the first India-Central Asia meeting of the National Security Advisers?

A. Kazakhstan

B. Kyrgyzstan

C. Tajikistan

D. India

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Sports

Mirabai Chanu Clinches Silver at Weightlifting World Championship

  • Olympic silver medallist Mirabai Chanu won silver at the 2022 World Weightlifting Championships in Colombia recently. 
  • She beat the Tokyo 2020 champion Hou Zhihua of China.


  • Mirabai lifted a combined weight of 200 kg compared to Zhihua’s total of 198 kg. 
  • This was Mirabai’s second medal at the World Championships, having previously won gold in 2017 with a lift of 194 kg.
  • Meanwhile, China’s Jiang Huihua took home the gold medal with a combined weight of 206 kg.

About World Weightlifting Championships:

  • The World Weightlifting Championships is an event organised by International Weightlifting Federation (IWF). The first competition, held in March 1891, was won by Edward Lawrence Levy of England.
  • Athletes compete in a total of 20 weight categories (10 for men and 10 for women).
  • The 2022 World Weightlifting Championships is an ongoing weightlifting competition held in Bogotá, Colombia, in December 2022. 
  • It was scheduled to be held in Chongqing, China, but this changed in March 2022 as a result of COVID-19 measures in China. 
  • The new location was announced in April 2022.


Recently Indian Olympic silver medallist Mirabai Chanu won silver at the 2022 World Weightlifting Championships, held in which of the following countries?

A. China

B. Kazakhstan

C. Colombia 

D. India

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Awards and Recognitions

Volodymyr Zelensky and the “Spirit of Ukraine” is Time Magazine’s 2022 Person of the Year

  • Time magazine named President Volodymyr Zelensky, as well as “the spirit of Ukraine”, as its 2022 person of the year recently, for the resistance the country has shown in the face of Russia’s invasion.
  • It called Zelensky’s decision to remain in Kyiv and rally his country amid the ongoing war “fateful”.
  • The Time magazine editor Edward Felsenthal wrote that the “spirit of Ukraine” referred to Ukrainians around the world, including many who “fought behind the scenes” against the Russian invasion.

About Time Magazine:

  • The tradition of naming Time person of the year started in 1927. Initially, it was named the Time Man of the Year. 
  • Other past winners have included the former dictator of Germany, Adolf Hitler, in 1938, and Russian President Vladimir Putin, who was 2007’s Person of the Year.

Indian Featured in Time Magazine:

  • Mahatma Gandhi is the only Indian to be featured as TIME Person of the Year, having been given the honour in 1930. 
  • The magazine described him as ‘Saint Gandhi’ and later named him one of the 25 Political Icons of all time. 

Other Recognitions by Time Magazine for 2022:

  • Time Heroes of the Year: Women in Iran were named the Time Heroes of the Year. Iranian women who are protesting for over three months against the custodial death of 22-year-old Mahsa Amini. 
  • Time’s Entertainer of the year: The South Korean K-pop band Blackpink was recognised as Time’s Entertainer of the year.
  • Athlete and Icon of the Year: American baseball player Aaron Judge has been recognised as the Athlete of the Year, and Malaysian actress Michelle Yeoh is the Icon of the Year.


  • Last year’s honoree was Tesla and SpaceX chief Elon Musk, who has since made major headlines with his high-profile purchase of Twitter.


Who among the following has recently been named Person of the year- 2022 by the Famous Times magazine?

A. Women in Iran

B. Elon Musk

C. Volodymyr Zelensky

D. Aaron Judge

Answer: C

Current Affairs: International

5th European Union-India Competition Week 2022

  • The European Union-India Competition Week, the 5th edition, was inaugurated recently 5-7 December at the Competition Commission of India (CCI) HQ by Dr Sangeeta Verma, acting Chairperson, CCI, and Mr Seppo Nurmi, Deputy Head of Delegation of the EU to India and Bhutan. 


  • This technical cooperation programme has provided a platform for dialogue and exchange of good practices between competition authority officials and experts from the EU and India. 
  • The topics on the agenda are not only of great contemporary relevance and significance but also quite futuristic.
  • This is the ongoing cooperation between CCI and the Directorate General for Competition of the European Commission under the Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) signed by the two authorities in November 2013. 
  • This technical cooperation program has provided a platform for dialogue and exchange of good practices between competition authority officials and experts from the EU and India. 

5th India-EU Competition:

  • 5th India-EU Competition Week provides a platform to share views from two key economies on antitrust action in digital and technology markets in an attempt to find answers to challenges and provides an opportunity to discuss how regulation can supplement competition enforcement, as the EU has set the Digital Markets Act in motion.

About India-EU Relations:

  • India-EU relations date back to the early-1960s. 
  • Regarding the agenda items in the India-EU Competition Week, topics such as experiences in applying antitrust laws to the digital economy/markets, the introduction of the EU’s Digital Markets Act, investigating hub-and-spoke agreements and other atypical cartels and competition law and sustainable cooperation; are timely for sharing the views of EU experts. 


5th European Union-India Competition Week 2022 was recently held in which of the following cities?

A. Bhopal

B. Delhi

C. Ahmedabad

D. Guwahati

Answer: B

Current Affairs: National

Centre Approves PADMA as Self-Regulatory Body

  • The government has approved the Print and Digital Media Association (PADMA) as a self-regulatory body for publishers of news and current affairs across the country. 
  • The organisation—with 47 digital news publishers on board—will look at grievances related to digital media news content on their platforms.
  • In addition to Ashok Kumar Tandon, a Prasar Bharati part-time member, and Manoj Kumar Mishra, a journalist, the organisation will be headed by former High Court Judge Mool Chand Garg.


  • PADMA shall perform functions laid down in sub-rules (4) and (5) of rule 12 for the purpose of redressing grievances related to the code of ethics under the rules. 
  • The body shall also ensure that the member publishers have agreed to adhere to the provisions of the rules, including furnishing the requisite information under rule 18.

Impact of Approval:

  • With this, the Ministry has approved nine self-regulatory bodies since May 2021 under rule 12 of the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021. 
  • They include DIGIPUB News India Foundation, Confederation of Online Media (India), and NBF- Professional News Broadcasting Standards Authority, among others.
  • The organisation will primarily look at grievances related to content on digital media platforms pertaining to current affairs that have not been addressed at the level of the platform.

As Per Rule 12 of the Information Technology (Intermediary Guidelines and Digital Media Ethics Code) Rules, 2021:

The self-regulatory bodies will –

  • Oversee and ensure adherence by the publisher to the code of ethics
  • Provide guidance to publishers on aspects of the code of ethics
  • Address grievances which have not been resolved by publishers within 15 days
  • Hear appeals filed by the complainant against the decision of publishers
  • Issue such guidance or advisories to such publishers for ensuring compliance with the code of ethics


The government has recently approved the Print and Digital Media Association (PADMA) as a self-regulatory body. Who among the following is the head of this organisation?

A. Mool Chand Garg

B. Anu Malhotra

C. Vipin Sanghi

D. Dhirubhai Naranbhai Patel

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Environment and Ecology

UN Groundwater Summit 2022

  • The importance of protecting groundwater and methods for its sustainable use will be the highlight of the United Nations-Water Summit on Groundwater 2022, which began on 7th December 2022 in Paris, France.
  • The two-day conference will be organised by UN-Water, UNESCO and the International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre. 
  • Organised by: UN-Water, UNESCO and the International Groundwater Resources Assessment Centre.


  • To raise awareness on groundwater conservation and to highlight the opportunities and challenges of groundwater management.
  • To mark the completion of the “Groundwater: Making the invisible visible” campaign run by UN-Water throughout 2022.


  • The major theme of the discussions is the five pillars of the SDG 6 Global Acceleration Framework – data and information, capacity development, innovation, finance and governance.

Making the “Invisible Visible” Campaign: 

  • It highlighted the role of groundwater in alleviating poverty, food and water insecurity and other socio-economic development hurdles.

About Ground Water and Facts:

  • Water seeps through rocks and soil and is stored beneath the ground. Aquifers are the rocks in which groundwater is stored.
  • This untapped resource accounts for only 0.62% of the total water and 30% of freshwater accessible on the planet.
  • It is a vital resource that provides almost half of drinking water, 40% of water for irrigation and a third of water required for the industry worldwide.
  • The role of groundwater in human development becomes bigger in the face of water scarcity affecting about 2.7 billion people around the world.

Groundwater Situation in India:

  • Groundwater is India’s most used water resource, accounting for a quarter of total global groundwater extraction.
  • According to the 2021 CAG report, groundwater extraction in India has exceeded the recharge rate, threatening 80% of potable water over the next two decades.

Govt Schemes:

  • Atal Bhujal Yojana
  • Jal Shakti Abhiyan 
  • Aquifer Mapping and Management Programme

Today’s Fact Book: 8th December 2022

  1. Jeevan Pramaan Patra
  • Recently, the government has disbursed the Jeevan Pramaan Patra using the network of Postmen and Gramin Dak Sevaks in the country.
  • Using Jeevan Pramaan, a pensioner can now digitally provide proof of his/her existence to authorities for continuity of pension every year instead of requiring to present himself/herself physically or through a Life Certificate issued by specified authorities.
  • Jeevan Pramaan is a biometric-enabled digital service for pensioners. Pensioners of the Central Government, State Government or any other Government organisation can take benefit from this facility.
  • The scheme was launched on 10th November 2014.
  • The Digital Life Certificate facility is not available to Remarried or Re-employed Pensioners. 
  1. Rise in Group A streptococcus (GAS) bacterium Cases in the UK
  • Recently, at least six children lost their lives to a common bacterial infection called invasive Group A Strep (GAS) in the United Kingdom
  • Group A streptococcus (GAS) is a bacterium commonly found in throats and on the skin
  • It generally does not cause illnesses. However, it causes a number of infections that range from mild to fatal
  • Some of the symptoms of GAS infections are sore throat, fever, chills and muscle aches
  • These infections are spread by close contact with infected persons, coughs, sneezes and from wounds
  • The bacteria can also spread from asymptomatic patients who have the bacteria in their bodies but do not feel unwell or show symptoms
  1. Lt. Gen Asim Munir was appointed as the new Army Chief of Pakistan
  • Lieutenant General Asim Munir was recently appointed as the new Chief of Army Staff (COAS) of Pakistan following weeks of intense speculation and political tussle in the country.
  • Lt. Gen Asim Munir is at present the Quarter Master General at GHQ and is said to be close to General Bajwa.
  • As a Brigadier, Munir was a Commander in the Force Command North Areas (FCNA) at a time when Bajwa was a Commander of the X Corps.
  • Lt. Gen Asim Munir is a graduate of the Officers Training School, Mangla, and the Senior-most of the Present corp of two-star generals. They are all from the same batch of the Pakistan Military Academy.
  1. Four diplomats and US lawmakers were honoured with the 2022 ‘Diwali- Power of One’ award at the UN.
  • Four veteran diplomats and a US lawmaker have been honoured with this year’s annual ‘Diwali- Power of One’ award for their efforts in working towards a peaceful and secure world by the UN recently
  • Hailed as the ‘Oscars of Diplomacy’, the award is presented to former Permanent Representatives or former High-Level members of the UN Secretariat or member state, or soon-to-be “former”, who have “toiled selflessly to help form a more perfect, peaceful and secure world for all”
  • Former Permanent Representative of Georgia to the UN and current Ambassador to Canada Kaha Imnadze and former Permanent Representative of Grenada to the United Nations Keisha McGuire were among those who were honoured
  • The UN General Assembly recognised the significance of Diwali in its resolution in 2014 
  • Thereafter, Diwali Foundation USA Inc. was established in 2017 to promote a peaceful and consensus-based process to achieve societal ‘Good’, as it befits the high hopes and ideals of humanity enshrined in the United Nations Charter
  • The Foundation established the “Diwali Stamp – The Power of One” Award to celebrate and highlight the important work done in a peaceful manner, especially at the United Nations
  1. Agriculture Investment Portal inaugurated
  • The Ministry of Agriculture inaugurated an integrated ‘Agriculture Investment portal’
  • “Krishi Nivesh Portal” (Agriculture Investment Portal) will prove to be a milestone in terms of investment in the agriculture sector
  • It will be a centralised, one-stop portal for agri-investors to avail benefits of various government schemes implemented by various departments related to agriculture and allied sectors
  1. ChatGPT a ‘conversational’ AI
  • ChatGPT, an artificial intelligence tool developed by OpenAI, has created a buzz among computer scientists and programmers due to its creative capabilities
  • ChatGPT is a ‘conversational’ AI and will answer queries just like a human would
  • It can answer follow-up questions
  • It can also “admit its mistakes”
  • It can challenge incorrect premises and reject inappropriate requests
  • It is being seen as a replacement for much of the daily mundane writing, from an email to even college-style essays
  • OpenAI, a research and development firm, was founded as a nonprofit in 2015
  • It has used the GPT 3.5 series of language learning models (LLM)
  • GPT stands for Generative Pre-trained Transformer 3
  • It relies on deep learning techniques to produce ‘human-like text based on inputs’
  1. Square Kilometre Array
  • Construction of the world’s largest radio astronomy observatory, the Square Kilometre Array, has begun in Australia after three decades in development
  • The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project is an international effort to build the world’s largest radio telescope, with eventually over a square kilometre (one million square metres) of collecting area
  • Two SKA telescopes are constructed at radio-quiet sites in South Africa and Australia
  • The SKA will give astronomers insight into the formation and evolution of the first stars and galaxies after the Big Bang, the role of cosmic magnetism, and the nature of gravity
  • The SKA Observatory (SKAO) is an inter-governmental organisation established in early 2021
  • The SKAO, dedicated to radio astronomy, is headquartered in the UK
  • It will undertake the construction, operation and maintenance of the SKA telescopes
  • Organisations from 16 member countries take part in the SKA project
  • National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA) represents participation from India

Current Affairs: Important Dates and Events

International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of This Crime-2022

  • International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of this Crime is commemorated on 9 December every year around the world. 
  • It is observed to raise awareness about the greatest crime perpetrated by man against man, the violation of human rights and how it can be prevented in the future.

What Is Genocide?

  • Genocide refers to the deliberate killing and maiming of a nation, group, ethnic unit, tribe, religious or political unit to destroy or wipe them out. 
  • Genocide is considered one of the greatest crimes and evils perpetrated by man against man in history. 
  • There have been several incidents of genocide in history. 
  • Perhaps, the most talked about is the Holocaust, where approximately six million Jews were put to death by the Nazis under the leadership of Adolf Hitler in the 1930s.

When Was This Day Adopted?

  • On 9 December 1948, the United Nations adopted the first human rights treaty, the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (the “Genocide Convention”). The year 2022 marks its 74th anniversary.
  • The Convention signifies the international community’s commitment to preventing genocide crimes. 
  • It also gave the first international legal definition of “genocide”, widely adopted at national and international levels, as well as established a duty for State Parties to prevent and punish the crime of genocide.
  • The United Nations General Assembly, with a resolution in 2015, adopted 9 December as the International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of this Crime.


  • This day is commemorated to memorialise the victims of genocide. It is a reminder of all the innocent lives that have been lost as a result of genocide and to raise awareness about how the families of the victims can be supported and helped. 
  • Another aim of this day is to help remember not to repeat this heinous crime again. 
  • To remind the international community of their commitment toward minorities all around the globe and to avoid unnecessary killings. 
  • This day is marked to remember the importance of peace and security and why this should be cherished.


On which of the following dates is the International Day of Commemoration and Dignity of the Victims of the Crime of Genocide and of the Prevention of this Crime observed each year?

A. 15 February

B. 19 July

C. 28 November

D. 09 December

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Defence

International Fleet Review

  • Indian Navy ships Kochi, Kavaratti and Sumedha arrived in Cox’s Bazar, Inani Beach-Bangladesh, and participated in the maiden International Fleet Review (IFR) conducted by the Bangladesh Navy (BN). 
  • The ships took part in a variety of activities conducted as a part of BN IFR-22 from 06 to 09 December 2022.

What’s the International Fleet Review?

  • International Fleet Review (IFR) is a parade of naval ships, aircraft and submarines organised by nations to promote goodwill, strengthen cooperation and showcase their organisational capabilities.
  • This is an event where a gathering of ships from a particular navy is paraded and reviewed by an incumbent head of state and/or other official civilian and military dignitaries. 
  • Being the Supreme Commander of Indian armed forces, the President of India takes stock of the capabilities of the Navy in the Fleet Review. 
  • The President embarks on a yacht called the Presidential Yacht and reviews the Indian Naval Fleet.

About 2022 Fleet Review:

  • IFR-22 was conducted by BN this year to commemorate the Birth Centenary of the Father of the Nation, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of the Independence of Bangladesh. 
  • The Chief Guest for the Fleet Review scheduled was the Prime Minister of Bangladesh, Mrs Sheikh Hasina. 

About Indian Ships Participated in the Fleet:

  • The visiting Indian Navy ships Kochi, Kavaratti and Sumedha are the latest indigenously designed and developed guided missile stealth Destroyers, anti-submarine Corvettes and Off-shore Patrol Vessels, respectively. 
  • INS Kochi is a part of the Indian Navy’s Western Fleet based at Mumbai, whilst INS Kavaratti and INS Sumedha form part of the Eastern Fleet based at Visakhapatnam. 
  • All three ships are equipped with a versatile array of weapons and sensors, carry multi-role helicopters and symbolise India’s warship-building capabilities, keeping in line with the vision of ‘Atmanirbhar Bharat’.


International Fleet Review-2022 was recently conducted in the waters of which country?

A. Australia

B. India

C. Bangladesh

D. Pakistan

Answer: C

Current Affairs: International

17th Asia and the Pacific Regional Meeting (APRM)

  • Singapore President Halimah Yacob and International Labour Organization (ILO) Director-General Gilbert F. Houngbo opened the ILO’s 17th Asia and the Pacific Regional Meeting (APRM) in Singapore recently, highlighting the need for inclusive growth as the regions build back from the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • International workers’ groups criticised India’s labour policies, including four new labour codes, at the 17th Asia and the Pacific Regional Meeting (APRM) of the International Labour Organisation (ILO) held in Singapore.

About New Indian Labour Laws?

  • India’s new labour codes violate the tripartite agreements—between workers, employers and the government—and give a hand to employers.
  • The power of inspection has been left with employers through the new codes, and it will threaten the tripartite system in the country. 
  • Trade unions in India have been opposing such policies.

Issues Related to India:

  • India has the largest youth population in the world.
  • The country is observing a technological and entrepreneurial boom, with start-ups and small businesses mushrooming across the country. 
  • 90% of the workforce belongs to the unorganised sector, with persistent challenges of low-paid jobs and poor working conditions.
  • Declining productivity growth has a negative impact on workers, on the sustainability of enterprises especially micro, small and medium-sized enterprises — on economies and on communities. 

What Is Asia and the Pacific Regional Meeting (APRM)?

  • It brings together representatives of governments and employers’ and workers’ organisations from Asia, the Pacific and the Arab states. 
  • The 17th APRM comes at an important juncture for the world of work as the region faces multiple challenges, including the continued impact of the COVID-19 pandemic compounded by the global food, energy and finance crises. 
  • The Meeting offers a timely opportunity to reconfirm decent work and social justice as the driving forces for an inclusive, sustainable and resilient human-centred recovery. 
  • 2022 APRM will discuss action to enhance job-rich growth that is inclusive and transformative, as well as measures to strengthen regional cooperation and multilateralism on the world of work issues. 
  • It will also help forge commitment among the tripartite constituents on common priorities for action that will help shape ILO’s work in both regions for years to come.


ILO’s 17th Asia and the Pacific Regional Meeting-2022 was recently held in which of the following countries?

A. Malaysia

B. Singapore

C. India

D. China

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Geography

Cyclone Mandous

  • It has been reported recently that a cyclone named Mandous may likely impact the Tamil Nadu and Puducherry coasts from today, 9th December, till the end of December 2022.

What Is Cyclone Mandous?

  • Mandous is a slow-moving cyclone that often absorbs a lot of moisture, carries a humongous amount of rainfall and gains strength in the form of wind speeds.
  • The name has been suggested by the United Arab Emirates.
  • India Meteorological Department (IMD) predicted that the storm system might move in the west and northwestward directions and intensify into a depression by the evening of 6th December.
  • It may subsequently strengthen further into a cyclone over the southwest Bay of Bengal and move towards the Tamil Nadu and Puducherry coasts by the morning of 8th December.

There Are Two Types of Cyclones:

  • Tropical cyclones – The World Meteorological Organisation uses the term ‘Tropical Cyclone’ to cover weather systems in which winds exceed (a minimum of 63 km per hour).
  • Tropical cyclones develop in the region between the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer.
  • Extratropical cyclones (also called Temperate cyclones, middle latitude cyclones, Frontal cyclones, or Wave Cyclones).
  • Extratropical cyclones occur in temperate zones and high-latitude regions, though they are known to originate in the Polar Regions.

How Are Cyclones Named?

  • Cyclones that form in every ocean basin across the world are named by the regional specialised meteorological centres (RSMCs) and Tropical Cyclone Warning Centres (TCWCs). 
  • There are six RSMCs in the world, including the India Meteorological Department (IMD) and five TCWCs.
  • As an RSMC, the IMD names the cyclones developing over the north Indian Ocean, including the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea, after following a standard procedure. 
  • The IMD is also mandated to issue advisories to 12 other countries in the region on the development of cyclones and storms.

Which Ocean in India Sees More Storms?

  • The months of OctoberNovember and MayJune see storms of severe intensity develop in the North Indian Ocean—comprising the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea—with an average of five developing in a calendar year. According to the IMD, four of these five storms are in the Bay of Bengal and one in the Arabian Sea.

What Is a Cyclone?

  • Cyclones are rapid inward air circulation around a low-pressure area. The air circulates in an anticlockwise direction in the Northern hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern hemisphere.

Current Affairs: National

Ninth World Ayurveda Congress and Arogya Expo 2022 – Inaugurated in Goa

  • The 9th World Ayurveda Congress (WAC) was inaugurated on 8 December at Panaji, Goa, in the presence of the Union Minister of State for Tourism and Shipping, Ports and Waterways, Shripad Naik. 
  • The 9th WAC aims to showcase the efficacy and strength of the AYUSH systems of medicine at the Global level. 

The Objective of the Event:

  • The objective is to provide a global platform to stakeholders, including industry leaders, practitioners, traditional healers, educationists, students, medicine manufacturers, growers of medicinal plants, marketing strategists, etc., for networking and engaging in intellectual exchange to strengthen the Ayurveda sector, envision its future, and facilitate interaction between professionals and consumers to boost Ayurveda commerce.

Market Reach of Ayurveda:

  • The market size of the AYUSH (Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy) sector in the country has grown from USD 3 billion in 2014 to over USD 18 billion now, clocking a phenomenal growth of six times. During 2014-2020, the AYUSH industry grew 17 per cent year-on-year, while the Ayurveda market is predicted to grow at 15 per cent CAGR from 2021-2026. 
  • Over 4500 participants from all over the world, including 400 foreign delegates from 53 countries, are participating in the 9th World Ayurveda Congress and Arogya Expo. 
  • The Arogya Expo is set to witness the participation of more than 215 companies, leading Ayurvedic brands, medicine manufacturers and Ayurveda-related educational and Research and Development institutions.


  • Every year 23 October is observed in India as Ayurveda Day.


The 9th World Ayurveda Congress and Arogya Expo 2022 is being held in which of the following states?

A. Goa

B. Kerala

C. Himachal Pradesh

D. Uttarakhand

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Economy

Razorpay Becomes India’s First Payment Gateway to Support Credit Cards on UPI

  • In an industry-first move, aimed at further strengthening digital payments and boosting India’s credit penetration, Razorpay, India’s Leading Full-Stack Payments and Banking Platform for Businesses, recently announced the platform’s readiness to support Credit Card Transactions on Unified Payments Interface (UPI). 
  • With this launch, Razorpay becomes India’s First PG to support Credit Cards on UPI
  • Customers of HDFC Bank, Punjab National Bank, Union Bank and Indian Bank will be the first to enjoy the benefits of this innovation. 
  • Earlier, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) announced linking RuPay credit cards to BHIM (Bharat Interface for Money) UPI app.


  • There is no need to carry credit cards for payments
  • It strengthens digital payments and boosts India’s credit penetration
  • This decision undertaken by the NPCI and RBI is set to have positive implications for both consumers and merchants
  • Currently, only 6% of Indians have access to credit cards
  • Approximately 250 million Indians use UPI for their day-to-day transactions, and nearly 50 million users have one or more credit cards 
  • The financial regulator’s move is set to offer customers the best of both worlds – the seamless payment experience of UPI with the benefits of short-term credit and the rewards of cards

About Razorpay: 

  • Razorpay, a full-stack financial services company, helps Indian businesses with comprehensive and innovative solutions built over robust technology to address the entire length and breadth of the payment and banking journey for any business. 
  • Established in 2014, the company provides technology payment solutions to over 8Mn businesses. 
  • Founded by alumni of IIT Roorkee, Shashank Kumar and Harshil Mathur, Razorpay is the second Indian company to be a part of Silicon Valley’s largest tech accelerator, Y Combinator. 


Which payment gateway becomes India’s first to support credit cards on UPI?

A. PayUBiz

B. Bill Desk

C. ePaisa

D. Razorpay

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Polity and Governance

AAP Becomes a National Party

  • In the recent Gujarat Assembly elections, AAM Aadmi Party (AAP) won 5 seats, and its vote share was almost 13%, meaning it was set to be recognised as a national party by the Election Commission of India (ECI).

What Is the National Party?

  • The name suggests that a national party would be one that has a presence ‘nationally’, as opposed to a regional party whose presence is restricted to only a particular state or region.
  • A certain stature is sometimes associated with being a national party, but this does not necessarily translate into having a lot of national political clout.

ECI’s Criteria for the National Party:

  • It is recognised as a state party in four or more states; or
  • If its candidates polled at least six per cent (6%) of total valid votes in any four or more states in the last Lok Sabha or Assembly elections, and it has at least four MPs in the last Lok Sabha polls; or
  • If it has won at least two per cent (2%) of the total seats in the Lok Sabha from not less than three states

ECI’s Criteria for State Party:

  • At least six per cent (6%) vote-share in the last Assembly election and have at least two MLAs or have six per cent (6%) vote-share in the last Lok Sabha elections from that state and at least one MP from that state; or
  • At least three per cent (3%) of the total number of seats or three seats, whichever is more, in the last Assembly elections; or
  • At least one MP for every 25 members or any fraction allotted to the state in the Lok Sabha; or
  • At least eight per cent (8%) of the total valid votes in the last Assembly election or Lok Sabha election from the state

Data Matrix of AAP:

  • The AAP is in power with big majorities—and very large vote shares—in Delhi and Punjab
  • In the Goa Assembly elections held in March, it received 6.77% of the vote
  • It secured almost 13% votes in the recently held Gujarat election, thereby fulfilling the criteria of being recognised as a State party in at least four states

Other National Parties in India:

  • According to ECI, as of now, India has recognised eight parties as national parties — BJP, Congress, Trinamool Congress, CPI(M), CPI, Nationalist Congress Party (NCP), Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP), and Conrad Sangma’s National People’s Party (NPP)
  • NPP was recognised in 2019
  • AAP will become the ninth party to be recognised as a national party


To get the status of the National party, Aam Aadmi Party has recently filled the criterion and made a presence in which four states/UT?

A. Delhi, Punjab, Goa, Gujarat

B. Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat

C. Delhi, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat

D. Delhi, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh

Answer: A

Fact Book – 9th December 2022

  1. Peru’s first female president
  • Dina Boluarte became Peru’s first female president recently amid a political maelstrom when her predecessor and former boss Pedro Castillo was ousted in an impeachment trial and detained by police after he tried to illegally shut down Congress.
  • Vice President Dina Boluarte will now lead the country’s fragile democracy through its biggest political crisis in years. The crisis comes as Peru’s inflation rate is at its highest point in decades, raising the stakes of political dysfunction in a nation where a quarter of the population of 33 million lives in poverty.
  • Peru is a country in South America that’s home to a section of the Amazon rainforest and Machu Picchu, an ancient Incan city high in the Andes mountains. 
  • On Peru’s arid Pacific coast is Lima, the capital, with a preserved colonial centre and important collections of pre-Columbian art.
  1. International Anti-Corruption Day-2022
  • People across the world celebrate International Anti-Corruption Day on December 9. 
  • The main motive behind marking this day is to spread awareness about a corruption-society. 
  • The purpose behind a day of this kind is to make people aware of the repercussions of indulging in corruption and motivate them to follow a righteous path.
  • The theme for International Anti-Corruption Day-2022 is “Uniting the world against corruption”.
  • The United Nations General Assembly adopted the United Nations Convention against corruption on 31 October 2003.
  1. PackMach Asia 2022
  • The Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises(MSME) in partnership with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry organised the Mega International Conference on Packaging at PackMach Asia and Buyer-Seller meet from 7-9 December 2022 in Mumbai.
  • The event was attended by more than 200 MSMEs.
  • During the Mega International Conference and Buyer-Seller meet, various technical sessions were organised to deliberate upon opportunities in EPR, Packaging technology, Biodegradable packaging materials, Latest technology, business opportunity for the packaging industry, Government schemes to support the growth of MSME in the Packaging Industry, etc.
  1. World Bank raises India FY23 GDP growth forecast to 6.9%
  • The World Bank recently raised India’s economic growth forecast for the current financial year to 6.9% from its October estimate of 6.5%, citing the economy’s resilience in the face of a challenging external environment and the September quarter performance. 
  • According to WB, India’s economy has been remarkably resilient to the deteriorating external environment, and strong macroeconomic fundamentals have placed it in good stead compared to other emerging market economies.
  • The rapid monetary policy tightening in developed economies has caused the outflow of investments and the depreciation of the rupee. However, the country remains resilient to global spillovers partly because of its large domestic market and relatively less exposure to international trade flows.
  1. Forbes’ 100 Most Powerful Women list
  • Union Finance Minister Nirmala Sitharaman, Biocon Executive Chairperson Kiran Mazumdar-Shaw and Nykaa founder Falguni Nayar are among six Indians who have made it to the Forbes’ annual list of “The World’s 100 Most Powerful Women”.
  • Ranked at number 36, Ms Sitharaman has made it to the list for the fourth time in a row.
  • The other Indians to feature on the list are HCLTech Chairperson Roshni Nadar Malhotra (rank: 53), SEBI Chairperson Madhabi Puri Buch (rank: 54), and Steel Authority Of India Chairperson Soma Mondal (rank: 67).
  • The list was topped by European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen.
  • After that, European Central Bank President Christine Lagarde stood at the second position on the list. 
  • US Vice President Kamala Harris ranked third on the list. 
  • Apart from this, Iran’s Jina “Mahsa” Amini was posthumously featured in the influential list at rank 100. Her death in September sparked one of Iran’s worst public protests.
  • Forbes is an American business magazine owned by Integrated Whale Media Investments and the Forbes family. 
  • Published eight times a year, it features articles on finance, industry, investing, and marketing topics. Forbes also reports on related subjects such as technology, communications, science, politics, and law.
  1. Veena Nair wins PM’s prize in Australia
  • An Indian-origin teacher in Australia has received the 2022 Prime Minister’s Prize for Excellence in Science Teaching in secondary schools.
  • Melbourne-based Veena Nair, who is ViewBank College’s Head of Technology and STEAM project leader, has been awarded for demonstrating the practical application of STEAM to students and how they can use their skills to make a real impact in the world.
  • The Prime Minister’s Prizes for Science – Science Prizes award Australian scientists and innovators with prizes to recognise outstanding achievements in science and research-based innovation.
  • This award was created by the Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, following the Australian History Summit held in Canberra on 17 August 2006. The winner (or winners) receive a gold medallion and a grant worth A$100,000.
  1. Gamma Ray Burst
  • In a first-of-its-kind detection, astronomers recorded a binary merger emitting long GRB twinned with a Kilonovae emission. 
  • Traditionally associated with short GRB, Kilonovae occurs when two compact objects, like binary neutron stars or a neutron star and a black hole, collide.  
  • GRBs are flashes of high-energy radiation arising from energetic cosmic explosions. 
  • GRBs are divided into two main categories-
    • Long GRBs (2 seconds or more) originate from the formation of dense objects like black holes in centres of massive collapsing stars 
    • Short GRBs (less than 2 seconds) are caused by mergers of dense objects like neutron stars 
  1. ISRO and Social Alpha sign MoU to establish SpaceTech Innovation Platform
  • ISRO and Social Alpha signed an MoU to launch SpaceTech Innovation Network (SpIN).
  • It would be India’s first dedicated platform for innovation curation and venture development for the burgeoning space entrepreneurial ecosystem.
  • SpIN will primarily focus on facilitating space tech entrepreneurs in three distinct innovation categories:
  • Geospatial Technologies and Downstream Applications
  • Avionics
  • Enabling Technologies for Space and Mobility
  • Aerospace Materials and Sensors

Current Affairs: Defence

39th Edition of India-Indonesia Coordinated Patrol

  • The 39th edition of India-Indonesia Coordinated Patrol (IND-INDO CORPAT) between the Indian Navy and the Indonesian Navy is being conducted from 08–19 December 2022. 
  • Indian Naval Ship (INS) Karmuk, an indigenously built Missile Corvette, participated in the pre-deployment briefing at Belawan, Indonesia. 


  • The CORPAT will be executed along the International Maritime Boundary Line (IMBL) from 15 to 16 December 2022 and will conclude with a debrief at Port Blair. 
  • Along with INS Karmuk, L-58 (indigenously built Landing Craft Utility vessel) and Dornier Maritime Patrol Aircraft will be participating in the CORPAT. 
  • KRI Cut Nyak Dien, a Kapitan Pattimura Class Corvette, would represent the Indonesian side.

CORPATs in Line With SAGAR:

  • The Indian Navy has been proactively engaging with other countries in the Indian Ocean Region (IOR) to tighten maritime security keeping in line with the Government of India’s vision SAGAR (Security And Growth for All in the Region). 

Aim and Objective:

  • India and Indonesia have been carrying out CORPATs twice a year since 2002, with the aim of keeping this vital part of the IOR safe and secure for commercial shipping, international trade and conduct of legitimate maritime activities. 
  • CORPATs help build understanding and interoperability between navies and facilitate the institution of measures to prevent and suppress Illegal Unreported Unregulated (IUU) fishing, drug trafficking, maritime terrorism, armed robbery and piracy. 
  • It further helps enhance the operational synergy by exchange of information for the prevention of smuggling and illegal immigration and for the conduct of Search and Rescue (SAR) operations at sea.

About India-Indonesia Relation:

  • India and Indonesia have traditionally enjoyed a close and friendly relationship covering a wide spectrum of activities and interactions. 
  • The 39th edition of IND-INDO CORPAT seeks to bolster maritime cooperation between the two navies and forge strong bonds of friendship between India and Indonesia. 


India-Indonesia Coordinated Patrol (IND-INDO CORPAT) between the Indian Navy and the Indonesian Navy was first Initiated in which of the following years?

A. 2002

B. 2006

C. 2010

D. 2022

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Environment and Ecology

Three Himalayan Medicinal Plants Enter the IUCN Red List

  • In a recent assessment, three medicinal plant species found in the Himalayas have been added to the IUCN ‘Red List’ of Threatened Species, providing them with conservation status.

The species are as follows:

  1. Meizotropis pellita as ‘critically endangered’ 
  2. Fritillaria cirrhosa as ‘vulnerable’
  3. Dactylorhiza hatagirea as ‘endangered’

Areas in which the Plants are Found:

  • The Himalayan region is spread across Nepal, India, China, Sikkim, Afghanistan, and Pakistan.

The Associated Threats:

  • Deforestation, habitat loss, forest fires, illegal trade, and climate change.

Details about All Three Species:

  • Meizotropis pellita:
    • Commonly known as ‘Patwa’, it is a perennial shrub with a restricted distribution that is endemic to Uttarakhand.
    • The species is listed as ‘critically endangered’ based on its limited area of occupancy (less than ten square kilometres).
    • The essential oil extracted from the leaves of the species possesses strong antioxidants and can be a promising natural substitute for synthetic antioxidants in pharmaceutical industries.
  • Fritillaria cirrhosa (Yellow Himalayan fritillary): 
    • It is used for the treatment of bronchial disorders and pneumonia. The plant is also a strong cough suppressant and a source of expectorant drugs in traditional Chinese medicine.
  • Dactylorhiza hatagirea(Salam Panja): 
    • It is extensively used in Ayurveda, Siddha, Unani, and other alternative systems of medicine to cure dysentery, gastritis, chronic fever, cough, and stomach aches.
    • It is a perennial tuberous species endemic to the Hindu Kush and Himalayan ranges of Afghanistan, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal, and Pakistan.

What Is the International Union for Conservation of Nature-IUCN?

  • IUCN is an international organisation (NGO) working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
  • It is involved in data gathering and analysis, research, field projects, advocacy, lobbying, and education. 
  • The organisation is best known for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List, which assesses the conservation status of species worldwide. 
  • Its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland.

What Is Red List:

  • The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, founded in 1964, is the world’s most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
  • When discussing the IUCN Red List, the official term “threatened” is a grouping of three categories: Critically Endangered, Endangered, and Vulnerable.


  • The pink pages in the IUCN document include the critically endangered species. 
  • As the status of the species changes, new pages are sent to the subscribers. 
  • Green pages are used for those species that were formerly endangered but have now recovered to a point where they are no longer threatened.


In a recent assessment, three medicinal plant species found in the Himalayas have been added to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Which of the following is not included in that list?

A. Meizotropis pellita

B. Fritillaria cirrhosa 

C. Dactylorhiza hatagirea

D. Pinus roxburghii

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Science and Technology

Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre Gets a New Trisonic Wind Tunnel

  • The new trisonic wind tunnel at the Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC) was inaugurated recently by successfully conducting the first blow-down.
  • The massive structure, which can perform tests in three-speed regimes, equips the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) with a robust in-house support system for space missions. 
  • For the country as a whole, it is a big step towards self-reliance in the aerospace sector, the VSSC says.

What Is a Trisonic Wind Tunnel?

  • Wind tunnels are devices used to study the effects of air flows on solid objects—in this case, scale models of ISRO rockets and spacecraft. 
  • The trisonic wind tunnel is used to study the aerodynamic behaviour of flying objects, such as aeroplanes, artillery projectiles or missiles, in all three-speed regimes:
    • Subsonic
    • Transonic
    • Supersonic
    • This is how it got its name, Trisonic Wind Tunnel
  • This system aids the aerodynamic design of rockets and re-entry spacecraft by characterising a scaled model by evaluating forces, moments, load distribution, unsteady pressures, acoustic levels etc.
  • Maximum length: 160 m
  • Maximum cross-section: 4 m

Importance of this Tunnel:

  • The trisonic wind tunnel was implemented through M/s Tata Projects India Ltd with the assistance of industries across the country.
  • The trisonic wind tunnel is a major step towards India’s increasing self-reliance in the Aerospace sector.
  • For years, ISRO had depended on the trisonic wind tunnel at the National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL), and now it has its own.

The tunnel Can Be Used for Testing Various Space Vehicles in Three Flight Regimes:

  • Below the speed of sound(Subsonic)
  • At the speed of sound (Transonic)
  • above the speed of sound (Supersonic)
    • The tunnel can simulate flight conditions from 0.2 times the speed of sound (68 m/s) to 4 times the speed of sound (1360 m/s)


The new trisonic wind tunnel was recently inaugurated, and its first blow-down test was successfully conducted at which of the following facilities?

A. Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre

B. Satish Dhawan Space Centre

C. North Eastern Space Application Centre

D. Human Space Flight Centre

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Important Days and Events

International Day of Neutrality 2022

  • International Day of Neutrality is commemorated on 12 December. 
  • It is a day when people look at the possibility of a world of armed and other types of conflicts.
  • The day was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 2017. 
  • Its focus was on advocating and campaigning for intra-state peaceful relations. Switzerland serves as the perfect example of neutrality.


  • While there is no fixed theme for the International Day of Neutrality, the United Nations focuses on “Preventive diplomacy”, which is the diplomatic action taken to prevent disputes from escalating into conflicts, as well as limiting the spread of conflicts; as well as “mediating” in inter and intra-state conflicts at all stages, and “peacekeeping” that has flourished in the decade following the end of the Cold War in 1991.


  • On 2 February 2017, the United Nations General Assembly decided to establish, without a vote resolution 71/275, 12 December as the International Day of Neutrality proposed by Turkmenistan. The country has been recognised by the United Nations as a permanently neutral state since December 1995.
  • According to the Peace and Cooperation official website, Neutrality is defined as “the legal situation derived from the abstention of a State from any participation in a war between States, the maintenance of an attitude of impartiality towards the belligerents and the recognition by the belligerents of this abstention and impartiality, is extremely important for the United Nations to gain and maintain the trust and cooperation of all to operate independently and effectively, especially in politically charged situations.”


  • The International Day of Neutrality is a reminder of how important neutrality truly is, especially for humanitarian reasons. 
  • During armed conflicts, it is neutrality that NGOs and other humanitarian agencies are able to care for casualties in a proper way. 
  • The day is also a reminder to strive towards peace. It asks people to aim for a world without conflict and how the world by putting their efforts together can achieve this.
  • Another importance of the International Day of Neutrality is that it asks us to look at the neutral countries as an example of model states. These countries can be looked up to learn how war is not the answer.


International Day of Neutrality is commemorated every year on which of the following dates?

A. 9 January

B. 19 June 

C. 28 September

D. 12 December

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Environment and Ecology

Tamil Nadu Became the First State to Launch Its Own Climate Change Mission

  • Tamil Nadu Chief Minister M K Stalin launched the Tamil Nadu Climate Change Mission recently to protect the natural resources in the state besides restoring them on a long-term basis.
  • Tamil Nadu became the first state to launch its own Climate Change Mission. 
  • It had launched the Green Tamil Nadu Mission last September and the Tamil Nadu Wetlands Mission this August. 
  • A Special Purpose Vehicle—the Tamil Nadu Green Climate Company (TNGCC)—will implement the State Climate Action Plan.

Key Goals of the Mission:

  • The key goals of the Tamil Nadu Climate Change mission are to formulate plans to reduce overall greenhouse gas emissions in the state, increase the use of public transport, develop strategies to cut emissions by using green and renewable energy, increase forest cover, and manage waste effectively. 
  • The goals also embrace ways to develop ways to mitigate the impact of climate change, access financial resources for adaptation, initiate climate education in educational institutions, focus on climate action for women and children, and adopt a ‘One Health’ approach that includes human, animal, and ecological health to understand health disruptions caused by climate change.

Efforts Made by Tamil Nadu Government to Achieve Climate Targets:

  • Stalin’s government also set up the Tamil Nadu Governing Council on Climate Change, the first such to be headed by a Chief Minister. 
  • The council will provide policy guidance to the Tamil Nadu Climate Change Mission, provide advice on adaptation to climate change and mitigation of climate change impacts, formulate the Tamil Nadu State Climate Change Action Plan and provide appropriate guidelines for its implementation.


Which of the following became the first state/UT in India to launch its Climate change mission?

A. Kerala

B. Andaman and Nicobar

C. Tamil Nadu

D. Assam

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Environment and Ecology

India’s First Carbon Neutral Farm

  • Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan recently declared a seed farm located in Aluva as the first carbon-neutral farm in the country.
  • A significant reduction in carbon emission has helped the seed farm, under the Agricultural Department, achieve carbon neutral status, he said, making the announcement.
  • The total amount of carbon emission from the farm, located at Thuruthu in Aluva, in the last one year was 43 tons, but its overall procurement was 213 tons, he said.

What Is Carbon Neutrality?

  • Carbon neutrality means having a balance between emitting carbon and absorbing carbon from the atmosphere in carbon sinks. Removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and then storing it is known as carbon sequestration.
  • A person, company or country is carbon neutral if they balance the carbon dioxide they release into the atmosphere through their everyday activities with the amount they absorb or remove from the atmosphere.

Efforts by Kerala in Particular:

  • Carbon-neutral farms will be set up in all 140 Assembly constituencies. Efforts have already been launched to make 13 farms in Kerala carbon-neutral.
  • Carbon-neutral agricultural methods would be implemented through women’s groups, and such interventions would be made in the tribal sector as well.
  • Even as the state moves towards the goal of achieving food self-sufficiency, plans to maintain ecological equilibrium are also equally important.
  • As many as 30 per cent of greenhouse gas emissions come from agriculture, and this can be prevented, and climate change can be regulated through carbon-neutral agricultural practices.


India’s first carbon-neutral farm was recently declared in which of the following states/UTs?

A. Andhra Pradesh

B. Himachal Pradesh

C. Puducherry 

D. Kerala

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Awards and Recognitions

Ex-Vice President Naidu Receives SIES Award for Public Leadership

  • Former vice president Venkaiah Naidu has been conferred the 25th Sri Chandrasekarendra Saraswati National Eminence Award (SIES) for public leadership. 
  • Other awardees in various categories included the Governor of Kerala Arif Mohammed Khan, eminent industrialist Ratan Tata, renowned cardiologist and Padma Vibhushan awardee Dr Marthanda Varma Sankaran Valianathan, Scientific Advisor to the Government of India Ajay Sood and famous Harikatha artiste Vishakha Hari. 

About the Awards:

  • The awards were instituted by the South Indian Education Society in 1998 in memory of the late Seer of Kanchi, Sri Chandrasekharendra Saraswati.
  • The awards are given in the fields of public leadership, community leadership, science and technology, and social thinkers who have made outstanding contributions in their respective fields.
  • Each award carries a cash prize of ₹2.5 lakh, a citation, an ornamental lamp and a scroll.

Eminence Awards – Details

YearPublic LeadershipCommunity LeadershipScience and TechnologySocial Thinker/ Pravachan KarthaInternational Award
2021Yogi Adityanath, CM of Uttar PradeshAkshaya Patra Foundation and Dr Devi Prasad Shetty, Founder, Narayana HridayalayaDr K. Sivan, Chairman, ISRODr Udaiyalur Kalyanarama Bhagavathar
2020Dr Subramanian SwamyDr. Bindeshwar Pathak and Shri. Kesava ParasaranDr Roddam NarasimhaSri Ramakrishna Math and Ramakrishna Mission
2019Shri Nitin GadkariDr Devendra R. MehtaDr Manju SharmaSwami Avdeshanand GiriProf Huang Baosheng
2018Dr Manmohan SinghDr Manjul BhargavaDr V. K. SaraswatSwami Chidanand SaraswatiDr Sengaku Mayeda
2017Shri Pranab MukherjeeGeneral Vishwanath SharmaProf Baldev RajPujya Swami OmkaranandaDr David Dean Shulman
2016Shri Devendra FadnavisDr Kiran KumarSmt T. R. KamalamurthyDr John Marr
2015Shri Suresh PrabhuSmt Rajashree BirlaDr R. K. SinhaDr David Frawley, USADr Sergie Emile Demetrian


Who among the following recently received the 2022 Chandrasekharendra Saraswati National Eminence Award (SIES) in the public leadership category?

A. Venkaiah Naidu

B. Yogi Adityanath

C. Nitin Gadkari

D. Subramanian Swamy

Answer: A

Fact Book – 12 December 2022

U.S. prints first banknotes with women’s signatures

  • The U.S. Treasury (United States of America’s Finance Ministry) has printed the first U.S. banknotes (currency notes) with two women’s signatures.  
  • The new currency notes of $1 and $5 value carry the signature of the Secretary of Treasury (American Finance Minister) Janet Yellen and Lynn Malerba. 
  • The United States currency notes are popularly called Greenback.
  • Lynn Malerba is Native American and is the chief of the Mohegan Tribe. She holds the position of Treasurer of the United States within the Department of Treasury, United States government.
  • Janet Yellen is a former chairman of the United States Central Bank, Federal Reserve of New York. She was the first female head of the Federal Reserve.

International Universal Health Coverage Day 2022

  • Universal Health Coverage Day is marked to promote the importance of building robust, resilient, world-class healthcare systems globally. 
  • Having access to high-quality, reasonably priced healthcare is important for global growth. On this day, the disparities within the healthcare system’s various divisions are emphasised, endangering global social and economic development. 
  • Additionally, it is a day devoted to “Health for All”, and it reflects on achievements and identifies areas in need of improvement to progress toward a more just and healthier society without suffering significant financial hardship.
  • This year’s theme, “Build the world we want: A healthy future for all,” emphasises the importance of equity, trust, healthy surroundings, investments, and accountability in order to build strong health systems.

A hot test of the scramjet engine was conducted successfully

  • In a quest to launch satellites in predetermined orbits at a low cost, India has crossed a key milestone by successfully conducting a hot test for its scramjet’s engine.
  • ISRO has conducted a hot test for its air-breathing scramjet engine.
  • A hot test system is a 100% production test used to check all the engine operating parameters as they would function in real time.
  • The test was conducted at its Propulsion Research Complex at Mahendragiri in the Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu.
  • The test lasted for 11 seconds.
  • A scramjet engine is an improvement over the ramjet engine.
  • India is the fourth country to demonstrate the flight testing of a Scramjet Engine.
  • Thus, it is known as Supersonic Combustion Ramjet or Scramjet.
  • In scramjet engines, the combustion takes place in supersonic airflow.
  • Such engines use oxygen from the atmosphere in the combustion of fuel.

India ranked 5th in the list of valuable companies of Hurun Global 500 rankings

  • India, with 20 of the most valuable companies in the world, has moved into the fifth position among countries that are home to the world’s top 500 firms. 
  • Last year, it ranked ninth with eight companies. The US continued to top the charts, according to the 2022 Hurun Global 500 list. 
  • The list, released by the Hurun Research Institute, is a compilation of the 500 most valuable non-state-controlled companies in the world. Companies were ranked according to their market capitalization (for listed companies) and valuations for non-listed companies.
  • Globally, Apple retained the title of the most valuable company in the world with a market cap of $2.4 trillion< and Microsoft came second ($1.8 trillion), while Alphabet, the parent company of Google, displaced Amazon to take third place.
  • China came in second with 35 companies, followed by Japan (28) and the UK (21). India and Canada moved to fifth place with 20 companies each, adding eight and three companies, respectively, overtaking France and Germany.

Renewable Energy (RE) Report 2022

  • This Report was recently released by the International Energy Association (IEA). 
  • Key findings of Report RE will comprise 90 per cent of global electricity capacity expansion in the next five years, and much of it will be in India. 
  • RE’s installed power capacity addition will grow to 2,400 gigawatts (GW) between 2022 and 2027. With the addition of 145 GW, India is forecast to almost double its renewable power capacity over 2022-2027. 
  • Solar photovoltaics accounts for three-quarters of this growth, followed by onshore wind (15 per cent) and hydropower providing the rest of it.

Bengaluru is set to host the first meeting of G20 Finance Track

  • Bengaluru is all set to host the first meeting of the G20 Finance Track under India’s G20 Presidency. 
  • First G20 Finance and Central Bank Deputies Meeting are scheduled to be held in Bengaluru on 13-15 December 2022.
  • The Finance Track meeting is organised by the Union Ministry of Finance, and it will organise a number of such meetings in the areas of international financial architecture, financial inclusion and sustainable finance, financing for infrastructure, climate finance and tax matters.
  • According to the Union Finance Ministry, the  Indian G-20 Presidency’s theme of “Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam” or “One Earth, One Family, One Future” will guide the G-20 Finance Track discussions. 

World Bank’s flagship Gender Toolkit launched

  • The World Bank recently launched a “Toolkit on Enabling Gender Responsive Urban Mobility and Public Spaces in India” with the aim of suggesting ways to make public transport in Indian cities more inclusive of women’s travelling requirements.
  • The toolkit emphasises the importance of integrating a gender lens in transport policies and infrastructure, making various recommendations on interventions that can help make urban transport safer, especially for women.

The toolkit will help in:

  • Bridging the knowledge gaps
  • Integrating a gender lens
  • Reflecting the concerns of women in development plans
  • Building gender sensitivity
  • Investing in better infrastructure and services
  • Disfavouring Pink tax

Country’s largest business jet terminal commissioned at Cochin International Airport

  • Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan recently inaugurated the country’s first chartered gateway and a business jet terminal at the Cochin International Airport. 
  • With this, Cochin airport has become the fourth airport in the country to operate a private jet terminal.
  • The new facility at the airport will boost tourism as well as the MICE (Meetings, Incentives, Conferences and Exhibitions) sector in the state. 
  • It will propel the airport to the forefront of the aviation industry in the country. 
  • The facility will also serve as a platform to integrate the hospitality and aviation sectors.
  • Post-Covid, the state achieved 114 per cent growth in the hospitality sector and 75 per cent growth in the aviation sector.
  • The terminal was built at the cost of ₹40 crores by renovating the old domestic terminal. 
  • It covers an area of 40,000 sq ft with comfortable lounges, customs and immigration counters, a business centre and other modern facilities.

Current Affairs: Defence

The Indian Navy and Air Force Allows Women to Join Elite Special Forces 

  • In a historic move, the Indian Navy and Indian Air Force have decided to allow women to be part of its elite special forces, the Marine Commandos-Navy(Marcos) and the Garud commando force-AirForce. 
  • It will lead to promoting gender equality within its ranks, provided they meet the criteria for selection.
  • Women officers and sailors who join the Navy as Agniveers next year will have the option to volunteer to become Marcos.
  • The Army, Navy and Air Force have Special Forces comprising the toughest soldiers who have to undergo rigorous training to be able to conduct a swift and stealthy response in denied territories. Until now, only men were allowed to be part of the Special Forces.

Who are the Marcos?

  • The Indian Navy raised the Marcos in 1987. 
  • Initially, they were named the Indian Marine Special Forces (IMSF). 
  • However, in 1991, the Navy changed the name to “sabotage forces of the marines” – Marine Commando Force (MCF), also known as Marcos in short.
  • Earlier in 1954, a group of officers and foremen in the Indian Navy were trained by specialists from the Special Boat Service commando outfit of Great Britain to conduct special warfare at sea. 
  • This was done so that these officers could independently train combat swimmers as instructors.

What do Marcos do?

  • The Marcos are trained to carry out intense operations in the sea, air and on land. 
  • They are capable of conducting clandestine attacks against enemy warships, specialised diving operations, surveillance and reconnaissance missions, installations of offshore and other vital assets, and supporting naval operations.
  • Marcos operate under extreme secrecy and are capable of fighting terrorists in a maritime environment. 
  • They have even been deployed in Kashmir’s Wular lake area to take part in counterterror activities.

Major Operations by Marcos:

  • Marcos were part of Operation Tasha in 1991 on the Tamil Nadu coast, where they restricted the movement of LTTE militants between Sri Lanka and India and stopped the smuggling of arms.
  • During the 1999 Kargil War, the Marcos assisted the Indian Army in carrying out covert operations.
  • During Operation Rahat in 2015 in Yemen, they successfully evacuated thousands of Indians and foreign nationals who were struck in the civil war.

What Is the Garud Commando Force?

  • The Garud Commando Force is the special forces unit of the Indian Air Force 
  • It was formed in September 2004. It has a current strength of over 1500 personnel 
  • The unit derives its name from Garuda, a divine bird-like creature in Hindu culture
  • Headquarters location: Chandinagar Road
  • Motto(s): ॥प्रहार से सुरक्षा॥ Defence by Offence
  • Garrison: Hindan AFS; Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh
  • Decorations: 1 Ashok Chakra, 4 Shaurya Chakras

What do Garud Commandos do?

  • Garud forces are tasked with the protection of critical Air Force bases and installations, search and rescue during peacetime and hostilities and disaster relief during calamities. Presently, Garuds are deployed in Congo as part of the UN peacekeeping operations.


Consider the following statements:

  1. The Indian Navy and Indian Air Force has recently allowed women to be part of its elite special forces
  2. The Indian Navy raised the Marcos in 1987
  3. Macros did not participate in the kargil war

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

A. Only 1 and 2

B. Only 2 and 3

C. Only 1 and 3

D. All are correct

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Science and Technology

UAE Successfully Launches the First-Ever Arab-Built Lunar Spacecraft

  • A SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket recently carried the first-ever Arab-built lunar spacecraft into space.
  • It was launched from the Cape Canaveral Space Force Station in Florida. 
  • The Rashid Rover was built by Dubai’s Mohammed bin Rashid Space Centre (MBRSC) in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and is being delivered by the HAKUTO-R lander, engineered by Japanese lunar exploration company ispace.
  • The UAE-Japan mission comprises a lander that is built by Japanese company ispace and called Hakuto-R (meaning “white rabbit”). 
  • The craft will take almost four months to reach the Moon before landing in the Atlas crater on the Moon’s nearside. 
  • It will then gently release the 10 kg, four-wheel Rashid (meaning “rightly guided”) rover to explore the lunar surface.

What Is Rashid Rover?

  • The rover – built by the Mohammed bin Rashid Space Centre – contains a high-resolution camera and a thermal-imaging camera that will both study the composition of the lunar regolith. 
  • They will also photograph dust movement above the surface, carry out the basic examination of lunar rocks as well as study surface plasma conditions.

About Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre:

  • The Mohammed Bin Rashid Space Centre is a Dubai government organisation working on the UAE space programme, which includes various space satellite projects, the Emirates Mars Mission, the Emirates Lunar Mission, and the UAE astronaut programme. 
  • Founded: 6 February 2006
  • Agency executive: Yousuf Hamad Alshaibani, Director General
  • Headquarters: Dubai, United Arab Emirates


  • If successful, the rover will make the UAE the fourth nation, after China, Russia and the US, to operate a spacecraft on the Moon.


Recently UAE successfully launched its first-ever Arab-built lunar spacecraft in coordination with the ispace company of which country?


B. Japan

C. India

D. China

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Ecology

New Songbird Species Discovered in Arunachal Pradesh

  • In a remarkable discovery, six birdwatchers trekked to a remote corner of Arunachal Pradesh to discover a potentially new species of Wren Babbler, which they have named Lisu Wren Babbler.
  • It is named Lisu Wren Babbler after the Lisu community of the state. 
  • Bird has a whitish belly, and songs were similar to that of Naga Wren Babb. 

About Wren Babbler:

  • About 20 species of small Asian birds belong to the babbler family. 
  • These include Grey-bellied Wren Babblers and long-tailed Wren Babblers. 
  • They are 10 to 15 centimetres (4 to 6 inches) long, rather short-tailed, and have a rather short and straight bill. 
  • They occur chiefly in southern Asia.
  • IUCN Status: Least Concern


Recently a new songbird species of Wren Babbler bird discovered in Arunachal Pradesh is named after which of the following communities of the state?

A. Mishmi

B. Momba

C. Lisu 

D. Singpho

Answer: C

Current Affairs: National

Ministry of Culture Established Seven Zonal Cultural Centres to Develop Arts, Culture and Craft, Nationwide 

  • For the conservation and development of art, culture and crafts across the country, the Ministry of Culture, Government of India, has set up seven Zonal Cultural Centres (ZCCs) with headquarters at Patiala, Nagpur, Udaipur, Prayagraj, Kolkata, Dimapur and Thanjavur. 
  • These ZCCs organise various cultural activities (a minimum of 42 Regional Festivals) and programmes on a regular basis in their member States throughout the year. 


  • These centres aim to conserve and develop art, culture and crafts across the country. 
  • The government provides regular annual grant-in-aid for conducting various activities and programmes to ZCCs. 
  • However, no State and Union Territory wise funds are released by the Ministry for the purpose.
  • These centres also implement a number of schemes for the preservation and promotion of various folk arts and cultures of the country. 


The Ministry of Culture has set up seven Zonal Cultural Centers for the development of arts, culture and craft across the country. Which of the following cities is not a part of its centres?

A. Delhi

B. Udaipur

C. Prayagraj

D. Dimapur 

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Environment

United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) – Aichi Targets

  • Delegates from 196 countries — Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) — are being met in Montreal, Canada, from 7 to 21 December with the aim of hammering out a new global agreement on halting environmental loss.

What are Aichi Targets?

  • The Aichi Targets, adopted during the 2010 CBD summit in Nagoya, located in Japan’s Aichi prefecture, included goals such as reducing deforestation by at least half during the coming decade and curbing pollution so that it no longer harmed ecosystems
  • According to a September 2020 UN assessment, no single country met all 20 Aichi Targets within its own borders
  • India is also a party to the Convention
  • The Convention is legally binding on its signatories
  • Only two member states of the United Nations are not Parties to the CBD: the USA and the Vatican
  • The most notable Aichi objective and one of the few to include a numerical goal — aimed to protect or conserve 17% of all land and inland waters and 10% of the ocean by the end of the decade
  • Today about 15% of the world’s land and 8% of ocean territories are under some form of protection, though the level of protection varies
  • The Global Environment Facility, the primary source of financing for international biodiversity protection, has collected around $5 billion from 29 countries for the funding period from 2022 to 2026
  • The Aichi Targets also failed to garner buy-in from governments beyond the environmental ministers who brokered the deal

About Global Environment Facility (GEF):

  • The Global Environment Facility (GEF) is a multilateral environmental fund that provides grants and blended finance in developing countries for projects related to:
    • Biodiversity and climate change
    • International waters
    • Land degradation
    • Persistent organic pollutants (POPs)
    • Mercury
    • Sustainable forest management
    • Food security, and
    • Sustainable cities


Consider the following statements 

  1. Global Environment Facility serves as a financial mechanism for ‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ and ‘United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
  2. The Aichi Targets were adopted during the 2010 CBD summit in Nagoya
  3. The major objective of  Aichi Targets are aimed to protect or conserve 17% of all land and inland waters and 10% of the ocean by the end of the decade

Which of the following statements is/are correct

A. 1 and 2 only

B. 3 only

C. 2 and 3 only

D. 1, 2 and 3

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Important Days and Events

Energy Conservation Day 2022

  • National Energy Conservation Day is celebrated every year on 14th December 2022. The purpose is to showcase the achievements of the nation in energy efficiency and conservation.
  • Smt Droupadi Murmu, Hon’ble President of India, will be the Chief Guest of the event. Shri R. K. Singh, Union Minister of Power, New and Renewable Energy, will address the occasion.

National Energy Conservation Award 2022:

  • To raise awareness about energy efficiency and its conservation, the BEE, under the guidance of the Ministry of Power, recognises and encourages endeavours of industrial units, institutions, and establishments in reducing energy consumption by felicitating them with Energy Conservation Awards on the occasion of National Energy Conservation Day.

National Energy Efficiency Innovation Awards (NEEIA) 2022:

  • NEEIA awards were started in the year 2021 to recognise outstanding work and innovative minds of India in the area of Energy Efficiency
  • Category A: Professionals from the Industries, Building, and Transport sectors, and 
  • Category B: Students and Research Scholars
  • The awards are evaluated based on Replicability, Affordability, Reliability, Impact on Energy Savings and Impact on Environment and Sustainability.

Launch of ‘EV-YATRA PORTAL’ and Mobile App:

  • The Bureau of Energy Efficiency has developed a Mobile Application to facilitate in-vehicle navigation to the nearest public EV charger, a website to disseminate information on various central and state-level initiatives to promote e-mobility in the country, and a web portal to enable CPOs to register their charging details securely into the National Online Database.
  • The Mobile application titled “EV Yatra” has been designed and developed to facilitate in-vehicle navigation to the nearest public EV charger.

Current Affairs: Economy

RBI Signs Currency Swap Agreement with Maldives Monetary Authority

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has recently signed an agreement to extend up to a $200 million currency swap facility to Maldives Monetary Authority (MMA) under the SAARC Currency Swap Framework.
  • This agreement will enable the MMA to withdraw multiple tranches up to a maximum of $200 million from the RBI.
  • The facility is to provide swap support as a backstop line of funding for short-term foreign exchange liquidity requirements.
  • In 2020, the RBI had signed a similar pact for extending up to a $400 million currency swap facility to Sri Lanka.

What Is a Currency Swap?

  • A currency swap is a transaction in which two parties exchange an equivalent amount of money with each other but in different currencies. 
  • The parties are essentially loaning each other money and will repay the amounts at a specified date and exchange rate. 
  • The purpose could be to hedge exposure to exchange-rate risk, to speculate on the direction of a currency, or to reduce the cost of borrowing in a foreign currency.


  • Central banks and Governments engage in currency swaps with foreign counterparts to meet short-term foreign exchange liquidity requirements or to ensure adequate foreign currency to avoid the Balance of Payments (BOP) crisis till longer arrangements can be made.
  • These swap operations carry no exchange rate or other market risks as transaction terms are set in advance.

What Is the RBI’s Framework for Swap Facilities for SAARC?

  • The SAARC currency swap facility came into operation on 15th November 2012
  • The RBI can offer a swap arrangement within the overall corpus of USD 2 billion
  • The swap withdrawals can be made in US dollars, euros or Indian rupees. The framework provides certain concessions for swap withdrawals in the Indian rupee


Recently the RBI signed a currency swap agreement of $200 million with which country under the SAARC Currency Swap Framework?

A. Maldives

B. Sri Lanka

C. Philippines

D. Ecuador

Answer: A

Fact Book-13 December 2022

Jos Buttler, Sidra Ameen win ICC Player of the month awards

  • The ICC recently announced the winners of the ICC Player of the Month awards for November 2022 
  • England captain Jos Buttler claims the ICC Men’s Player of the Month award after being at his remarkable best with the bat in his side’s charge to the T20 World Cup triumph in Australia last month, while Pakistan opening batter Sidra Ameen is named ICC Women’s Player of the Month for posting mammoth scores in the recent successful ODI series against Ireland on home soil
  • Buttler and Ameen secured the awards following a global vote conducted among media representatives, ICC Hall of Famers, former international players, and fans registered at www.icc-cricket.com

Mopa International Airport

  • The first phase of the Mopa Greenfield international airport was inaugurated by Prime Minister Narendra Modi in Goa recently
  • The new airport was named the Manohar International Airport after former Goa Chief Minister (late) Manohar Parrikar
  • It has a capacity of about 40 lakh passengers who will use the Mopa airport every year, which could rise to 3.5 crore passengers
  • The airport has been built on the theme of sustainable infrastructure and has a solar power plant, green buildings, LED lights on the runway, rainwater harvesting, and a state-of-the-art sewage treatment plant with recycling facilities

India is restoring Angkor Wat temple in Cambodia

  • India is restoring the Angkor Wat temple complex in Cambodia because the civilisation of India is not limited to India but is spread across countries
  • Angkor Wat temple complex is located in Angkor, Cambodia
  • Angkor Wat is the world’s largest religious structure, covering some 400 acres
  • The temple is dedicated to the Hindu God Vishnu
  • The temple was built in the 12th century by King Suryavarman II, one of the greatest kings of the Khmer dynasty
  • Angkor Wat has an unusual orientation of facing west rather than the traditional east
  • Theravada Buddhist monks maintained Angkor Wat after it was abandoned in the early 15th century
  • Angkor Complex, including Angkor Wat, has been a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1992
  • Other Temples that India restores outside India are: 
  • Thiruketheeswaram Temple in Mannar, Sri Lanka
  • Shreenathji Temple in Manama, Bahrain

International Mountain Film Festival

  • The 20th edition of the Kathmandu International Mountain Film Festival concluded recently
  • The festival resumed its physical screening after two years because of the pandemic and showcased numerous films from across the world 
  • The key focus of the film fest was on the mountain communities and cultures for Nepali audiences 
  • This year, the Theme of the Film Fest was ‘Sustainable Summits’ and featured documentaries, fiction, and shorts, as well as experimental and animated films
  • Indian film Bandhua (Bonded), directed by Shobhit Jain, was also featured in the International Competitive Film category along with films like Ayena, Before You were my Mother, and Matto ki Saikil

Exercise Sanchaar Bodh

  • Indian Army’s Airawat Division recently conducted Ex Sanchaar Bodh in the extensive obstacle-ridden terrain of Punjab 
  • The exercise validated tactical communication capabilities 
  • The formation reaffirmed its determination to win at any cost under adverse conditions
  • The Indian 1 Armoured Division, under II Corps, is headquartered at Patiala 
  • The 1 Armoured Division, nicknamed the “Black Elephant” or “Airawat” Division, is considered to be the pride of the Indian Army
  • The 1 Armoured Division played a major role in the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 

CJI inaugurates digitisation hubs in 10 districts of Odisha

  • Chief Justice of India (CJI) DY Chandrachud recently virtually inaugurated District Court Digitisation Hubs (DCDH) in 10 districts of Odisha 
  • The hubs at Angul, Bhadrak, Jharsuguda, Kalahandi, Keonjhar, Koraput, Malkangiri, Mayurbhanj, Nayagarh and Sonepur will take care of the digitisation work of all 30 districts of the state
  • The objective of the Hub would be to digitise the disposed of case records of the nearby assigned districts
  • Scanning work for the paperless courts of the nearby districts would also be taken up at the DCDH concerned
  • The digitisation work done by the Orissa High Court has emerged as a model for all the High Courts in the country
  • Chief Justice Orissa High Court is – S Muralidhar

Justice Dipankar Dutta took oath as a judge of the Supreme Court 

  • Chief Justice of India DY Chandrachud administered the oath to Justice Dutta in the swearing-in ceremony in the Supreme Court in the presence of all judges 
  • With the appointment of Justice Dutta, the Supreme Court will have 28 judges out of the strength of 34 judges 
  • Justice Dutta will have a term till 8 February 2030
  • The Supreme Court Collegium, headed by then Chief Justice of India UU Lalit, in the meeting held on 26 September 2022, has recommended the elevation of Justice Datta to the Supreme Court
  • Justice Datta, son of the late Justice Salil Kumar Datta, a former judge of the Calcutta High Court, was elevated as a permanent judge to the bench of the Calcutta High Court on 22 June 2006
  • He was made the Chief Justice of the Bombay High Court on 28 April 2020

Current Affairs: International and Geopolitics and Environment

US Announces Historic Nuclear Fusion Breakthrough

  • Scientists at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s National Ignition Facility have made history by successfully producing a nuclear fusion reaction resulting in a net energy gain, a breakthrough.
  • It can be called a Landmark achievement and a milestone for the future of clean energy.

What Is Nuclear Fusion and Why Does It Matter? 

  • Nuclear fusion is a man-made process that replicates the same energy that powers the sun. 
  • Nuclear fusion happens when two or more atoms are fused into one larger one, a process that generates a massive amount of energy as heat.
  • Fusion projects mainly use the elements deuterium and tritium, which are isotopes of hydrogen.
  • The deuterium from a glass of water, with a little tritium added, could power a house for a year. 

What Is Net Energy Gain?

  • Net Energy Gain (NEG) is a concept used in energy economics that refers to the difference between the energy expended to harvest an energy source and the amount of energy gained from that harvest.
  • The net energy gain can be expressed in joules.

Why Is This so Significant?

  • This is the first time scientists have ever successfully produced this, instead of breaking even as past experiments have done.
  • While there are many more steps until this can be commercially viable, it is essential for scientists to show that they can create more energy than they started with. 
  • Otherwise, it does not make much sense for it to be developed.

What Next?

  • Scientists and experts now need to figure out how to produce much more energy from nuclear fusion on a much larger scale.
  • At the same time, they need to figure out how to eventually reduce the cost of nuclear fusion so that it can be used commercially.
  • Scientists will also need to harvest the energy produced by fusion and transfer it to the power grid as electricity. 
  • It will take years – and possibly decades – before fusion can be able to produce unlimited amounts of clean energy, and scientists are on a race against the clock to fight climate change.


Consider the following statements

  1. German scientists recently made history by successfully producing a nuclear fusion reaction resulting in a net energy gain
  2. Fusion projects mainly use the elements deuterium and tritium – both of which are isotopes of Uranium
  3. The net energy gain can be expressed in joules

Which of the above statements is/are Incorrect?

A. Only 1 and 2

B. Only 1 and 3

C. Only 2 and 3

D. All are Incorrect

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Defence

India-China Tawang Clash

  • With face-offs between Indian and Chinese troops a regular feature at the disputed Yangtse area of Arunachal Pradesh’s Tawang sector for over two decades now, the latest clash showed yet another vehement attempt by the Chinese to gain territory.
  • In the recent clash, Indian and Chinese troops clashed in Arunachal Pradesh’s Tawang sector, beating each other up with sticks and canes in their closest encounter since the deadly Galwan incident in eastern Ladakh in June 2020.

The Geography of the Area:

  • The clash in Arunachal Pradesh took place along the LAC in the Tawang heights near a point called Yangtse in Eastern Tawang.
  • This part of the LAC is one of the “agreed disputed areas” between the two sides, according to military sources.
  • This time the PLA had “pre-planned” the transgression for an “opportune” time.
  • The location of the skirmish is described as heavily forested terrain, with Chinese troops occupying “top of the wall” positions with deep supply lines and infrastructure.

Details of Tawang Region:

  • This district is situated in the westernmost part of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The area of this district is approximately 2,172 sq. km., bounded by Tibet (China) to the north, Bhutan to the southwest and Sela ranges separated from West Kameng district in the east.
  • The inhabitants of this district are all of the Monpa tribe. The Monpa belongs to the Mongoloid stock. 
  • The Tawang Monastery is one the most important elements in the social and religious life of the Monpa.
  • The Monpas are Buddhist by religion, and religious beliefs and practices are centred around the Tawang Monastery.

Why Is Dragon on Fire?

  • The incident came days after China expressed objection to Operation Yudh Abhyas, an India-US joint military exercise at Auli in the Uttarakhand hills
  • China claimed it was a violation of the 1993 and 1996 border agreements
  • The continuing military tensions at different points along the 3,000 km-Line of Actual Control come as India took the presidency of the G-20, a grouping of the world’s leading economies that includes China
  • After the clash, the Indian side is said to have used Radio Frequency (RF) signal geolocation equipment to reconstruct satellite images

Major Recent Clashes between China and India:

  • In September 2022, Indian and Chinese troops disengaged in the Gogra Hotspring area of Eastern Ladakh.
  • The Galwan incident, which claimed the lives of 20 Indian soldiers, came after the two sides had discussed disengagement in the area.
  • Tensions in Ladakh continue over the build-up of Chinese troops in Depsang, intrusions in Demchok and the rapid infrastructure build-up by the Chinese, including two bridges over the Pangong lake that will reduce Chinese mobilisation time on the southern bank.

Current Affairs: Days and Events

India International Science Festival

  • India International Science Festival (IISF)-2022 will be held at the capital city of the Heart of India-Bhopal from 21-24 January 2023. 
  • IISF is the initiative from the Ministry of Science and Technology and the Ministry of Earth Science of the Government of India in association with Vijnana Bharati, which is a science movement with a swadeshi spirit led by eminent scientists of the country.
  • It is one of the major events to be held after India took over the G-20 Presidency.
  • The IISF 2022 is the eighth edition since its inception in 2015

Aim and Objective of the Event:

  • To demonstrate how science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) provide solutions to improve our lives.
  • It is a festival to celebrate the achievements of India’s scientific and technological advancements with students, innovators, craftsmen, farmers, scientists and technocrats from India and abroad.
  • It also provides opportunities to people and the scientific fraternity in the country and abroad to come together, work together and experience the joy of doing science for the well-being of India and humanity.

About the Event:

  • The first and second IISFs were held in New Delhi, the third in Chennai, the fourth in Lucknow, the fifth in Kolkata, the sixth through virtual mode and the last IISF was held in Goa, which witnessed a footfall of over 5 lakh people worldwide.
  • The pandemic in 2020 due to Covid-19 posed a serious challenge to the conduct of this annual event, but the challenge was overcome by conducting the event on a virtual platform to maintain the uninterrupted flow of the journey.


  • Dr Jitendra Singh is the Union Minister of Science and Technology; Minister of Earth Sciences; MoS PMO, Personnel, Public Grievances, Pensions, and Atomic Energy and Space.


The eighth edition of the India International Science Festival (IISF)-2022 will be held in which of the following cities?

A. Bhopal

B. Delhi

C. Kolkata

D. Lucknow

Answer: A

Current Affairs: National

New India Literacy Programme

  • The government has announced a Centrally Sponsored Scheme, namely, the “New India Literacy Programme” (NILP), for implementation during five years from 2022-23 to 2026-27. 


  • The programme aims to cover a target of FIVE crore learners under the Foundational Literacy and Numeracy component over five years

Finance Outlay of the Programme:

  • The total financial outlay of NILP for five years (FYs 2022-23 to 2026-27) is ₹1037.90 crore, out of which ₹700 crore is Central share and ₹337.90 crore is State share. 

The Programme Has Five Objectives: 

  1. Foundational Literacy and Numeracy
  2. Critical Life Skills
  3. Vocational Skills Development
  4. Basic Education
  5. Continuing Education

Features of the NILP are:

  1. Involvement of school students, pre-service students of Higher Education Institutions (HEIs), school teachers, Anganwadi and ASHA workers
  2. School to be a unit for implementation of the scheme
  3. Use of ICT and online implementation of the scheme through ‘Online Teaching Learning and Assessment System’ (OTLAS) material and resources through digital modes, viz., TV, radio, cell phone-based/open-source Apps/portals, etc.

Implementation of the Scheme:

  • The scheme will be implemented through volunteerism through online mode.
  • The training, orientation, and workshops of volunteers may be organised through a face-to-face mode. All materials and resources shall be provided digitally.
  • The school will be a Unit for the implementation of the scheme.
  • Schools to be used for conducting surveys of beneficiaries and Voluntary Teachers.


Consider the following statements about the New India Literacy Programme (NILP)

  1. The programme aims to cover a target of five crore learners under the Foundational Literacy and Numeracy component over five years 
  2. The Central and State shares in the total finance outlay of the programme are in the ratio of 60:40
  3. All material and resources under the program shall be provided digitally

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

A. Only 1 and 2

B. Only 2 and 3

C. Only 1 and 3

D. All are correct

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Environment

Environment Education, Awareness and Training (EEAT)

  • Environment Education, Awareness and Training (EEAT) is a Central Sector scheme implemented by the Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change.

Major Objective: 

  • To promote environmental awareness and mobilise students’ participation in environment conservation. 

Allied Schemes:

  • Grants-in-aid were sanctioned under this Scheme for two major programmes: National Green Corps (NGC) Programme and National Nature Camping Programme (NNCP).

What Is the National Green Corps (NGC) Programme?

  • In the NGC programme, more than ONE lakh Eco-clubs have been formed in schools and colleges to educate students and to spread awareness on environmental issues. 
  • Financial assistance of ₹5,000/- per Eco-club used to be provided under this programme with a ceiling of 500 school Eco-clubs per district and 100 college Eco-clubs per State. 
  • Activities undertaken by Eco-clubs included plantation drives, cleanliness drives, the celebration of important environmental days, awareness and capacity building on solid waste management through waste segregation, green pledges, etc.

What Is the National Nature Camping Programme (NNCP)?

  • Under NNCP, organisation of field visits/ nature camps in different Protected Areas/ Nature Parks/ Tiger Reserves of the country for students supported, and activities like preparing a checklist of flora and fauna spotted in the nature trail, bird watching, trekking, green pledges, group discussions, sharing of experiences, etc. 
  • These camps provided students with a ‘nature experience’ and had huge potential to trigger their sensitivity towards nature and its conservation. 
  • Financial assistance not exceeding ₹2,000/- per student for a camp of two nights and three days used to be provided under this programme, with a ceiling of 20 camps per State/ Union Territory.

Implementation Agency:

  • The above programmes were implemented through State Nodal Agencies designated by the respective State Governments/ Union Territory (UT) Administrations.


What is the major objective of the National Green Corps (NGC) Programme formulated by the central government?

A. To promote Green policing to curb illegal deforestation

B. Major plantation drives in urban bodies

C. Promote environmental awareness and mobilise students

D. Incentivisation of farmers for developing green farming techniques

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Science and Technology

Badri Cow

  • To increase the productivity of its indigenous petite Badri cow, which grazes on the medicinal herbs of the Himalayas, Uttarakhand is now planning for its genetic enhancement.
  • This includes Sex-sorted semen and embryo transfer technology to improve cattle production as part of the ten-year State plan.

What Is Badri Cow?

  • Badri/Pahari desi cow is a native cow species of Uttarakhand
  • Badri cow is the first registered cattle breed of Uttarakhand, which has been certified by the National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources (NBAGR)
  • It grazes on the medicinal herbs of the Himalayas
  • It is far away from toxic pollution, polythene, and other harmful things that cows in the plains eat
  • Its milk has rich medicinal content and high organic value

What Are the Newer Methods Implemented by Govt. to Improve the Breed?

  • Multiple Ovulation Embryo Transfer (MOET): The most common procedure used in advanced cattle breeding is a conventional embryo flush.
  • Ovum pickup in vitro fertilisation (IVF): It will be used to increase the yield per animal.
  • Introducing Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART).

Other Indigenous Cattle Breeds of India:

  • Alambadi, Amritmahal, Gir, Red Sindhi, Sahiwal, Bargur, Hallikar, Kangayam, Pulikulam


Badri Cow, recently seen in the news, is native to which of the following states?

A. Gujarat

B. Uttar Pradesh

C. Uttarakhand

D. Rajasthan

Answer: C

Fact Book – 14 December 2022

Indian film RRR bags two Golden Globe Award nominations

  • SS Rajamouli-directed period movie ‘RRR’ has been nominated in two categories at the Golden Globe Awards to be held in January 2023. 
  • The Hollywood Foreign Press Association (HFPA) has nominated ‘RRR’ in the Best Picture Non-English language and Best Original Song Naatu Naatu.
  • ‘RRR’ follows a pre-Independence story woven around two real-life Indian revolutionaries Alluri Sitarama Raju and Komaram Bheem in the 1920s. Starring Ram Charan and Jr NTR in the lead, the film was released worldwide in March in five languages.
  • RRR is the only Indian film to make the final five out of a clutch of other entries from India, among them are Gangubai Kathiawadi, Kantara and Chhello Show.
  • The Golden Globe Awards are accolades bestowed by the Hollywood Foreign Press Association beginning in January 1944, recognising excellence in both American and international film and television.

UIDAI tops Grievance Redressal Index

  • Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) was once again awarded the first rank amongst all Group A Ministries, Departments and Autonomous Bodies for the resolution of public grievances in the rankings report published by the Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances (DARPG) for November 2022. 
  • This is the fourth month in a row that the UIDAI topped the said rankings.
  • UIDAI is constantly working to facilitate “ease of living” for residents and is further committed to strengthen its Grievance Redressal Mechanism towards an even more efficient service delivery.

Services by UIDAI:

  • Open-Source CRM (customer relationship management) system is enhancing user experience and improving service delivery to the residents. 
  • Newly launched Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI-ML) based Chatbot, ‘Aadhaar Mitra’.

Pradhan Mantri Adi Adarsh Gram Yojna

  • Under PMAAGY, the Ministry of Tribal Affairs aims to develop 36,428 villages with at least 50% tribal population and 500 Scheduled Tribes (STs) into model tribal villages. 
  • PMAAGY is a modified version of ‘Special Central Assistance to Tribal Sub-Scheme’ and implemented during 2021-22 to 2025-26. 
  • Objective of PMAAGY is to achieve integrated socio-economic development of selected villages through a convergence approach.
  •  Main Components of the Scheme are: 
    • Preparing Village Development Plan 
    • Maximising coverage of individual/family benefit schemes of Central/State Governments 
    • Improving infrastructure in vital sectors like health, education, connectivity, etc. 

Geetanjali Shree

  • The BBC has recently published the list of 100 most influential women in the world and has included women from several areas such as politics, science, sports, entertainment, and literature. 
  • The list also includes four Indians — Actress Priyanka Chopra Jonas, author Geetanjali Shree, engineer and astronaut Sirisha Bandla, and social worker Sneha Jawale.
  • Novelist and writer Geetanjali Shree made history this year when she became the first Hindi writer to win the International Booker Prize for ‘Tomb of Sand’, the English translation of her novel Ret Samadhi. 
  • The French translation of the book was also shortlisted for the Emile Guimet Prize
  • Marked by the innovative use of language and structure, her works have been translated into many Indian and foreign languages. 
  • She also works on theatrical scripts in collaboration with the theatre group Vivaldi, of which she is a founding member.

India secures 11th position in WorldSkills Competition 2022

  • India secured 11th position in WorldSkills Competition 2022 (WSC 2022), with two silver medals, three bronze medals and 13 Medallions of Excellence.
  • WorldSkills Competition is a global hunt known for raising the profile and recognition of skilled people.
  • They inspire young Competitors to reach new heights, helping them turn their passion into a profession. 
  • Founded in 1950 by world skills org, headquartersAmsterdam, Netherlands, the Competition takes place every two years in a Member Country.
  • In India, candidates are selected by the National Skill Development Corporation (NSDC) through IndiaSkills Competition.

Divya T S  won women’s air pistol gold in 65th National Shooting Championship, 2022

  • Karnataka shooter Divya T S won her first national championship in women’s 10 m air pistol in the 65th National shooting championship that concluded at the Madhya Pradesh Academy.
  • Divya defeated Uttar Pradesh’s Sanskriti Bana 16-14 in a tight gold medal match today at the MP Academy Shooting range in Bhopal at the 65th National Shooting Championship Competitions (65th NSCC) in Pistol events. 
  • Manu Bhaker from Haryana also won three gold medals in the 65th National shooting championship.

New Zealand passes a law banning cigarettes for future generations

  • New Zealand recently  passed a law banning cigarettes for future generations in the country. 
  • It is considering an attempt to bring in a near-total tobacco ban from next year. 
  • According to media reports, the law passed by Parliament means that anyone born after 2008 will never be able to buy cigarettes or tobacco products in the country. 
  • The legislation will also reduce the amount of nicotine allowed in smoked tobacco products and cut the number of retailers able to sell tobacco by 90 per cent.
  • Retailers licensed to sell tobacco will be cut to six hundred by the end of 2023 from six thousand.
  • According to government statistics released in November, the smoking rate in New Zealand is already one of the lowest in the world, with just 8 per cent of adults smoking daily.

Current Affairs: Technology

India Internet Governance Forum (IGF) 2022

  • Recently, the Minister of State for Electronics and Information Technology and Skill Development and Entrepreneurship addressed the India Internet Governance Forum (IIGF) 2022.


  • The event’s goal is to discuss the roadmap to digitisation and to reaffirm India’s place on the global stage by emphasising its role and importance in international policy development on internet governance.


  • ‘Leveraging Techade for Empowering Bharat’.

What Is the Internet Governance Forum?

  • India IGF is an initiative associated with the UN Internet Governance Forum for policy discussion. India hosted it for the first time last year (2021).
  • UN-GF is a multi-stakeholder platform bringing together representatives from various groups, considering all to be at par to discuss public policy issues related to the Internet.
  • Internet Governance, broadly defined, is the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programs that shape the evolution and use of the Internet.

Data of India About Internet:

  • India is the largest ‘connected’ nation in the world, with 800 million Indian users.
  • 5G and the largest rural broadband connectivity network project at BharatNet will have 1.2 billion Indian users constituting the single largest presence of the global internet.


What is the number of broadband users in India, as per the most recent data by MeitY?

A. 200 million

B. 600 million

C. 800 million

D. 900 million

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Defence

Exercise “Kazind – 2022”

  • The sixth edition of the IndoKazakhstan joint training exercise “KAZIND-22” is being conducted at Umroi (Meghalaya) from 15 to 28 December 2022. 

About the Exercise:

  • A joint annual training exercise with the Kazakhstan Army was instituted in 2016 as Exercise Prabal Dostyk, which was later upgraded to a company-level exercise and renamed Ex Kazind in 2018.
  • “Exercise KAZIND” will enhance the level of defence cooperation between the Indian Army and Kazakhstan Army, which will further foster the bilateral relations between the two nations.


  • During the exercise, participants will engage in a variety of missions ranging from joint planning, joint tactical drills, basics of special arms skills, HADR and raiding a hostile target.
  • Kazakhstan Army soldiers comprising troops from the Regional Command, South and Indian Army soldiers from the 11 Gorkha Rifles are participating in the exercise. 

Aim of the Exercise:

  • The aim of the exercise is to build positive military relations, imbibe each other’s best practices and promote the ability to operate together while undertaking counter-terrorist operations in semi-urban / jungle scenarios under a UN peace enforcement mandate. 
  • This joint exercise will enable the two armies to train, plan and execute a series of combined tactical drills to neutralise the likely threats that may be encountered in UN peacekeeping operations.


The sixth edition of Indo–Kazakhstan joint training exercise “KAZIND-22” is being conducted in which of the following States/UT?

A. Ladakh

B. Meghalaya

C. Manipur

D. Rajasthan

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Economy

Nine Products from Across the Country Get GI Tag

  • The Union government has granted the Geographical Indication (GI) tag to nine (9) products from across the country, including the Gamosa of Assam; Alibaug White Onion from Maharashtra; Ladakh Raktsey Karpo Apricot; and Attappady Aattukombu Avara, among others. 
  • Of the nine (9) GI tags given, five were for products from Kerala. 

The Numbers Related to GI Tag:

  • Currently, the total number of GI tags in India is 432.
  • The top five states holding the maximum number of GIs are Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka, and Kerala.
  • Of these, 401 are Indian-origin products, and 31 are foreign-origin.
  • Karnataka has the highest number of GI tags, i.e., 48 products, followed by Tamil Nadu (42), followed by Kerala(35), Uttar Pradesh (34), and Maharashtra (31).

What Is a GI Tag?

  • The Geographical Indication is recognised by the World Trade Organization (WTO).
  • It is used to denote the geographical territory from where a product – agricultural, natural or manufactured – originates and also carries an assurance of quality and attributes unique to that specific geographic region.
  • As a member of WTO, India became a signatory to this convention when it enacted the Geographical Indications (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999, which came into effect on 15 September 2003.
  • For the protection of the GI of goods, a GI registry has been established to administer the GI of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999, under the Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Marks.


Which of the following states in India holds the record of having the highest GI tags against its name till December 2022?

A. Karnataka

B. Tamil Nadu

C. Uttar Pradesh 

D. Kerala

Answer: A

Fact Book – 15 December 2022

Meghalaya awarded for TB control programme

  • The Meghalaya administration, which has launched a ‘Jan Andolan’ (people’s movement) against Tuberculosis, was honoured recently for using the best practices to combat the illness that affects nearly 2.6 million citizens annually in India.
  • The TB Mukt Bharat campaign or ‘Jan Andolan’ aims to enhance awareness, eradicate stigma and generate demand for services throughout the state.
  • The state registered 4,189 TB cases in 2021, while in the first quarter of 2022, around 1,075 patients were enrolled for treatment.
  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi had set a national target to eliminate the disease, which affects more than 26 lakh Indians each year by 2025, five years ahead of the WHO’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).

Sri Aurobindo’s 150th birth anniversary

  • The PM addressed a programme celebrating Sri Aurobindo’s 150th birth anniversary via video conferencing under the aegis of Azadi ka Amrit Mahotsav. 
  • The Prime Minister also released a commemorative coin and postal stamp in honour of Sri Aurobindo.
  • Sri Aurobindo’s 150th birth anniversary is being celebrated with great fervour throughout the year. 
  • Sri Aurobindo (15 August 1872 – 05 December 1950) Born in Calcutta, Sri Aurobindo was adom fighter, philosopher and Yogi.  
  • In London, he joined a secret society (Lotus and Dagger), working for India’sdom. 
  • In India, he joined the State Service of Maharaja of Baroda (Sayajirao Gaekwad III). 
  • After the ‘Partition of Bengal’, he joined the Indian National Congress (INC) in 1906. 
  • He remained active till 1910 when he stopped political activities due to spiritual awakening and spent the rest of his life in Puducherry.
  • Contributions of Sri Aurobindo: 
    • Wrote a series of articles under the title, ‘New Lamps For Old’ (1893), in ‘Indu Prakash‘, a Bombay daily newspaper, criticising moderate politics of Congress
    • Started Bande Mataram (English Daily), Karmayogin (English newspaper) and Dharma (Bengali Weekly) 
    • He joined the group led by Bal Gangadhar Tilak in the Surat Split of INC (1907) 
    • In 1908, he was arrested in relation to Alipore Bomb Case and acquitted later 
  • Other Contributions: Established Sri Aurobindo Ashram with Mirra Alfassa in 1926 and wrote spiritual books such as Essays on the Gita (1922), The Life Divine (1939), etc.

Tripura’s Unakoti, the ‘Angkor Wat of the North-East’ seeking UNESCO world heritage tag

  • Unakoti, famously known as the ‘Angkor Wat of the North-East’, is vying for a UNESCO world heritage tag with both the government and ASI working to preserve the lakhs of Shaivite rock carvings figures and images of gods and goddesses.
  • The structures of the rock-cut sculptures are gigantic and have distinct mongoloid features, and display almost the same mystical charm as the spellbinding figures in the Angkor Wat temple of Cambodia. So it can be called the Angkor Wat of the North-East.
  • Centre has approached UNESCO to declare it a World Heritage Site and has recently granted ₹12 crores to the state for developing the place as a major tourist destination.

Joe Root becomes the third player to score 10000 Test runs and pick up 50 wickets

  • Joe Root, the former England captain, has recently entered an exclusive club after reaching a significant milestone in Test cricket.
  • He claimed the wicket of Faheem Ashraf during the first session of day four of the second Test between England and Pakistan, effectively claiming his 50th Test wicket.
  • With his last wicket, the 31-year-old became only the third player in Test cricket history to have scored 10,000 runs and taken 50 wickets. 
  • Jacques Kallis and Steve Waugh were the only other players to have accomplished this feat before Root.
  • Root has 10629 Test runs and 50 Test wickets to his name. Waugh has scored 10927 runs and taken 92 wickets, whereas Kallis has scored 13289 runs and taken 292 wickets.

Russia replaces Iraq as the top oil supplier to India

  • Russia has, for the first time, emerged as a top oil supplier to India, replacing Iraq as refiners last month snapped up oil from Moscow, fearing a price cap from 5th December could hit supplies and choke payment avenues, data obtained from trade sources showed.
  • India’s oil imports from Russia rose for the fifth straight month, totalling 908,000 barrels per day (bpd) in November, up 4% from October, the data showed.
  • The data showed that Russian oil accounted for about 23% of India’s overall import of about 4 million bpd of oil in November.
  • India’s overall imports in November declined 11% from October on lower purchases by Russia-backed Indian refiner Nayara Energy, which had shut its 400,000 bpd refinery for maintenance during the month, the data showed.
  • The Group of Seven nations, Australia, and the 27 European Union countries have imposed a price cap of $60 a barrel on Russian seaborne oil from 5th December as the West tries to limit Moscow’s ability to finance its war in Ukraine.

UK, France, and UAE extend support for India’s permanent membership at UNSC

  • The UK, France, and UAE have extended their support for India’s permanent membership in the United Nations Security Council (UNSC).
  • India is holding the presidency of the United Nations Security Council for December 2022.
  • The United Nations Charter established six (6) main organs of the United Nations, including the UN Security Council (UNSC).
  • The Security Council has a permanent residence at the United Nations Headquarters in New York City.
  • The U.N. Charter provides for 15 members of the UNSC.
  • It comprises five (5) permanent members known as P5, including the United Kingdom, China, France, Russia and the US.
  • They have veto power over decisions of the UNSC.
  • It also includes ten (10) non-permanent members.
  • Each year the 193-member General Assembly elects five non-permanent members for a two-year term at the UNSC.
  • The ten (10) non-permanent seats are distributed on a regional basis:
  • Five (5) for African and Asian countries [Three are for Africa and Two for Asia]
  • One for Eastern European countries
  • Two for Latin American and Caribbean countries
  • Two for Western European and other countries

Current Affairs: Defence Technology

India Successfully Tests Agni V Missile Days after Tawang Clash

  • India, on Thursday night, successfully tested the nuclear-capable Agni V missile capable of striking targets at ranges up to 5,000 kilometres with a very high degree of accuracy.


  • India successfully carried out the night trials of the Agni V nuclear-capable ballistic missile. 
  • This comes days after Indian and Chinese troops clashed in the Tawang district of Arunachal Pradesh.
  • The test was carried out to validate new technologies and equipment on the missile, which is now lighter than before. 
  • The trial has proved the capability to enhance the range of the Agni V missile if required.
  • The test-firing of the missile from the APJ Abdul Kalam Island off the Odisha coast came amid India’s ongoing border row with China.

About the AGNI V Project

  • The Agni V project is aimed at boosting India’s nuclear deterrence against China, which is known to have missiles like Dongfeng-41 having ranges between 12,000–15,000 km.
  • Agni V can bring almost the entire Asia, including the northernmost part of China as well as some regions in Europe, under its striking range.

Other Missiles of the AGNI Series:

  • The Agni 1 to 4 missiles have ranges from 700 km to 3,500 km, and they have already been deployed.
  • India also carried out a similar test of the missile in October last year.
  • In June, India successfully carried out a night launch of the nuclear-capable Agni-4 ballistic missile in a boost to India’s military capabilities. 
  • Following the test, the defence ministry had said that it reaffirmed India’s policy of having a ‘credible minimum deterrence capability’.


India recently successfully tested the nuclear-capable Agni V missile capable of striking targets at ranges up to 5,000 kilometres from which testing facility?

A. Dr Abdul Kalam Island, Odisha 

B. Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (Thumba).

C. Satish Dhawan Space Centre (Sriharikota)

D. Master Control Facility (MCF),  Hassan.

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Defence

The US Space Force Establishes the First Foreign Command in South Korea

  • The US military recently activated its first Space Force command on foreign soil in South Korea, with the unit’s new commander saying he is ready to face any threat in the region.
  • This move will likely enable Washington to monitor better its rivals North Korea, China and Russia.
  • The new unit “will be tasked with coordinating space operations and services such as missile warning, position navigation and timing and satellite communications within the region”.

What Is Space Security?

  • Space security deals with the abilities of a country to protect its assets in space – such as the hundreds of satellites used for communication and surveillance.
  • The space landscape is changing rapidly. 
  • Terrestrial politics is casting its shadow on outer space.
  • Hence, the relevance of space to national security and conventional military operations is increasing day by day.


  • Competition in outer space
  • Protection of space assets
  • Countries developing counter-space capabilities

Does India have any Counter-space Programme?

  • India’s approach to the outer space programme can be described as purely civilian. 
  • India has been developing its space capabilities for peaceful purposes.
  • India does not have a declared Space Security Policy to date.
  • However, due to changing landscape, in an effort to deny adversary advantages, India also started to develop its counter-space capabilities.


The US military activated its first Space Force command on foreign soil in which of the following countries?

A. Japan

B. Ukraine

C. South Korea

D. Australia

Answer: C


The Indian tri-service Defence Space Agency (DSA) is located in which of the following cities?

A. Itanagar

B. Jammu

C. Bengaluru

D. Hyderabad

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Defence

Indo-Nepal Joint Training Exercise “SURYA KIRAN”

  • The 16th Edition of Indo-Nepal joint training Exercise “SURYA KIRAN-XVI” between India and Nepal is being conducted at the Nepal Army Battle School, Saljhandi (Nepal), from today to 29th of December 2022. 

About Exercise SURYA KIRAN:

  • Exercise “SURYA KIRAN” is conducted annually between India and Nepal with the aim of enhancing interoperability in jungle warfare and counter-terrorism operations in mountainous terrain and HADR under UN mandate.
  • The joint military exercise will enhance the level of defence cooperation, which will further foster the bilateral relations between the two nations.


  • Nepal Army soldiers of the Shree Bhawani Baksh Battalion and Indian Army soldiers from the 5 GR will be participating in the exercise. 
  • The two armies, through these contingents, shall be sharing the experiences gained during the conduct of various counter-insurgency operations over the years in their respective countries. 
  • The joint exercise would focus on the evolution of combined drills for planning and conducting tactical operations at the unit level in counter-terrorism operations and disaster response mechanisms in general and the role of armed forces in the management of disasters.


Exercise Surya Kiran is recently initiated between the Indian Army and the Army of which of the following Countries?

A. Bangladesh

B. Bhutan

C. Nepal 

D. Sri Lanka

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Days and Events

Vijay Diwas 2022

“1971 is not just a year. It is a benchmark against which any act of valour will forever be juxtaposed”.

  • Every year on 16 December, Vijay Diwas is celebrated to commemorate the victory of the Indian armed forces against Pakistan in the war of 1971. India honours all of the warriors who defended the country on this day.

Why Is Vijay Diwas Celebrated in India?

  • After 13 days of battle, India defeated Pakistan on 16 December 1971. 
  • General Amir Abdullah Khan Niazi, the commander of the Pakistani forces, and 93,000 other Pakistani soldiers submitted to the combined forces of the Indian Army and Bangladesh’s Mukti Bahini.


  • It was also the largest-ever military surrender after World War II. 
  • A rebellion against the Islamabad administration in East Pakistan started the war. 
  • In East Pakistan, the Bengalis and the minority Hindu community were the victims of atrocities carried out by Pakistani forces. 
  • Between 300,000 and 500,000 people are thought to have been killed by Pakistani forces; however, the Bangladeshi government estimates the number at three million.
  • Former Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi decided to provide support to erstwhile East Pakistan. She took a decision to give refuge to people who fled from East Pakistan. It is estimated that 8–10 million people left the country.
  • There has been hostility between India and Pakistan ever since their separation in 1947 for many reasons, and East Pakistan was one of these factors. 
  • The circumstances that precipitated the 1971 conflict forced Indian troops to intervene because non-Muslim residents of West Pakistan were being targeted. Bangladesh was liberated as a result of the 13-day conflict between Pakistan and India, which came to an end on 16 December 1971. India’s front forced approximately 93,000 Pakistani soldiers to surrender and changed the lines on the globe map.
  • Bangladesh also observes the day as “Bijoy Dibos”, commemorating the nation’s official separation from Pakistan. Over 3,800 Indian and Pakistani soldiers died in the conflict.
  • India consented to release the 93,000 Pakistani prisoners of war in accordance with the agreement. Later, the accord came under fire for neglecting to address India’s dispute with Pakistan over Kashmir. Critics had said that India could have held the Pakistani troops as a negotiation chip to get its way.


Consider the following statements about Vijay Diwas

  1. Every year on 16 December, Vijay Diwas is celebrated to commemorate the victory of the Indian armed forces against Pakistan in the war of 1971
  2. It was also the largest-ever military surrender after World War II 
  3. After 13 days of battle, India defeated Pakistan on 16 December 1971 

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

A. Only 1 and 2

B. Only 2 and 3

C. Only 1 and 3

D. All are correct

Answer: D

Current Affairs: International

The UN Recognises ‘Namami Gange’ as one of the top 10 World Restoration Flagships

  • The United Nations has recognised the ‘Namami Gange’ initiative to rejuvenate India’s sacred River Ganga as one of the top ten World Restoration Flagships to revive the natural world.
  • According to the Ministry of Jal Shakti, Namami Gange was selected from over 150 such initiatives from 70 countries across the globe. 
  • They were selected under the banner of the United Nations Decade on Ecosystem Restoration, a global movement coordinated by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).

What Is Namami Gange?

  • The Namami Gange programme was started in 2014 after Narendra Modi took over as the Prime Minister after recognising the need to rejuvenate River Ganga and committing over five billion dollars to ensure that the river gets clean.

Documentary on Ganga:

  • The documentary ‘Ganga: River from the Skies’, co-produced with National Geographic India, received awards under three categories – Best Documentary, Best Current Affairs and Best Natural History or Wildlife Programme – in the Asian Academy Creative Awards, 2022.

Other Restoration Projects:

  • The other inaugural world restoration projects include the Trinational Atlantic Forest Pact, which aims to protect and restore the forest in Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina, and the Abu Dhabi Marine Restoration project, which targets safeguarding the world’s second-largest dugong population in Abu Dhabi.
  • The Great Green Wall for Restoration and Peace initiative to restore savannas, grasslands and farmlands across Africa and the Multi-Country Mountain Initiative based in Serbia, Kyrgyzstan, Uganda, and Rwanda were also recognised in addition to the Small Island Developing States Restoration Drive focused on three small island developing states – Vanuatu, St Lucia and Comoros.
  • The Altyn Dala Conservation Initiative in Kazakhstan to restore the steppe, semi-desert and desert ecosystems, the Central American Dry Corridor, and Shan-Shui Initiative in China were other projects on the list.


Which of the following projects in India is recognised as one of the top ten World Restoration Flagships by the UN?

A. Mid-Day Meal Scheme (M.D.M.S.)

B. Integrated Child Development Services

C. Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission

D. Namami Gange initiative to rejuvenate India’s river Ganga

Answer: D

Factbook: 16 December 2022

India receives all 36 Rafale aircraft from France

  • India has received all 36 Rafale aircraft from France, with the last aircraft landing in the country on 15th December. 
  • According to the Indian Air Force, the aircraft arrived after a quick en-route mid-air refuelling from a UAE Air Force tanker aircraft after taking off from France.
  • India and France had signed the inter-government agreement in 2016, under which Paris agreed to provide 36 Rafale fighter jets at the cost of around ₹60,000 crores to India. 
  • The first batch of five Rafale jets had arrived on 29th July 2020. 

Peru govt announces nationwide emergency amid fiery protests

  • The Peru government has announced a nationwide state of emergency, granting special powers to police and limitingdoms, including the right to assembly. 
  • Defence Minister Alberto Otarola informed this. 
  • The development comes after a week of fiery protests that have left at least eight people dead.
  • The protests were sparked by the ousting of former President Pedro Castillo on 7th December in an impeachment vote. 
  • Castillo, a leftist elected in 2021, was arrested after illegally trying to dissolve the Andean nation’s Congress. 
  • This is the latest in a series of recent political crises Peru has faced. 
  • Peru is a country in South America that’s home to a section of the Amazon rainforest and Machu Picchu, an ancient Incan city high in the Andes mountains. 
  • The region around Machu Picchu, including the Sacred Valley, Inca Trail and the colonial city of Cusco, is rich in archaeological sites.
  • Government: Republic, Unitary state, Presidential system, Constitutional republic
  • Capital: Lima
  • Currency: Sol
  • Continent: South America

IIT Ropar, Army Training Command signed an MoU to set up CoE in defence and security

  • The memorandum of understanding (MoU) was signed by Rajeev Ahuja, Director, IIT Ropar and Lt Gen SS Mahal, General Officer Commanding–in–Chief of the ARTRAC, for setting up a centre of excellence (CoE) for studies and applied research in defence and security at the premier institute.
  • The CoE will be set up with an aim to leverage IIT Ropar’s technical expertise and ARTRAC’s operational expertise in advanced materials and manufacturing, design and development of deep learning algorithms, multipath and wireless networks, data transmission tools, remote sensing and forecasting, cyber security and some other areas.
  • The CoE will focus on emerging areas of research and technology, including Information Warfare or Security (Quadcopters and Drones, Medium and Light Weaponry, Missile Technologies, Body Armour, Force Survivability, Hypersonic Applications, Energy directed weapons etc.), wireless communication, and many other fields in the larger domain of Defence and Security.

World’s First Carbon Border Tariff

  • The EU has signed the world’s first carbon border tariff, known as the Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism (CBAM), which will impose a tariff on imports of polluting goods such as steel, Cement, fertilisers etc.
  • Currently, industries outside of the EU are required to buy permits/Certificates from the EU carbon market when they export any polluting products. 
  • This will be applicable for imports within EU countries as well.

What Is a Carbon Border Tax?

  • A carbon border adjustment tax is a duty on imports based on the number of carbon emissions resulting from the production of the product in question. As a price on carbon, it discourages emissions. Last month, India opposed CBT at COP27 in Egypt.

RS clears Bill to include the Gond community in the ST category

  • The Rajya Sabha passed a Bill that seeks to include the Gond community in the Scheduled Tribes category in parts of Uttar Pradesh.
  • Bill Constitution (Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes) Orders (Second Amendment) Bill, 2022
  • Gonds, with a population of four million, are found in the central Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh and are one of the most dominant tribes in India.
  • They belong to the strata of aboriginal peoples of India who pre-date the Aryan and Dravidian speakers of the country.

Current Affairs: Game Time

FIFA World Cup 2022

  • In the FIFA World Cup 2022 final between Argentina vs France, seen as probably the wildest contest in the tournament’s 92-year history, Argentina won its third World Cup title by beating France 4-2 in a penalty shootout after a 3-3 draw featuring two goals from the 35-year-old Messi and a hat trick by his heir apparent, France forward Kylian Mbappé.
  • Previously Argentina had won two world cups in 1978 and 1986 under Diego Maradona.


  • It is a Fairytale ending for Argentina after the fascinating final. Argentina was enjoying the 2-0 lead (Messi 23′ P, Di Maria 36′) till the 80 minutes when Kyllian Mbappe’s brace in just 90 seconds almost ended all the hopes for winning the final in the regulation time, and the match went to the extra time where Messi(108′) scores his second for the night and Mbappe(118′ P) completes his extraordinary hat-trick to make the scoreline 3-3. But in the penalty shootouts, Argentina beats France 4-2.

2022 FIFA World Cup Awards

  • Top 4 team Rankings: Argentina (Winner), France (2nd), Croatia (3rd) and Morocco (4th)
  • Golden Boot Award: Kylian Mbappe (France); (8 Goals)
  • Golden Ball Award: Lionel Messi (Argentina); (7 goals and registering 3 assists)
  • Golden Glove Award: Emiliano Martinez (Argentina)
  • FIFA Young Player Award: Enzo Fernandez (Argentina)
  • FIFA Fair Play Award: England
  • Silver Boot Award: Lionel Messi (Argentina)
  • Bronze Boot Award: Olivier Giroud (France)
  • Silver Ball Award: Kylian Mbappe (France)
  • Bronze Ball Award: Luka Modric (Croatia)

What Is the Prize Money for Winning the FIFA World Cup 2022?

  • FIFA announced a total prize pool of USD 440 million for the Qatar tournament
  • Winners – $42 million / INR 347 crore
  • Runners-up – $30 million / INR 248 crore
  • Third Place – $27 million / INR 223 crore
  • Fourth Place – $25 million / INR 206 crore

FIFA World Cup: List of All Previous Winners

  • 2018: France
  • 2014: Germany
  • 2010: Spain
  • 2006: Italy
  • 2002: Brazil

Golden Ball Winners:

  • 2018: Luka Modric (Croatia)
  • 2014: Lionel Messi (Argentina)
  • 2010: Diego Forlán (Uruguay)
  • 2006: Zinedine Zidane (France)
  • 2002: Oliver Kahn (Germany)

Golden Boot Winners:

  • 2018: Harry Kane (England) – 6 goals
  • 2014: James Rodriguez (Colombia) – 6 goals
  • 2010: Thomas Muller (Germany) – 5 goals
  • 2006: Miroslav Klose (Germany) – 5 goals
  • 2002: Ronaldo (Brazil) – 8 goals


How many goals did the winner of the golden boot award in the 2022 FIFA World Cup score during the competition?

A. 7

B. 8 

C. 12

D. 14

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Economy

Ladakh Gets Its First-Ever GI Tag

  • Ladakh got its first ever Geographical Indication (GI) Tag to its Raktsey Karpo Apricot. 
  • The coveted GI tag certification for twenty years.

What Is Raktsey Karpo Apricot?

  • Raktsey Karpo Apricot is one of the nine items recently registered in the GI tag lists. Although Ladakh grows more than thirty types of Apricots, the Raktsey Karpo variety is unique to the region.  
  • This Ladakh exclusive variety is matchless in sweetness and colourful with a white Kernel.


  • Apricot is the major fruit of Ladakh, with large-scale cultivation in both Leh and Kargil  Districts among the nine fruits grown in Ladakh.
  • Apricot is also being promoted under ‘One District One Product’ for Kargil. 
  • GI tag got a boost from the central government after a series of export promotion programmes under the Ladakh Apricot brand through Agriculture and Processed Food Export Development  Authority. 

What Are GI Tags, and How Are They Awarded?

  • A geographical indication or GI is a sign used on products that have a specific geographical origin and possess qualities or a reputation that are due to that origin.
  • Geographical Indications are part of the intellectual property rights that come under the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property.
  • In India, Geographical Indications registration is administered by the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act of 1999. Geographical indications are typically used for agricultural products, foodstuffs, wine and spirit drinks, handicrafts, and industrial products.


Ladakh got its first-ever GI tag recently for which of the following products?

A. Yak Milk

B. Apple

C. Apricot

D. Peach

Answer: C

Current Affairs: International

India and Sri Lanka to Launch Ferry Service

  • Passenger ferry service is slated to commence next month between India and Sri Lanka. 
  • The ferry service will connect the Kankesanthurai port in Jaffna district and Puducherry. 
  • The passenger ferry service is likely to boost the tourism sector and strengthen the cultural ties between the two countries.
  • India is separated from Sri Lanka by a narrow channel of seas formed by the Palk Strait and the Gulf of Mannar.

What Is Ferry Service?

  • A Ferry is a place where passengers, freight, or vehicles are carried by boat across a river, lake, arm of the sea, or other body of water. 
  • The term applies both to the place where the crossing is made and to the boat used for the purpose.


  • The vessels under the new service will carry 300 to 400 passengers on a trip that would take about three and a half hours.
  • Ferry owners suggested that they would charge US $60, equivalent to ₹5,000 per passenger, for a single journey and that each passenger could carry up to 100 kg of luggage.

Rationale/Benefits from Ferry Service:

  • The ferry services will make travel to Sri Lanka easier from south India, thus providing a boost to tourism in Sri Lanka, which is suffering from its worst-ever economic crisis. Indians are the largest source of tourists to Sri Lanka.
  • They will also strengthen the cultural bonds between the two regions with linguistic similarities.
  • Tamils from Sri Lanka, who are Hindus, often visit India for religious purposes. 
  • The majority Sinhalese population of Sri Lanka are Buddhist and frequently visit Buddhist tourist places in India. 
  • Similarly, many Tamils from India visit the temples of Sri Lanka. The ferry service will make travel easier for pilgrims from both nations.


India will soon launch the passenger ferry service with which of the following countries?

A. Sri Lanka

B. Bangladesh

C. Indonesia

D. Maldives

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Defence

Missile Destroyer INS Mormugao Commissioned into the Indian Navy

  • The second of the Project 15B stealth-guided missile destroyers built by Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDSL), INS Mormugao (Pennant D67), was commissioned into the Indian Navy recently. 
  • The ship, named after a key port in Goa, was commissioned a day before the Goa Liberation Day celebrations.

What Is Project 15B:

  • The contract for the four ships of Project 15B, known as the Visakhapatnam class ships, was signed on 28 January 2011.
  • The project is a follow-on to the Kolkata class (Project 15A) destroyers commissioned in the previous decade.
  • Four Ships are to be developed under Project 15B –
  1. Visakhapatnam
  2. Mormugao
  3. Imphal
  4. Surat
  • These four ships have been named after major cities from the four corners of the country. Visakhapatnam, Mormugao, Imphal and Surat.
  • These are designed by the Directorate of Naval Design, the Indian Navy’s in-house design organisation and built by Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Ltd, Mumbai.
  • P-15B destroyers incorporate new design concepts for improved survivability, seakeeping and manoeuvrability. 
  • Enhanced stealth has also been achieved, making the ships difficult to detect. 
  • With a significantly increased indigenous content, P-15B destroyers are a hallmark of self-reliance in warship design and building and a shining example of ‘Aatmanirbhar Bharat’.

About INS Mormugao:

  • Stealth, firepower and manoeuvrability with indigenous content
  • Measuring 163 m in length and 17m in breadth with a displacement of 7,400 tonnes, INS Mormugao is packed with sophisticated state-of-the-art weapons and sensors such as Surface-to-Surface Missiles and Surface-to-Air Missiles. 
  • The ship is fitted with a modern Surveillance Radar which provides target data to the gunnery weapon systems. 
  • Its Anti-Submarine Warfare capabilities are provided by indigenously-developed Rocket Launchers, Torpedo Launchers and ASW helicopters.
  • The ship is equipped to fight under Nuclear, Biological and Chemical warfare conditions. It is propelled by four powerful Gas Turbines in a Combined Gas and Gas configuration, capable of achieving speeds in excess of 30 knots. 
  • The ship has enhanced stealth features resulting in a reduced Radar Cross Section. INS Mormugao has a complement of about 300 personnel.
  • With over 75% indigenous content, it is a testimony to India’s excellence in the design and development of warships, either directly through design and development by Indian Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) or through strategic tie-ups and Transfer of Technology with reputed foreign OEMs.

Strategic Significance:

  • Technically, destroyers are a category of warships that have high speed, manoeuvrability, and longer endurance to be part of the escort for larger vessels in a fleet or a carrier battle group, also known as a carrier strike group.
  • Modern destroyers are swift, sleek, and difficult to detect, and primarily protect the fleets and carrier battle groups from the short-range surface, air, and sub-surface attacks. Guided missile destroyers are capable of anti-aircraft and anti-submarine warfare, apart from anti-surface operations.
  • Because of their speed, manoeuvrability, and strike capability, guided missile destroyers are key assets in various types of naval operations, mainly offensive.
  • Besides several new features, the Visakhapatnam class incorporates user feedback on the Kolkata class.
  • The state-of-the-art stealth feature ensures it has the radar signature of a very small ship, and a very high indigenous component gives it a strategic edge.


Which of the following is not among the four ships that Project 15B will develop?

A. INS Visakhapatnam

B. INS Mormugao

C. INS Imphal

D. INS Kochi

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Science and Technology

NASA Launched the First Global Water Survey Satellite

  • A NASA-led international satellite was launched from Southern California on a major Earth science project to conduct a comprehensive survey of the world’s oceans, lakes and rivers for the first time.


  • The launched satellite is named SWOT (Surface Water and Ocean Topography).
  • The advanced radar satellite is designed to give an unprecedented view of life covering 70% of the planet, shedding new light on the mechanics and consequences of climate change.
  • The satellite incorporates advanced microwave radar technology, which will collect surface measurements of oceans, lakes, reservoirs and rivers in high-definition detail.


  • SWOT is being jointly developed by NASA and Centre National D’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) with contributions from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) and the United Kingdom Space Agency.

The Rationale of the Satellite:

  • It sweeps off the planet at least twice every 21 days, will enhance Ocean circulation models, bolster weather and climate forecasts and aid in managing scarce freshwater supplies in drought-stricken regions.
  • It is equipped to observe the entire length of nearly all rivers wider than 330 feet and more than 1 million lakes and reservoirs larger than 5 acres.
  • It will precisely measure fine differences in surface elevations around smaller currents and eddies, where much of the oceans’ drawdown of heat and carbon is believed to occur.


Recently, which space agency in the world launched the first global water survey satellite?

A. China National Space Administration (CNSA)

B. European Space Agency (ESA)

C. Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)

D. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)

Answer: D

Current Affairs: National

Indian Scholar at Cambridge Solves 2,500-Year-Old Sanskrit Algorithm Problem

  • Rishi Rajpopat made the breakthrough by decoding a rule taught by Panini, known as the father of linguistics, and has created history after achieving something that has not been attained in over 2,500 years.
  • For centuries, numerous Sanskrit scholars have been grappling with a grammatical problem. However, now an Indian PhD student at the University of Cambridge has solved the puzzle that has been confounding scholars since the 5th century BC.
  • The young scholar has demystified a rule taught by Panini, a Sanskrit grammarian from ancient India. His thesis ‘In Panini, We Trust: Discovering the Algorithm for Rule Conflict Resolution in ‘Astadhyayi’.

About the Code:

  • Panini taught a “metarule” in the event of a conflict between two rules of equal strength. 
  • Traditionally, scholars interpreted it in terms of using the rule that comes later in the grammar’s serial order, which often led to grammatically incorrect results. 
  • The new research argues that in such conflicts, Panini wanted us to choose the rule applicable to the right side over the left side of a word.


  • It could revolutionise Sanskrit study and allow Sanskrit grammar to be taught to computers. 

About Panini and Astadhyayi: 

  • Panini was a Sanskrit grammarian who gave a comprehensive and scientific theory of phonetics, phonology, and morphology. 
  • He is also referred to as an Informatician, as he used language to decode information.
  • Panini’s grammar, known as the Astadhyayi (or Astaka, given in the 6th or 5th century BCE), contains 4000 sutras to explain the science behind Sanskrit. 
  • It relies on a system that functions like an algorithm to turn the base and suffix of a word into grammatically correct words and sentences. 
  • It is compared to the Turing Machine of Alan M Turing due to its complex set of rules for creating words.


Which of the following Indian scholars of Cambridge university recently solved the 2,500-year-old Sanskrit algorithm problem in Panini’s text?

A. Tathagat Bhatia

B. Anwesha Lahiri

C. Rishi Rajpopat

D. Rishabh Bajoria

Answer: C

Current Affairs: National

Grih Pravesh programme

  • Prime Minister of India recently launched the Grih Pravesh programme for over 2 lakh beneficiaries under Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban, Rural in Tripura.

What Is Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban (PMAY-U):

  • Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Urban (PMAY-U) Mission is being implemented during 2015-2022. It is implemented by the Union Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA).
  • To achieve the goal of Housing for All in Urban areas by 2022, when the Nation completes 75 years of its Independence.

What Is Covered by PMAY-U, and Who Is Eligible?

  • Under it, central assistance will be provided to Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) and other implementing agencies through States/UTs for:
    • In-situ Rehabilitation of existing slum dwellers using land as a resource through private participation
    • It provides the facility of Credit Linked Subsidy
    • Affordable Housing in Partnership
    • Subsidy for Beneficiary-led individual house construction/enhancement
    • Credit linked subsidy component will be implemented as a Central Sector Scheme, while the other three components will be implemented as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS).
    • All statutory towns as per Census 2011 and towns notified subsequently would be eligible for coverage under the Mission.

What Is Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana – Gramin (PMAY-G):

  • The main aim of the scheme is to provide the pucca houses with some of the basic amenities
  • This scheme is meant for people who do not own a house and those who live in kutcha houses or houses severely damaged
  • At present, the minimum size of the houses to be built under the PMAY-G scheme is 25 sq. mt., with a hygienic cooking space
  • The Ministry who is Concerned with this programme is the Ministry of Rural Development
  • Beneficiaries are identified using parameters from Socio-Economic and Caste Census (SECC) 2011 data and verified by Gram Sabhas.

FactBook: 19 December 2022

Tal Chhapar sanctuary

  • The famous Tal Chhapar blackbuck sanctuary in Rajasthan’s Churu district has received a protective cover against a proposed move of the State government to reduce the size of its eco-sensitive zone. 
  • The World Wildlife Fund for Nature (WWF) has also taken up a major project for the conservation of raptors in the sanctuary, spread over an area measuring 7.19 sq. km.
  • The Tal Chhapar Sanctuary is known as the home of blackbuck and a variety of birds in Rajasthan.
  • The sanctuary is flanked by the Great India Desert, Thar and boasts a unique ecosystem and is an important bird-watching destination in India.
  • Migratory birds in the sanctuary: Harriers, eastern imperial eagles, tawny eagles, short-toed eagles, sparrows, little green bee-eaters, black ibis and demoiselle cranes, whereas skylarks, crested larks, ring doves and brown doves are seen round the year.
  • Fauna: Desert foxes and desert cats can be spotted in the sanctuary.

India jumps from 7th to 3rd global ranking in scientific publications

  • India has recently jumped from 7th to 3rd global ranking in scientific publications. 
  • India’s scholarly output increased from 60,555 papers in 2010 to 1, 49,213 papers in 2020.
  • China leads the world in the publication of the maximum number of scientific papers, followed by the United States of America.
  • Dr Jitendra Singh also said that India now ranks 3rd in terms of the number of PhDs in science and engineering. 
  • The National Science Foundation is an independent agency of the United States government that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

Neeraj Chopra becomes the most written-about athlete in 2022, breaking Usain Bolt’s record

  • Indian javelin thrower Neeraj Chopra was the most written-about track and field athlete in 2022, displacing Jamaican sprint legend Usain Bolt from the top of the list after years.
  • Neeraj Chopra, the Tokyo Olympics men’s javelin champion, led the way with 812 articles ahead of the Jamaican women’s sprint trio of Olympic champion Elaine Thompson-Herah (751 articles), 100m world champion Shelly-Ann Fraser-Pryce (698 articles) and 200m world champion Shericka Jackson (679 articles).
  • Usain Bolt, the world record holder in the 100m and 200m men’s sprint, comes fourth in the list with 574 mentions. The Jamaican, who is now retired, had previously topped the annual list for the most written-about athlete for years.
  • The data collated by media analysis company Unicepta was cited by World Athletics, the global governing body for athletics.

‘Prashasan Gaon Ki Ore’ Campaign

  • Union Minister for Personnel, Public Grievances, and Pensions inaugurated the Prashasan Gaon ki Ore (governance towards the village) today, 19 December 2022.
  • It is a nationwide Campaign under Good Governance Week 2022.
  • The Nationwide Campaign for the Redressal of Public Grievances and Improving Service Delivery will be held in all Districts, States and Union Territories of the country.
  • Over 700 District Collectors will participate in the Campaign, and officials will be visiting Tehsils and Panchayat Samiti Headquarters.
  • Over 3,100 new government services will be added for online delivery during the five-day good governance week.
  • The good governance week, or Sushasan Saptah, will witness the nation’s grievance redressal platforms functioning in unison—grievances received on the Centralised Public Grievance Redress and Monitoring System (CPGRAMS) will be redressed along with grievances received on State portals.

Group of Friends

  • India has recently launched a ‘Group of Friends’ to promote accountability for crimes against peacekeepers.
  • This Group of Friends will act as a platform to promote accountability for all acts of violence against the United Nations peacekeepers by facilitating support to the host state, creating awareness, exchanging information, sharing best practices, supporting initiatives, and mobilising resources.
  • Bangladesh, Egypt, France, India, Morocco and Nepal have joined the group as co-chairs to promote accountability for crimes against peacekeepers.
  • Group of Friends represents the “political will” of member states, particularly of the troop and police contributing countries, to champion the implementation of the provisions of the UN Security Council resolution 2589, which was adopted in August last year under India’s Presidency of the Council.

Current Affairs: Defence

Japan Unveils Biggest Military Build-up Since World War II

  • As regional tensions and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine stoked war fears, Japan recently unveiled its largest military buildup since World War II (WWII) with a $320 billion plan to buy missiles capable of striking China and ready it for sustained conflict.
  • Prime Minister Fumio Kishida, who has called this a “historic moment” for Japan and its people, has called it his “answer to the various security challenges that we face”.

The Plan:

  • The five-year plan to be implemented with a total budget of 320 billion USD will make Japan the third-largest military spender in the world after the United States and China. This comes after the cabinet led by Prime Minister Kishida Fumio approved Japan’s three important security documents.

Why Was This Decision Made?

  • The Japanese government is worried that Russia has set a precedent that will encourage China to attack Taiwan, endangering Japanese islands, disrupting supplies of advanced semiconductors, and possibly putting a stranglehold on sea lanes supplying Middle Eastern oil.
  • There is also the threat of China’s claim over the uninhabited Senkaku Islands and the possibility of the Chinese takeover of those islands.

What Happened after World War II?

  • After World War II, Japan adopted a new constitution written by the United States that prohibited the country from possessing or using weapons of mass destruction.
  • It is stated in the strategy paper that Russia’s invasion of Ukraine is a serious violation of laws that forbid the use of force and has shaken the foundations of the international order.
  • It also noted that Beijing had not ruled out using force to bring Taiwan under its control, adding that this posed “the greatest strategic challenge Japan has ever faced.”
  • Separately, a national security strategy document highlighted China, Russia, and North Korea as threats to the international status quo and pledged close cooperation with the United States and other like-minded nations to deter them.


Recently Japan announced the largest military buildup since World War II with $320 billion. This decision will make Japan the _____ numbered military spender in the world

A. 2nd

B. 3rd

C. 4th

D. 5th

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Important Days and Events

International Human Solidarity Day 2022

  • International Human Solidarity Day (IHSD) is observed annually on 20th December across the globe to celebrate the ideal of unity in diversity. 
  • IHSD highlights the goal of the United Nations and its member states to create awareness about poverty and the need to reduce poverty in independent nations. 


  • International Human Solidarity Day was developed on the theme of human unity for a common purpose. 
  • In this case, that common objective is the elimination of poverty. The UN observes IHSD globally to urge the world citizenry to unite for the cause mentioned above.


  • As per the United Nations Millennium Declaration published on 18th September 2000, the word ‘solidarity’ was added to the UN as one of the fundamental values that are to be essential for international relations.
  • On the Solidarity issues, the UN resolution document states, “Global challenges must be managed in a way that distributes the costs and burdens fairly in accordance with basic principles of equity and social justice”. 
  • “Those who suffer or who benefit least deserve help from those who benefit most.”
  • On 20th December 2002, the UN General Assembly introduced a World Solidarity Fund to help counter global poverty. 
  • This got included in the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) trust fund in February 2003. 
  • The UN declared 20th December as International Human Solidarity Day to commemorate the above day.


  • The celebration of the International Day of Human Solidarity is a significant step toward the aim of the United Nations Sustainable Development Agenda for 2030, which is to eradicate poverty in all its forms across the globe. 
  • The annual celebration reminds world citizens of the issues faced by poor people and nations affected by poverty. 
  • The day serves to remind governments, civil society members and other institutions that poverty can be tackled and eradicated only through a united effort to help usher in an era where social equality, dignity and justice prevail.


On which day is International Human Solidarity Day (IHSD) observed annually?

A. 22nd April

B. 17th July

C. 19th November

D. 20th December

Answer: D

Current Affairs: International

UNESCO Looks to Set Up Funds to Promote Ancient and Tribal Languages across the Globe

  • The United Nations is looking to set up a multi-donor fund to revitalise, preserve and promote ancient and tribal languages across the globe, including ancient Indian languages such as Prakrit, Pali and Sharda, among others.
  • There are nearly 1,700 languages in India, out of which there is no data for 949 languages.

About the Fund:

  • The fund will be available to communities and non-governmental organisations.
  • The members include Canada, Iceland, Norway, Latvia, Russia, Ukraine, Bolivia, Paraguay, Peru, Australia, India, Thailand, Gambia, Madagascar, Zimbabwe, Bahrain, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia.
  • The fund set up by the UN can be utilised for the digital archiving of the lost languages.
  • The International Decade of Indigenous Languages programme by UNESCO has launched a task force that aims to translate these languages into more accessible modern ones to preserve and promote them.
  • UNESCO established the task force for making a Decade of Action for Indigenous Languages on 22nd March 2021.


Which of the following International organisations recently proposed to set up funds to promote ancient and tribal languages across the globe?

A. Aarjava Welfare Society




Answer: D

Current Affairs: Appointments and Resignations

Rail Minister Ashwini Vaishnaw Appointed as the First Chancellor of Gati Shakti University

  • President Droupadi Murmu has appointed Union Railway Minister Ashwini Vaishnaw as the first Chancellor and Manoj Chaudhary as the first Vice-Chancellor of Gati Shakti University in Vadodara, Gujarat.


  • Gati Shakti University was granted central status by the Union Cabinet in July 2022.
  • In August this year, the Central Government introduced a bill in the Lok Sabha to convert the National Rail and Transportation Institute, into Gati Shakti Vishwavidyalaya, an autonomous central university.
  • The Central Universities (Amendment) Bill was introduced by Union Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan, which seeks to expand the scope of the university from beyond the railways to cover the entire transport sector to support the ambitious growth and modernisation in the field.

What Is Pradhan Mantri Gati Shakti Yojana?

  • Pradhan Mantri Gati Shakti Yojana was announced by PM Modi on 15th August 2021 on the 75th Independence Day.
  • The objective of the scheme is to cut logistics costs, increase cargo handling capacity, reduce costs and reduce turnaround time at ports to promote trade.
  • Gati Shakti Digital Platform: Build and impact basic infrastructure projects through coordination between 16 ministries through its platform to be implemented in the same manner.


Who among the following has recently been appointed as the first Chancellor of Gati Shakti University?

A. Raosaheb Patil Danve

B. Manoj Sinha

C. Ashwini Vaishnaw

D. Piyush Goyal

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Environment and Ecology

Bullock’s Heart Tree

  • A Research intern at the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) recently won a prize at the International Science and Engineering Fair in the United States—the world’s largest pre-college science fair for developing a cost-effective bio-insecticide from the leaves of bullock’s heart tree (Annona reticulata), popularly known as Ramphal.

What Is Bullock’s Heart Tree?

  • Bullock heart tree’s extracts have traditionally been used to cure conditions including dysentery and pediculosis (louse infestation)
  • Extracts from its leaves may be useful against three destructive pests—Pod borer, Green peach aphid and fall armyworm—with a mortality rate of 78-88 per cent, the research claimed. All these pests are known for incurring crop losses to farmers.
  • It is a small deciduous or semi-evergreen tree in the plant family Annonaceae and part of the Annonas group.
  • It is best known for its fruit, called custard apple, a common name shared with fruits of several other species in the same genus: A. cherimola and A. squamosa.

What is the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)?

  • The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics is an international organisation which conducts agricultural research for rural development., headquartered in Patancheru with several regional centres
  • ICRISAT is a non-profit agricultural research organisation.
  • It was founded in 1972 by a consortium of organisations convened by the Ford and the Rockefeller Foundations.
  • Its charter was signed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
  • Headquarters: Patancheruvu, Hyderabad, Telangana
  • Founders: M. S. Swaminathan, C. Fred Bentley, Ralph Cummings
  • Motto: Science of discovery to the science of delivery
  • Parent organisation: CGIAR-Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research


ICRISAT (International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics) recently won a prize at the International Science and Engineering Fair (ISEF) in the US for developing which of the following products from Ramphal? 

A. Digital Farming equipment

B. Nutritive seeds of Ramphal

C. Bio-insecticide

D. Bio-fertiliser

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Awards and Recognitions

Sonakshi Sinha Is PETA India’s 2022 ‘Person of the Year’

  • Sonakshi Sinha has been named ‘Person of the Year 2022’ by People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) India. 
  • The animal rights non-profit organisation conferred the title upon her in order to celebrate the actor’s actions which helped “spare the lives of animals killed for fashion and her strong advocacy for dogs and cats in need”.


  • The title came to her after her campaign against leather for PETA India, which amplified the message that “more than 1.4 billion cows, sheep, goats, dogs, cats, and other animals are killed in horrific ways each year to be turned into leather accessories that no one needs”.

Past Recipients:

  • In 2021, Alia Bhatt was named the PETA Person of the Year.
  • Past recipients of PETA India’s Person of the Year Award include former Supreme Court Justice KS Panicker Radhakrishnan, cricketer Virat Kohli, comedian Kapil Sharma and actors John Abraham, Anushka Sharma, and Sunny Leone, among others.

What Is PETA?

  • PETA stands for People for Ethical Treatment of Animals 
  • PETA was founded in 1980 and is dedicated to establishing and defending the rights of all animals 
  • PETA operates under the simple principle that animals are not ours to experiment on, eat, wear, use for entertainment, or abuse in any other way 
  • PETA is the largest animal rights organisation in the world, and PETA entities have more than 9 million members and supporters globally
  • PETA Founders: Ingrid Newkirk, Alex Pacheco
  • PETA Headquarters: Norfolk, Virginia, United States
  • PETA Founded: 22 March 1980
  • PETA President: Ingrid Newkirk


Who among the following has recently been awarded PETA India’s 2022 ‘Person of the Year’ recognition?

A. Actress Alia Bhatt

B. Actress Sonakshi Sinha

C. Supreme Court Justice KS Panicker Radhakrishnan

D. Cricketer Virat Kohli

Answer: B

Factbook – 20 December 2022

1] INSV Tarini to participate in the 50th edition of Cape Town to Rio Race 2023

  • Indian Navy’s sailboat INSV Tarini has set sail for an expedition to Cape Town, South Africa, to participate in the 50th edition of Cape to Rio Race 2023. 
  • This ocean sailing race will be flagged off from Cape Town on 2nd January 2023 and will culminate at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. 
  • The race is one of the most prestigious Trans-Atlantic ocean races. 
  • The expedition is being undertaken by an Indian Navy crew of five officers, including two women officers.
  • The expedition aims to train the crew onboard in essential seamanship skills, including Navigation, Communication, Technical, Planning, etc. 
  • The expedition is an important milestone in training the two women officers onboard for undertaking solo circumnavigation sailing expeditions around the globe.
  • INSV Tarini is known for circumnavigating the globe with an all-women officer crew in the historic expedition titled ‘Navika Sagar Parikrama’ in 2017. 

2] Indian-origin Leo Varadkar Is the New Prime Minister of Ireland

  • Indian-origin Leo Varadkar has returned for a second term as Ireland’s Prime Minister as part of a job-sharing deal made by the country’s centrist coalition government. 
  • Lawmakers voted to approve Varadkar’s nomination to replace Micheál Martin during a special session of the Dail, the lower house of Ireland’s parliament. 
  • In his first term, Mr Varadkar was the Prime Minister from 2017 to 2020.
  • Varadkar was born in Dublin to an Irish mother who worked as a nurse and an Indian immigrant father who was a qualified doctor.
  • Varadkar’s rise to the top of Irish politics was remarkable in a country dominated by a strict, conservative Catholic morality well into the latter half of the last century. At 38, he became the country’s youngest Taoiseach as well as its first openly gay head of government and first of Indian heritage.
  • In 2015, before Ireland’s referendum legalising same-sex marriage, Varadkar came out publicly as gay.

3] Sargam Koushal Becomes Mrs World 2022, India bagged Title after 21 Years

  • Sargam Koushal of India has been awarded Mrs World’s beauty pageant winner. 
  • Mrs World, launched in 1984, is the first beauty pageant for married women.
  • Mrs Shaylyn Ford of the United States, the previous winner of the beauty competition, crowned Koushal. 
  • Sargam is the second Indian to win the coveted title; Aditi Govitrikar earned Mrs World in 2001. Koushal, 32, is a native of Jammu and Kashmir. 
  • Mrs Polynesia was named the first runner-up, followed by Mrs Canada as the second runner-up. 

4] Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL)

  • Recently, the Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts and the CSIR-TKDL signed a Memorandum of Understanding.
  • The MoU aims at cooperation related to digitisation and the inclusion of information on traditional knowledge of India from manuscripts and traditional cultural expressions.
  • It will facilitate efforts towards protecting and preserving the manuscript knowledge for current and future times through the inclusion of the information into the TKDL database.
  • It is also expected to enable digitisation and the inclusion of non-written, oral and audio-visual materials related to traditional knowledge and traditional cultural expressions into the TKDL.
  • The Traditional Knowledge Digital Library (TKDL) is a pioneering Indian initiative jointly by the CSIR and the Ministry of AYUSH.
  • Its objective is to prevent exploitation and to protect Indian traditional knowledge from misappropriation by way of wrongful Intellectual Property Rights.

5] Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework – 

  • The 15th Conference of Parties (COP15), Chaired by China and hosted by Canada of the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) held in Montreal in December 2022, adopted the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF). 
  • The GBF includes four goals and 23 targets to address the loss of biodiversity and restore natural ecosystems by 2030. 
  • The GBF was agreed upon by representatives of 188 governments, including 95% of all Parties to the CBD, as well as the United States and the Vatican.

Four overarching goals of the GBF include:

  1. Maintaining, enhancing, or restoring the integrity, connectivity, and resilience of all ecosystems
  2. Halting human-induced extinction of threatened species and reducing the extinction rate and risk of all species
  3. Maintaining genetic diversity within populations of wild and domesticated species
  4. Sustainably using and managing biodiversity and valuing nature’s contributions to people

6] Rafael Nadal and Iga Swiatek Crowned ITF World Champions 2022

  • The International Tennis Federation (ITF) has announced that Rafael Nadal and Iga Swiatek have been named 2022 ITF World Champions, following impressive seasons in which both players won two Grand Slam singles titles.
  • Nadal and Swiatek are among 11 players who have been announced as ITF World Champions this week.
  • Previously Spanish Nadal was named four times the men’s ITF World Champion in 2008, 2010, 2017 and 2019, while Polish tennis player, Iga Świątek, was named Women’s ITF World Champion in 2022 for her performance in 2022, winning Two Grand Slam titles and Eight titles.
  • The winners will be honoured at the annual ITF World Champions Awards event, which will be held on 8th July 2023 at Victoria and Albert Museum, London, United Kingdom(UK). The event is usually held in Paris, France.
    • ITF President­: David Haggerty
    • ITF President Headquarters­: London, United Kingdom (UK)
    • ITF President Establishment:­ 1913

Current Affairs: Defence, Internal Security and Geopolitics

India Will Build 1,700 km ‘Frontier Highway’ Near the China Border by 2027

  • In the next five years, the Centre will build a 1,748 km long “frontier highway” close to the India-Tibet-China-Myanmar border in Arunachal Pradesh. 
  • It will be as close as 20 km from the international border.


  • Recently, Indian and Chinese troops clashed along the Yangtze river in the Tawang sector in Arunachal Pradesh. 
  • Certain areas along the LAC in the Tawang Sector that are areas of differing perception, and China reportedly has been building infrastructure on its side. 
  • It is part of the Chinese Salami Slicing tactic or Cabbage strategy. 
  • It is a strategy of acquiring new territories, at the expense of its neighbours. Under this China tests the other claimants through aggressive actions, then back off when it meets significant resistance. 

About NH-913:

  • The government will construct the NH-913 new frontier highway in Arunachal Pradesh within the next five years.  
  • This highway will boost the seamless movement of defence forces and equipment to the  Border.
  • It will also cater to the developmental needs and well-being of people living in  Border areas.

Related Infrastructure Programmes in Border Areas:

  • Vibrant Villages Programme: Construction of village infrastructure, housing, tourist centres, and road connectivity. 
  • The Border Area Development Programme: Balanced development of border areas and promoting a sense of security among the border population. 
  • Smart Fencing in India.


The government is planning to build a 1,700 km ‘frontier highway’ near the China border by 2027. It will be called as

A. NH-713

B. NH-923

C. NH-913

D. NH-1000 

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Defence

Fifth Scorpène-class Submarine Vagir Delivered to Navy

  • The fifth Scorpène-class conventional submarine, Vagir, was delivered to the Navy by Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL) Mumbai on 20 December. 
  • It is scheduled to be commissioned into service next month.
  • It has “superior features”, like advanced acoustic absorption techniques.

What Is Project 75?

  • Project 75 includes the indigenous construction of six submarines based on the Scorpene-class developed by the French defence major, Naval Group (formerly DCNS), and the Spanish state-owned entity Navantia. 
  • These submarines are being constructed at Mazagon Dock Shipbuilders Limited (MDL) Mumbai in collaboration with Naval Group.

What Are Scorpène-class Submarines?

  • The Scorpène-class submarines are a class of diesel-electric attack submarines jointly developed by the French Naval Group (formerly the DCNS) and the Spanish company Navantia. 
  • It features diesel propulsion and additional air-independent propulsion (AIP). 

Other Submarines – Details:

  • The sixth and last of the Scorpène-class submarines,  Vagsheer, was launched into the water in April 2022 and is expected to be delivered to the Navy by the end of 2023.
  • Six Scorpene submarines are being built under Project-75 by MDL under technology transfer from the Naval Group of France under a $3.75 billion deal signed in October 2005.
  • The project is about four years behind schedule.
  • The first submarine INS Kalvari was commissioned in December 2017; the second submarine INS Khanderi in September 2019; the third one, INS Karanj, in March 2021 and the fourth one, INS Vela, joined service in November 2021.


Which of the following is not a ‘Scorpene-class submarine’ not associated with Project 75?

A. INS Khanderi

B. INS Vagsheer

C. INS Karanj

D. INS Arighat

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Defence

Indian Armed Forces To Get Pralay Missile; Will Allow Targeting of Chinese Infra in Tibet

  • The Indian armed forces are planning to acquire the ‘Pralay’ tactical ballistic missile, which has a range of between 150 and 500 kilometres.
  • The proposal for this acquisition is reportedly at an advanced stage and is set to be discussed at a high-level meeting.
  • The missile is comparable to China’s Dongfeng 12 and Russia’s 9K720 Iskander, both of which are also short-range tactical ballistic missiles.

What is a Pralay Missile?

  • Pralay is a canisterised tactical, surface-to-surface, and short-range ballistic missile (SRBM) for use on the battlefield developed by India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO).
  • The missile is an amalgamation of technologies developed for the exoatmospheric interceptor missile Prithvi Defence Vehicle (PDV) from the Indian Ballistic Missile Defence Programme and Prahaar tactical missile.
  • The project to develop Pralay was sanctioned in March 2015 with a budget of ₹332.88 crores (equivalent to ₹427 crores or US$53 million in 2020).

Major Features:

  • Pralay has the capability to destroy enemy targets within a range of 150 to 500 km
  • The missile guidance system includes state-of-the-art navigation and integrated avionics
  • The missile was successfully tested twice on two consecutive days in December last year

Current Affairs: National

ATL Marathon 2022-23

  • Atal Innovation Mission (AIM) at NITI Aayog recently opened applications for ATL Marathon 2022-23, a flagship innovation challenge under Atal Tinkering Labs programme.

What is an ATL Marathon?

  • ATL Marathon is a national-level innovation challenge for young innovators across India who can solve community problems of their choice and develop innovative solutions in the form of working prototypes or Minimum Viable Products, MVP.


  • The theme for this edition of ATL Marathon is “India’s G20 Presidency”.

About Atal Innovation Mission:

  • AIM has designed the problem statements based on G20’s working group inspiring recommendations on internationally relevant issues in respective areas of focus.
  • This marathon will create a huge opportunity for students to innovate not just for the better of India but for the world by resolving global problems in various sectors.

What Is Atal Tinkering Lab?

  • Vision: To cultivate one Million children in India as Neoteric Innovators Atal Innovation Mission is establishing Atal Tinkering Laboratories (ATLs) in schools across India.
  • Objective: To foster curiosity, creativity, and imagination in young minds; and inculcate skills such as design mind-set, computational thinking, adaptive learning, physical computing, etc.
  • In order to foster inventiveness among students, ATL can conduct different activities ranging from regional and national level competitions, exhibitions, workshops on problem-solving, designing and fabrication of products, lecture series, etc., at periodic intervals.


ATL Marathon 2022-23, a flagship innovation challenge under the ‘Atal Tinkering Labs’ programme, is derived by which of the following?

A. Ministry of Science and Technology

B. Ministry of Electronic and Information Technology

C. NITI Ayog

D. National Science Fellowship Programme

Answer: C

Current Affairs: National

Tamil Nadu Govt Launches ‘Friends of Library’ Programme

  • The ‘Friends of Library’ programme, under which books would be directly given to those who are unable to access state-run libraries, was introduced by the Tamil Nadu government recently.


  • The project will be helpful to people with disabilities, seniors, kids, and hospital inpatients, among others, who cannot visit a library.
  • Such individuals will receive the books from the libraries from volunteers. The recipients must register with the relevant library.
  • The programme will involve 2,500 libraries in its initial phase, including 31 district libraries.


Which of the following states/UT recently launched the ‘Friends of Library’ programme?

A. Uttar Pradesh

B. Kerala

C. Tamil Nadu

D. Odisha

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Security and National

Haryana Police Judged First in CCTNS Implementation

  • Haryana Police was awarded the first rank among all major state police in implementing the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS).
  • An Annual Conference on Good Practices in CCTNS/Interoperable Criminal Justice System (ICJS) was organised by the National Crime Records Bureau under the Ministry of Home Affairs to recognise the implementation of CCTNS and ICJS projects.

What Is Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS)?

  • Crime and Criminal Tracking Network and Systems (CCTNS) is a project initiated in June 2009, which aims at creating a comprehensive and integrated system for enhancing the efficiency and effectiveness of policing at the Police Station level. 
  • This will be done through the adoption of principles of e-Governance and creation of a nationwide networked infrastructure for the evolution of IT-enabled state-of-the-art tracking systems around the “investigation of crime and detection of criminals”. CCTNS is a Mission Mode Project (MMP) under the National e-Governance Plan of the Government of India.

Features of CCTNS?

  • CCTNS will interconnect about 15000 Police Stations and additional 5000 offices of supervisory police officers across the country and digitise data related to FIR registration, investigation and charge sheets in all Police Stations.
  • CCTNS will not only automate Police functions at Police stations and higher levels but will also create facilities and mechanisms to provide public services. Public services include registration of online complaints, ascertaining the status of cases registered at the police station, verification of persons, etc.


Which of the following states/UT recently awarded the first rank among all major state police in implementing the Crime and Criminal Tracking Network System (CCTNS)?

A. Delhi

B. Rajasthan

C. Odisha

D. Haryana

Answer: D

Factbook – 21 December 2022

Project Vaani

  • Google India has teamed up with the Indian Institute of Science (IISc) for a new slate of India-focused initiatives in the AI space initiative. 
  • It aims to build an artificial intelligence/machine learning (AI/ML) model to collect language samples from 773 districts across India. 
  • It will be an AI-based language model that can understand diverse Indian languages and dialects. The potential use of such datasets is in building apps in health, agriculture, and financial inclusion areas.

Jaipur Pink Panthers Wins The Trophy of Pro Kabaddi League 9

  • Jaipur Pink Panthers won the Pro Kabaddi League Season 9 Final against a hard-fighting Puneri Paltan by a score of 33-29 to win their second PKL championship.
  • Abhishek Bachchan owns Jaipur Pink Panthers.
  • Jaipur Pink Panthers won the league again nine years after its debut. 
  • The tournament was played across various cities like Bengaluru, Pune, and Hyderabad, while the playoffs were played in Mumbai. 
  • Season seven in 2019 was won by Bengal Warriors, while season eight in 2021 was won by Dabang Delhi.


  • Prize money for the winners is ₹3 crores, and for the runners-up, it is ₹1.80 crores
  • Perfect Player of the Final: Sunil Kumar (Pink Panthers)
  • Game Changer of the Final: V Ajit Kumar (Pink Panthers)
  • Moment of the Final: Ankush Rathee (Pink Panthers)
  • Move of the Final: V Ajit Kumar (Pink Panthers)
  • Perfect Moment of the Final: Sunil Kumar (Pink Panthers)
  • Most Valuable Player of the Season: Arjun Deshwal (Pink Panthers) ₹20 lakh
  • Kabaddi is basically a combative sport, with seven players on each side; played for a period of 40 minutes with a 5 minutes break (20-5-20).

World’s first operation using stem cells

  • A heart surgeon in England has carried out a “world-first” operation using stem cells from the placentas.
  • Stem cells are the body’s raw materials — cells from which all other cells with specialised functions are generated. Under the right conditions in the body or a laboratory, stem cells divide to form more cells called daughter cells. 
  • It can help develop technology so children born with congenital cardiac disease won’t need as many operations. 

Panda Task Force

  • Recently Parliament has discussed the inclusion of various communities in the Scheduled Tribes lists. But recently, opposition MPs have questioned the government about the list of communities that were already recommended for inclusion on a priority basis over eight years ago by a government task force (Panda Task Force).
  • Panda Task Force was constituted in February 2014 under the leadership of erstwhile Tribal Affairs Secretary Hrusikesh Panda.
  • This Task force has compiled a comprehensive list of over 40 communities from across the country that it felt should be included in ST lists on a priority basis.
  • Out of these communities, nine are in Odisha, 26 are part of the tea tribes in Assam, eight are in Chhattisgarh, and a few are in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.


  • Recently residents from around 40 villages of Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, have walked 225 kilometres to protect community-conserved sacred spaces known as ‘orans’. Currently, the biodiversity hotspots are classified as wastelands.
  • ‘Orans’ are mainly the community forests that act as a store of biodiversity, enable effective water management and serve as a community-based regeneration system, which also ensures sustainable extraction of Non-Timber Forest Produces (NTFPs) by villagers in the world’s oldest Aravali Mountain Range and in the Great Indian Desert of Rajasthan.
  • Sacred groves have been live manifestations of human beings’ historical, cultural and emotional attachment to forests.

India’s first-ever Surety Bond Insurance products

  • Union Minister for Road Transport and Highways Nitin Gadkari has launched one of India’s first-ever Surety Bond Insurance products from Bajaj Allianz.
  • India is well on its path to becoming a five Trillion dollar economy, and insurance will play an important role in this growth.
  • Surety Bond Insurance will act as a security arrangement for infrastructure projects and will insulate the contractor and the principal.

Book, Thoughts, Author

Book: The Art of War

Thought: “Victorious warriors win first and then go to war, while defeated warriors go to war first and then seek to win”

Author: “Sun Tzu”

Current Affairs: Important Days and Events

National Mathematics Day 2022

  • 22 December marks the birth anniversary of Indian Mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan and is celebrated as National Mathematics Day. 
  • Ramanujan is regarded as one of the greatest mathematicians of all time, whose legacy includes as many as 4,000 theorems.
  • Former Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, on 26 February 2012, declared 22 December to be celebrated as National Mathematics day.

About Ramanujan:

  • Srinivasa Ramanujan is an Indian Mathematician. He was born on 22 December 1887 in Tamil Nadu. Ramanujan is more commonly also known as the “man who knew infinity”.
  • Despite not having any formal education in Mathematics, he has been attributed as a mathematics genius. He has made a significant amount of contribution to the development and growth of Maths in India.
  • Srinivasa Ramanujan went to London to study, where he joined Trinity College, a few months before World War 1 (WWI) broke out. 
  • Ramanujan went to Trinity College after a colleague of his recognised his mathematical ability and referred him to Professor GH Hardy.
  • In 1916, he was awarded a Bachelor of Science degree, and in 1917, he was elected to the London Mathematical Society. 
  • The following year, in 1918, he was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society for his research on Elliptic Functions and the theory of numbers.
  • In 1919 he made his way back to India due to poor health, and a year later, in 1920, at the age of 32, he passed away.


  • Ramanujan used to solve Loney’s Trigonometry exercises at the age of 13 without any help.
  • He never had any school friends because his peers were intimidated by his mathematical genius.
  • He failed to get a degree since he could not crack the non-mathematical subjects and would fail their exams.
  • He was the second Indian to be honoured with the Fellow of the Royal Society in 1918. The first was Ardaseer Cursetjee, a marine engineer.
  • Ramanujan claimed his whole life that a Hindu Goddess called Namakkal used to give him questions and theories to prove during his sleep, and he would then proceed to solve them when he woke up.


National Mathematics Day is celebrated every year on 22 December to mark the birth anniversary of which Indian mathematician?

A. Aryabhatta

B. Prasanta Chandra Mahalanobis

C. Varāhamihira

D. Srinavasa Ramanujan

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Art and Culture

UNESCO’s Tentative List of World Heritage Sites

  • Recently three heritage sites were added to the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage sites which includes 
  1. The Sun Temple at Modhera, Gujarat
  2. Vadnagar town from Gujarat
  3. Rock-cut relief sculptures of Unakoti of Tripura
  • With this, India now has 52 sites on UNESCO Tentative List. 
  • The list indicates the rich cultural and natural wealth of India and shows the huge diversity of our heritage.

What Is Tentative List:

  • According to UNESCO, a Tentative List is an inventory of those properties which each nation intends to consider for nomination.

About All Three Sites:

  • The Sun Temple, Modhera, dedicated to Surya Dev, is the earliest of such temples which set trends in architectural and decorative details, representing the Solanki style at its best.
  • Vadnagar is a municipality under the Mehsana district of Gujarat. 
  • A multi-layered historic town, the history of Vadnagar stretches back to nearly the 8th century BCE. 
  • The town still retains a large number of historical buildings that are primarily religious and residential in nature.
  • Unakoti, located in the northeastern region of Tripura, is known as an ancient holy place associated with Shaiva worship. 
  • The site is a massive gallery set in a forested area displaying a number of towering low-relief images in a unique style, making it a masterpiece of human creative genius.

This Is What It Means: 

  • Once a site has been nominated and evaluated, it is up to the intergovernmental World Heritage Committee to make the final decision on its inscription. 
  • Once a year, the Committee meets to decide which sites will be inscribed on the World Heritage List, the UNESCO site.

How Selection Is Done?

  • UNESCO is a specialised agency of the United Nations aimed at promoting world peace and security through international cooperation in education, arts, sciences and culture.
  • As per information, any cultural or natural site needs to make its way to the tentative list to be on the UNESCO World Heritage List. 
  • But, being added to the tentative list doesn’t guarantee the presence of the site on the main list.
  • According to UNESCO, for a site to be inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List, it must first be nominated by the country where it is located. 
  • International experts examine the nomination and decide whether the inclusion is justified.
  • Finally, the World Heritage Committee, a body of 21 UNESCO elected Member States, takes a vote.

In 2021, India Proposed to Add Six Sites to the List

  • Satpura Tiger Reserve in Madhya Pradesh
  • The Megalithic site of Hirebenakal in Karnataka 
  • The Historical city of Varanasi
  • Maratha Military Architecture in Maharashtra
  • Temples in Kanchipuram
  • Bhedaghat-Lametaghat in Narmada Valley at Jabalpur


Which of the following is not included in the recently published tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage sites of India for 2022?

A. Megalithic site of Hirebenkal in Karnataka

B. Sun Temple modhera in Gujarat

C. Rock Carvings of Unakoti in Tripura

D. Vadnagar multi-layered historic town in Gujarat

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Environment and Ecology

Asian Giant Tortoise Re-wilded in Nagaland to Bring Species Back from the Brink

  • In an attempt to boost conservation and bring the critically endangered Asian Giant Tortoise back from the brink, ten captive-bred juvenile tortoises were soft-released into Intanki National Park, inside a protected area in Nagaland, recently.
  • The pilot release of the Asian Giant Tortoise aims to boost conservation and repopulate the species.
  • Over-exploitation and lack of awareness which led to unsustainable use for consumption by local communities, have brought the species to the brink of functional extinction.

What Is Soft Realising?

  • Soft-released is the gradual return of captive-raised individuals to the wild. 
  • Released into a large natural enclosure with native habitat for acclimation throughout the winters.


  • Asian Giant Tortoises (Manouria emys) are the largest tortoises in mainland Asia.
  • They are found in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, and Malaysia, among other places.
  • Their diet includes Bamboo shoots, tubers, other juicy vegetation, and some invertebrates and frogs.
  • They are threatened by hunting for consumption, habitat loss, anthropogenic activities like construction and slash and burn.

Asian Giant Tortoises  Conservation Status:

  • IUCN – Critically Endangered
  • CITES – Appendix II
  • Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act of 1972 –  Schedule IV

Current Affairs: Awards and Recognitions

Digital India Awards 2022

  • The Smart Cities Mission, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs has won the Platinum Icon in the Digital India Awards 2022 for their initiative “DataSmart Cities: Empowering Cities through Data”.
  • The award was announced yesterday under the ‘Data Sharing and Use for Socio-Economic Development’ category.

What Is ‘Digital India Awards’?

  • Digital India Awards (DIA) presents an opportunity to bring to the fore such digital initiatives. 
  • These awards are instituted under the aegis of National Portal of India to encourage and honour innovative digital solutions by government entities at all levels. 
  • DIA 2022 aims to inspire and motivate not only government entities but also startups in fulfilling the Digital India vision.


  1. Digital Initiatives at Grassroot Level 
  2. Digital Empowerment of Citizens
  3. Digital Initiatives for Ease of Doing Business 
  4. Public Digital Platforms – Central Ministries, Departments and States
  5. Data Sharing and Use for Socio-economic Development 
  6. Digital Initiatives in Collaboration with Startups 
  7. Best Web and Mobile Initiatives Complying with GIGW and Accessibility Guidelines

What Is the DataSmart Cities Initiative?

  • The DataSmart Cities Initiative is a key step in creating a robust data ecosystem that enables evidence-based decision-making in cities. 
  • It aims to harness the power of data for better governance in India’s 100 Smart Cities.


Which of the following missions recently won the Platinum Icon in the Digital India Awards 2022?

A. Atal Innovation Mission

B. Smart Cities Mission

C. National Skill Development Mission

D. Ayushman Bharat -National Health Protection Mission

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Environment and Ecology

Scientistsze Great Barrier Reef Coral in a World-First Trial

  • Scientists working on Australia’s Great Barrier Reef have successfully trialled a new method forzing and storing coral larvae they say could eventually help rewild reefs threatened by climate change.
  • Scientists used the cryomesh toze coral larvae at the Australian Institute of Marine Sciences (AIMS).
  • The Great Barrier reef coral has suffered four bleaching events in the last seven years, including the first-ever bleach during a La Nina phenomenon.

What Is Cryomesh?

  • Cryomesh is a specially fabricated mesh used as a substrate in cryopreservation. 
  • This is lightweight and can be manufactured cheaply. 
  • It better preserves coral and has the properties of cryoplates.
  • The mesh technology will help store coral larvae at -196°C (-320.8°F).

Significance of Coral Cryopreservation:

  • Cryogenically frozen coral can be stored and later reintroduced to the wild. This could eventually help to rewild reefs threatened by climate change.
  • It can build a bigger, more diverse bank of frozen living corals, preserving biodiversity.

What Are Corals?

  • Corals are animals which live in a symbiotic relationship with microscopic algae called zooxanthellae (which live within the coral tissue).
  • The zooxanthellae convert sunlight into food, providing corals with up to 90 per cent of their energy needs. They also give corals much of their colour.


Cryomesh is the word recently seen in the news is associated with

A.zing of fuel on Mars

B.zing of pollutants in the air

C.zing of corals

D.zing of genes of Endemic species

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Defence

Navy Launches Indigenously-built Ship ‘Arnala’

  • Recently Indian Navy launched ‘Arnala’, the first of the eight indigenously-built Anti-Submarine Warfare Shallow Water Craft (ASW-SWC), at the shipbuilding facility of L&T in Chennai’s Kattupalli.
  • The ship has been named ‘Arnala’ to signify the strategic maritime importance accorded to the island of Arnala, located about 13 kilometres north of Vasai, Maharashtra, by Maratha warrior king Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj.
  • The Arnala class of ships will replace the Abhay class ASW Ships of the Indian Navy and are designed to undertake anti-submarine operations in coastal waters and Low-Intensity Maritime Operations (LIMO), including subsurface surveillance in littoral waters.

What Is the ASW SWC Project?

  • It is the Anti-Submarine Warfare Shallow Water Craft project under which many ships are being built for the Indian Navy
  • The ASW SWC ships will be capable of detecting and neutralising various underwater threats.
  • ASW SWC ships have a displacement of 900 tons with a maximum speed of 25 knots and an endurance of 1800 NM.

Make in India:

  • The defence ministry said that ASW-SWC ships would have over 80 per cent indigenous content, ensuring that Indian manufacturing units execute large-scale defence production, thereby generating employment and capability build-up within the country.

Current Affairs: Space Technology

Gaganyaan to Be Launched in Q4 2024

  • India’s maiden human space flight mission under the Gaganyaan programme is targeted to be launched in the fourth quarter of 2024, Union Minister of State for Space Jitendra Singh informed the Parliament yesterday.
  • The astronaut designates for human space flight missions have been identified. They are undergoing their mission-related training in Bengaluru.

What Is Gaganyaan Mission:

  • The formal announcement of the Gaganyaan programme was made by Prime Minister Narendra Modi during his Independence Day address on 15 August 2018.

Modus Operandi:

  • Three flights will be sent into orbit.
  • There will be two unmanned flights and one human spaceflight.
  • The Orbital Module will have three Indian astronauts, including a woman. It will circle earth at a low-earth orbit at an altitude of 300-400 km from earth for 5-7 days.
  • With this launch, India will become the fourth nation in the world to launch a Human Spaceflight Mission after the USA, Russia and China.
  • ISRO’s heavy-lift launcher GSLV Mk III has been identified for the mission.


  • The Gaganyaan programme aims to demonstrate the capability to send humans to low earth orbit on board an Indian launch vehicle and bring them back to earth safely.

Factbook: 22 December 2022

Former athlete PT Usha was nominated to the panel of the Vice-Chairperson in Rajya Sabha

  • Rajya Sabha Chairman Jagdeep Dhankhar has nominated legendary former athlete and MP PT Usha to the panel of Vice chairpersons in the Upper House.
  • This is the first time a nominated member has been appointed to the Vice Chairman panel. YSRC MP Vijai Sai Reddy has also been nominated along with her.
  • PT Usha was also elected as the president of the Indian Olympic Association recently. 
  • PT Usha is one of India’s greatest athletes, often called the country’s “queen of track and field” 58-year-old Usha, a multiple Asian Games gold medallist and fourth-place finisher in the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics 400m hurdles final.


Which sportsperson has recently been nominated to the panel of the Vice-chairperson in Rajya Sabha?

A. Karnam Malleswari 

B. PT Usha

C. Kapil Dev

D. Sachin Tendulkar

Answer: B

Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, becomes the only University in India to get an A grade by NAAC

  • The Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, has got an A grade by scoring 3.85 points in National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) grading, thereby becoming the only University in India to get this score.
  • The National Assessment and Accreditation Council (NAAC) was established in 1994 as an autonomous institution of the University Grants Commission (UGC), with its headquarters in Bengaluru.
  • The NAAC conducts assessment and accreditation of Higher Educational Institutions such as colleges, universities or other recognised institutions to derive an understanding of the ‘Quality Status’ of the institution.

Oscars 2023: RRR’s Naatu Naatu, Last Film Show, among others, shortlisted for the 95th Academy Awards

  • Four Indian films in different categories have been shortlisted for the Oscars 2023 awards
  • The shortlisted entry includes: 
    • RRR’s famous catchy number Naatu Naatu in the Best Original Song category
    • The Chhello Show is called The Last Show in English in the International Feature Film
    • All That Breathes in the Documentary Feature Film category 
    • The Elephant Whisperers in the Documentary Short Film category 
  • The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, the body behind the awards, announced the shortlists in ten categories: documentary feature film, documentary short film, international feature film, makeup and hairstyling, music (original score), music (original song), animated short film, live action short film, sound, and visual effects.
  • The nominations for the 95th Academy Awards will be announced on 24 January, while the Oscars ceremony will be held on 12 March at the Dolby Theatre at Ovation Hollywood in Los Angeles.
  • Bhanu Athaiya is the first person from India to win an Oscar. She is a famous costume designer who won an Oscar for the 1982 historical film Gandhi.

Kalyani Ferresta: Jyotiraditya Scindia launched the country’s first Green steel brand

  • Recently, steel minister Jyotiraditya Scindia unveiled Kalyani Ferresta, India’s first green steel brand, in New Delhi. 
  • Green steel is the manufacturing of steel without the use of fossil fuels. 
  • This first-of-its-kind steel was created by the Kalyani Group, a Pune-based steel manufacturer, utilising renewable energy resources, leaving no carbon footprints in the environment. 
  • The minister stated the event was a paradigm change in the steel sector. 
  • India is leading the countries that have committed to achieving carbon neutrality through green steel manufacturing.

US to provide its key Patriot missile defence system to Ukraine

  • The United States has announced that it would provide its key Patriot missile defence system to Ukraine. 
  • The Patriot missile system can be used as a shield against short-range ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and incoming jets. 
  • This will be the first-ever handover of such a defence system to Ukraine and strengthen the Ukrainian defence. 
  • The White House stated that the Patriot missile system would be part of another 1.85 billion dollars in aid to Ukraine.
  • The package also includes military vehicles, mortars, ammunition for HIMARS (High Mobility Artillery Rocket Systems), and small arms.
  • Patriot missile is a surface-to-air guided missile system that was first deployed in the 1980s.
  • It can target aircraft, cruise missiles and short-range ballistic missiles.


Open your eyes, look within, Are you satisfied with the life you’re living?

Bob Marley

Current Affairs: Days and Events

Indian National Farmer’s Day 2022

  • Kisan Diwas, or National Farmers Day, is observed on 23 December across India to mark the vital contributions of farmers who produce food for around 141 crore people of India. 
  • Food grains produced by them are also exported and help generate revenue in the country. 
  • Kisan Diwas is observed in honour and memory of our fifth Prime Minister, Chaudhary Charan Singh, who was born on that day in 1902.


  • Chaudhary Charan Singh was born in the village of Noorpur, Uttar Pradesh, to a Hindu family of peasants. 
  • As such, he was very familiar with the lives of farmers and their contributions to society.
  • Charan Singh realised how wealthy landlords or zamindars exploited farmers, and this behaviour negatively impacted the village economy. 
  • He got elected as a member of the U.P. Legislative Assembly in 1937 and decided to dismantle such exploitative systems.
  • In the 1950s, Charan Singh drafted land reform laws in Uttar Pradesh as a parliamentary Secretary and later as a Revenue Minister for Land Reforms. 
  • The peasant community in the northern parts of the country began looking up to him after he openly criticised Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s land policies for the development of India.

Champion of the Peasants:

  • At the 64th session of the All India Congress Committee in Nagpur in January 1959, he spoke against Nehru’s proposed socialist model of co-operative farming, which he explained would harm the interests of the farmers and food production. 
  • Charan Singh had often highlighted the need to formulate policies to help the farming community rather than create state-sponsored industrialised farming.
  • As Nehru’s proposals were passed, Charan Singh resigned from his position as the Minister for Revenue and Agriculture in April of 1959. 
  • This pro-farmer stance earned him the nickname, ‘champion of India’s peasants’.


  • Charan Singh wrote several books to highlight the cause of the farmers, namely, ‘Abolition of Zamindari’, ‘Joint Farming X-rayed’, ‘India’s Poverty and its Solution’, and ‘Peasant Proprietorship’.


Kisan Diwas, or National Farmers Day, is observed on 23 December every year on the birthday of ex-prime minister Chaudhary Charan Singh. He is _____ on the prime minister’s chronology?

A. 4th

B. 5th

C. 6th 

D. 7th

Answer: B

Current Affairs: National

India’s Longest Escape Tunnel Constructed in J&K

  • The Indian Railways has completed a 12.8- km tunnel, which is the longest escape tunnel in India, on the 111 km under-construction Banihal-Katra railway line in Jammu and Kashmir. 
  • The breakthrough was executed by conducting a blast, and with it, the work on the escape tunnel was started.
  • The tunnel is part of the prestigious Udhampur-Srinagar-Baramulla Railway Line (USBRL) project.

About the Longest Escape Tunnel:

  • The escape tunnel ‘T-13’ has been constructed to facilitate rescue work in case of an emergency.
  • The escape tunnel passes through various distributaries of the Chenab River like Khoda, Hingni, Kundan nallah, etc.
  • The Tunnel T-49 is a twin tube tunnel comprising the main tunnel (12.75 km) and escape tunnel (12.895 km) connected with 33 numbers of cross-passages.
  • This is the fourth tunnel on the Banihal-Katra route. 
  • In January this year, a 12.75 km tunnel called T-49 was completed. It has been constructed by the New Austrian Tunnelling Method (NATM), a modern technique of drill and blast processes.


Which of the following states/UT has recently seen the completion of Indian Railways’ longest escape tunnel, measuring 12.8 km?,

A. Himachal Pradesh

B. Uttarakhand

C. Jammu and Kashmir

D. Sikkim

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Awards and Honours

Sahitya Akademi Awards for 2022 – Announced

  • Tamil author M. Rajendran, Telugu writer Madhuranthakam Narendra and Sanskrit Poet Janardan Prasad Pandey ‘Mani’ were among 23 litterateurs awarded the Sahitya Akademi Awards for 2022. 


  • Writer M. Rajendran from Tamil Nadu has received this award for his novel ‘Kala Pani’. 
  • The awardee will be presented with a cash prize of one lakh rupees and a copper Shield. This ‘Kala Pani’ novel is a historical novel based on the war of Kalayarkovil or Kalayarkool.
  • The Bhasha Samman was awarded to Udaya Nath Jha for his valuable contribution to the field of classical and mediaeval literature in the eastern region.
  • Seventeen books were selected for the translation awards, which included Yaad Vashem by N. Nallathambi and Akupacha Kavithalu by Varala Anand.
  • The awards in 23 languages included seven books of poetry, six novels, two short stories, three dramas, two literary criticism and one each of autobiographical essays, a collection of articles and literary history.

Bal Sahitya Puraskar:

  • The Bal Sahitya Puraskar has been given in Santhali to Ganesh Marandi for his book Hapan Mai.

About Sahitya Akademi Award:

  • Every year since its inception in 1954, the Sahitya Akademi Award prizes to the most outstanding books of literary merit published in any of the major Indian languages recognised by the Akademi. 
  • The award amount, which was ₹5,000 since inception, had been enhanced to ₹10,000 from 1983, ₹25,000 from 1988, ₹40,000 from 2001, ₹50,000 from 2003 and is now ₹1,00,000 from 2009. 
  • The first Awards were given in 1955.

Sahitya Akademi Award-2022:

LanguageTitle and GenreName of the Author
AssameseBhool Satya (Short Stories)Manoj Kumar Goswami
BodoSansrini Modira (Poetry)Rashmi Choudhury
DogriChhe Roopak (Drama)Veena Gupta
EnglishAll The Lives We Never Lived (Novel)Anuradha Roy
GujaratiGher Jatan (Autobiographical Essays)Gulam Mohammad Shaikh
HindiTumadi Ke Shabd (Poetry)Badri Narayan
KannadaBahutvada Bhaarata mattu Bouddha Taatvikate (Collection of Articles)Mudnakudu Chinnaswamy
KashmiriZael Dab (Literary Criticism)Farooq Fayaz
KonkaniAmrutvel (Novel)Maya Anil Kharangate
MaithiliPen-Drive Me Prithvi (Poetry)Ajit Azad
MalayalamAshaante Seethayanam (Literary Criticism)M. Thomas Mathew
ManipuriLeironnung (Poetry)Koijam Shantibala
MarathiUjavya Sondechya Bahulya (Novel)Praveen Dashrath Bandekar
NepaliSaino (Drama)K.B. Nepali
OdiaDayanadi (Poetry)Gayatribala Panda
PunjabiMain Aynghosh Nahi (Short Stories)Sukhjit
RajasthaniAlekhun Amba (Play)Kamal Ranga
SanskritDeepmanikyam (Poetry)Janardan Prasad Pandey ‘Mani’
SantaliSabarnaka Balire Sanan’ Panjay (Poetry)Kajli Soren (Jagannath Soren)
SindhiSindhi Sahit Jo Mukhtasar Itihas (Literary History)Kanhaiyalal Lekhwani
TamilKaala Paani (Novel)M. Rajendran
TeluguManodharmaparagam (Novel)Madhuranthakam Narendra
UrduKhwab Saraab (Novel)Anis Ashfaq

Current Affairs: Report and Indexes

Social Progress Index 2022

  • The recently released Social Progress Index 2022 report shows that India is currently ranked 110th (among 169 countries) in the world on the Social Progress Index, scoring 60.19/100, in the fourth tier of performance. 
  • The country’s aggregate Social Progress Index score in 2022 is slightly lower than the world average of 65.24.

The Data: 

  • The Social Progress Index 2022 report shows that India is currently ranked 110th (among 169 countries) in the world on the Social Progress Index, scoring 60.19/100, in the fourth tier of performance. 
  • The country’s aggregate Social Progress Index score in 2022 is slightly lower than the world average of 65.24.

What Is the Social Progress Index (SPI)?

  • The SPI provides a “comprehensive measure of social progress based” on social and environmental indicators that can complement the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as a measure of well-being. 
  • The index is the first holistic tool that is designed to measure social progress independent of GDP.

SPI Assessment:

  • SPI assesses states and districts based on 12 components across three critical dimensions of social progress: Basic Human Needs, Foundations of Well-being, and Opportunity. 

Key Highlights of SPI:

  • Best-performing States/UTs are Puducherry, Lakshadweep, and Goa. 
  • The top three performing districts are Shimla, Solan in Himachal Pradesh, and Aizawl in Mizoram. 
  • Globally, India is ranked 110th on SPI in 2022.


What is India’s rank in the recently released Social Progress Index 2022 out of 169 countries?

A. 54th

B. 110th

C. 151st

D. 169th

Answer: B

Current Affairs: National

Ahmedabad to Host Urban 20 (U20) Meeting

  • As part of the G20 Leaders’ Summit, the first Sherpa meeting of Urban 20 (U20), one of the ten engagement groups under G20, to prepare the urban agenda will be held in Ahmedabad on 9–10 February.
  • India assumed the presidency of G20 on 1st December for a year, and Ahmedabad will host the U20 meetings that will culminate in U20 Mayors’ Summit in July 2023.

About U20: 

  • U20 is a city diplomacy initiative wherein cities of participating nations discuss city-level efforts to address pressing global challenges.
  • The priority areas of U20 are climate change and sustainable development, including socio-economic issues.
  • Provides a platform for cities from G20 countries to facilitate discussions on various important issues of urban development, including climate change, social inclusion, sustainable mobility, and affordable housing.
  • The logo and website of the event launched on 19th December 2022; Minister of Housing and Urban Affairs Hardeep S. Puri participated in the event virtually.

Priority Areas for Urban 20 (U20) Event:

  1. Encouraging environmentally responsive behaviour
  2. Ensuring water security
  3. Accelerating Climate Finance
  4. Leveraging ‘local’ potential and identity
  5. Reinventing urban governance and planning frameworks
  6. Catalysing digital urban futures


  • C40 Cities (C40) and United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) convene the U20 under the leadership of a Chair city that rotates annually, based in the G20 host country.
  • The City of Ahmedabad will chair the U20 2023 Cycle.


Which of the following cities will host the Urban 20 (U20) meeting in February 2023?

A. Varanasi

B. Delhi

C. Ahmedabad

D. Chennai

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Science and Technology

Samudrayaan Mission

  • The Indian government will soon start its mega ocean mission called ‘Samudrayaan’ to unlock the mysteries in the heart of deep water. 
  • With this mission, India will be joining the elite club of nations such as the US, Russia, Japan, France, and China to have niche technology and vehicles to carry out subsea activities.

What Is Samudrayaan Mission?

  • Samudra stands for ‘sea’ in English. 
  • The mega mission is related to the ocean/sea. 
  • It is aimed to develop “a self-propelled manned submersible to carry three human beings to a water depth of 6,000 meters in the ocean with a suite of scientific sensors and tools for deep ocean exploration”.

What Is MATSYA 6000?

  • Developed indigenously, MATSYA 6000 is a manned submersible vehicle. It will facilitate the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES) in conducting deep ocean exploration. 
  • It has an endurance of 12 hours of operational period and 96 hours in case of emergency.

Device for Samudrayaan Mission:

  • National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT), Chennai, an autonomous institute under the Ministry of Earth Sciences (MoES), has developed a 6000 m depth-rated Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) and various other underwater instruments. 
  • Some of the critical subsystems of manned submersibles are the development of the Ti Alloy Personnel Sphere, Human support and safety system in enclosed space, low-density buoyancy modules, and Ballast and Trim System.

Cost of the Samudrayaan Mission:

  • The Centre had approved the Deep Ocean Mission (DOM) at a total budget of ₹4,077 crores for five years. 
  • The estimated cost for the first phase for the three years (2021-2024) would be ₹2,823.4 crores.

Why Is it Relevant for India?

  • India has a unique maritime position, a 7517 km long coastline, which is home to nine coastal states and 1,382 islands. 
  • The mission aims to boost the Central government’s vision of ‘New India’ that highlights the Blue Economy as one of the ten core dimensions of growth.
  • “For India, with its three sides surrounded by the oceans and around 30% of the nation’s population living in coastal areas and coastal regions play a major economic factor. It supports fisheries and aquaculture, tourism, livelihoods, and the blue trade”.


What is the name of the recently developed indigenously manned submersible vehicle that will be used for India’s first deep-water Samudrayaan Mission?

A. Jaljeevan 6000

B. Matsya 6000

C. Shafari 6000

D. Makar 6000

Answer: B

Current Affairs: International

UNSC Adopts First-Ever Resolution on Myanmar

  • The U.N. Security Council has adopted its first-ever resolution on Myanmar in 74 years to demand an end to violence and urge the military junta to release all political prisoners, including ousted leader Aung San Suu Kyi. 
  • Ms Kyi, 77, has been a prisoner since the army toppled her government almost two years ago and violently cracked down on dissent.


  • The 15-member council has long been split on how to deal with the Myanmar crisis, with China and Russia arguing against strong action. 
  • They both abstained from the vote along with India. 
  • The remaining 12 members voted in favour.

About Resolution: 

  • The resolution urges the junta to immediately release all arbitrarily detained prisoners, including Suu Kyi and ex-president Win Myint.
  • It also demands an immediate end to all forms of violence and asks for all parties to respect human rights, fundamentaldoms and the rule of law.


The U.N. Security Council has adopted its first-ever resolution for which of the neighbouring countries of India?

A. Pakistan

B. Sri Lanka

C. Myanmar

D. Afghanistan

Answer: C

Factbook – 23rd December 2022

Goa to Host First Ever World Table Tennis Series Event

  • Goa will host India’s first-ever World Table Tennis (WTT) series event from 27th February to 5th March, it was announced recently.
  • The top tier WTT Star Contender Goa 2023 will take place at the Shyama Prasad Mukherjee Indoor stadium, located at the Goa University Campus.
  • WTT Series is the official professional table tennis series of events, with the world’s best players facing each other off in various category tournaments throughout the year, with the four Grand Smashes being the ultimate prize to win.

UIDAI HQ Building wins top Green Building Award

  • The Unique Identification Authority of India (UIDAI) Headquarter in New Delhi has won the prestigious GRIHA Exemplary Performance Award 2022, a top national level Green Building Award.
  • GRIHA (Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment) is a national rating system for green buildings in India. 
  • UIDAI HQ has been declared a winner among the existing highest-rated building category.
  • UIDAI believes in and promotes the idea of recycling and reusing to reduce carbon footprint. 
  • It has been harnessing solar power to meet a portion of its energy consumption. 
  • It recycles and reuses water and has adhered to sustainable waste management practices. 
  • In 2021, the UIDAI HQ building has adjudged the runners up.

Shalini Kumari received first prize in the 3rd ASEAN India Grassroots Innovation Forum

  • Ms Shalini Kumari from India received first prize in the Grassroots Innovation Competition at the 3rd ASEAN India Grassroots Innovation forum for her innovation ‘Modified walker with adjustable legs’.
  • The technology which was transferred to the industry, Vissco Rehabilitation Aids, a leading manufacturer of orthopaedic products in the country, is available for purchase through Brick and Mortar stores and also through marketplaces like Amazon India for purchase by common people of the country.
  • The three-day 3rd ASEAN India Grassroots Innovation forum organized by the ASEAN Committee on Science, Technology and Innovation (COSTI) in partnership with the Department of Science and Technology (DST), Government of India and the National Innovation Foundation (NIF) – India concluded recently at Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

Chillai Kalan begins in Kashmir

  • Kashmir witnessed temperatures dipping below thezing point, marking the beginning of the harshest 40-day winter period today.  
  • It has begun on a chilling note today as night temperature has further decreased. 
  • Most parts, including Srinagar, recorded the coldest nights of the season and minimum temperatures plummeted to the season’s lowest in several places of the Valley.
  • ‘Chilla-i-Kalan’ is a 40-day period when a cold wave grips Kashmir and temperatures drop considerably.
  • ‘Chillai-Kalan’ will end on January 30. The cold wave continues even after that in Kashmir with a 20-day ‘Chillai-Khurd’ (small cold) and a 10-day ‘Chillai-Bachha’ (baby cold).

BF.7 new covid variant

  • Recently seven instances of BF.7 were confirmed by health ministry officials.
  • The BF.7 strain appears to be the strain leading China’s current COVID-19 outbreak.
  • “COVID is not done yet”, stated Union Health Minister Mansukh Mandaviya during a review meeting on the COVID situation.
  • According to studies, the variety is capable of infecting even persons who have been completely vaccinated against the virus.
  • The version is thought to have a reproduction value, which suggests that those infected with the BF are believed to transmit the virus to others.

Pey Jal Survekshan

  • Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs starts ground survey of PJS under Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation (AMRUT) 2.0. 
  • PJS aims to instil healthy competition motivation among cities and Urban Local Bodies. 
  • It will serve as a monitoring tool and an accelerator for AMRUT Mission. 
  • Water utility services, used water utility services, water bodies, Non-Revenue Water (NRW) estimation, best practices and innovation are key focus areas. 
  • It will be based on the Self-assessment of service level, Direct Observation and Citizen Feedback.  
  • Third-party agency- IPSOS (a private firm) will conduct Survekshan. 

PMFBY is ranked Number One globally in farmer enrolment

  • Launched in 2016, PMFBY provides comprehensive risk insurance against crop damage due to unpreventable natural risks from pre-sowing to post-harvest for crops/areas notified by the relevant state government. 
  • Farmer is only required to pay a maximum premium of 1.5% for all Rabi crops and 2% for all Kharif crops, and 5% for commercial/horticultural crops. 
  • It is administered by the Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare.

Kerala set to host first International Beach Festival.

  • The ‘Spice Coast’ in the far north of Kerala, better known as North Malabar, will bask in myriad colours and the pomp and splendour of the cultural extravaganza titled ‘Bekal International Beach Festival’ from 24 December.
  • The 10-day first international beach festival captures the wholeness and the essence of the district’s cultural and artistic uniqueness.
  • Aim is revitalising the district’s development by showcasing its potential.

‘Drink from Tap’ project launched in Odisha

  • Odisha Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik recently launched a 24×7 piped drinking water project—‘Drink from Tap’—in 19 cities.
  • About 5.5 lakh people in these cities will be benefited from the project.


  • Jal Jeevan Mission is a central government scheme launched on 15 August 2019. 
  • Har Ghar Nal se Jal scheme aims to provide potable, quality drinking water to every rural household by 2024.
  • Burhanpur district of Madhya Pradesh is the first certified ‘Har Ghar Jal’ district in India.
  • Goa, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu became the first ‘Har Ghar Jal’ certified State and Union Territory in the country.


Whatever the mind can conceive and believe, it can achieve.

“Napoleon Hill”

Current Affairs: National

Right to Repair Portal Launched

  • Food and Consumer Affairs Minister Piyush Goyal recently introduced a host of new initiatives, including a ‘right to repair’ portal and an NTH mobile app and opened new premises of the National Consumer Helpline centre in the national capital.

Why Is the ‘Right to Repair’ Needed?

  • When the average consumer buys electronic equipment, they are aware that it will quickly become obsolete when the maker introduces newer versions of the same device.
  • As the item ages, problems arise, and one is left at the mercy of manufacturers, who make repairs inaccessible to the majority by dictating who can service your equipment and making it an extremely expensive process.
  • This is a question that advocates of the global ‘right to repair’ movement have been dealing with for decades.
  • Countries all across the world (including the US and the UK) have been striving to implement effective ‘right to repair’ laws in recent years.

About Right to Repair Portal:

  • On this portal manufacturers will share the manual of product details with customers so that they can either repair it by themselves or by third parties rather than depend on the original manufacturers.
  • Initially, mobile phones, electronics, consumer durables, automobiles and farming equipment will be covered.
  • It allows consumers to repair and modify their consumer products against the manufacturer requiring them to use their services either by restricting access to tools and components or putting in place software barriers.


  • Reduce pollution and wastage of resources
  • Boost business for small repair shops
  • Improves quality and reduces prices

How Can This Right Be Exercised?

  • Step 1: Go to this site – https://www.righttorepairindia.in/home
  • Step 2: Enter the brand or product name in the space mentioned OR scroll below to find names of various products, such as mobiles, Audio, Microwave ovens etc. Click on the type of product you want to repair. (Or you can search products brand-wise also.)
  • Step 3: On the left, you’ll find a “Find Consumer Brands” section. Enter Sub-Category and sub-group. Click on search.
  • Here you’ll find all the customer service details of the brand, including the product manual.


Which of the following ministries recently launched the ‘Right to Repair’ Portal?

A. Ministry of Consumer Affairs

B. Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology

C. Ministry of Information and Broadcasting

D. Ministry of Corporate Affairs

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Defence

Veer Guardian 23: India, Japan to Conduct First-Ever Air Combat Exercise

  • India and Japan are set to conduct their first-ever bilateral combat air exercise over ten days in Japan next month.
  • The exercise will be held at the Hyakuri Air Base, northwest of Tokyo.

About Exercise:

  • The exercise named ‘Veer Guardian 23’ will be conducted from January 16 to January 26. The Japan Air Self-Defence Force (JASDF) will conduct bilateral fighter training with the Indian Air Force (IAF).


  • The exercise aims to promote mutual understanding and strengthen defence cooperation between the air forces.


  • IAF will be fielding its Russian-origin Sukhoi-30MKI aircraft drawn from a squadron under the Western Air Command. The IAF 150 crew will be flying in IAF’s C-17 transport aircraft. The fighter jets on their journey from India to Japan will be refuelled mid-air using the IL-78 planes of the IAF.
  • Japan will field its F-2 jets, which are derivatives of the F-16 plane of the US. It will also field the F-15, like the ones used by the US too.


With which of the following countries the Indian Air Force will conduct the first-ever bilateral air combat exercise, Veer Guardian 23?

A. Indonesia

B. Japan


D. Germany

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Awards and Honours

Rabindranath Tagore Literary Prize 2021-22

  • The Rabindranath Tagore Literary Prize 2021-22 has been jointly won by Sudeep Sen for his genre and formbender Anthropocene: Climate Change, Contagion, Consolation (Pippa Rann Books & Media, 2021) and Shobhana Kumar for her haibun collection, A Sky Full of Bucket Lists (Red River, 2021).


  • The winners, awarded $10,000 and a Rabindranath Tagore statuette, were picked from a shortlist of 11 at India International Centre recently, with the Tagore Prize for social achievement going to Sanjoy K Roy, producer of the Jaipur Literature Festival.

About Rabindranath Tagore Literary Prize:

  • The Rabindranath Tagore Literary Prize was started in 2018 to recognise literary and social accomplishments annually. 
  • In 2020, the award was won by Raj Kamal Jha, Chief Editor of The Indian Express, for The City and The Sea (2019, Penguin Books). In 2019, it was awarded posthumously to Kabir for One Hundred Poems of Kabir, translated by Rabindranath Tagore.


Who among the following has recently been jointly awarded Rabindranath Tagore Literary Prize 2021-22 with Shobhana Kumar?

A. Raj Kamal Jha

B. Kabir 

C. Sudeep Sen

D. Arundhati Roy

Answer: C

Current Affairs: Geography

Bomb Cyclone

  • A fierce blizzard in the United States has brought on dangerously low temperatures and snow as deep as 43 inches, causing over 30 deaths and leaving more than a million homes without power.
  • The storm’s effects are being felt from the Great Lakes near the Canadian border to the Rio Grande near the Mexican border.

What Is a Bomb Cyclone?

  • A bomb cyclone is a mid-latitude storm in which the central pressure drops fast at one millibar per hour for at least 24 hours. 
  • However, the millibar readings can change based on where the storm is forming.
  • This quickly increases the pressure difference, or gradient, between the two air masses, making the winds stronger. 
  • This process of rapid intensification has a name called bombogenesis.

What Are the Features of a Bomb Cyclone?

  • The corridor off the US East Coast is notorious for bombogenesis events.
  • The bomb cyclone will be characterised by cold winds, which are also expected to pick up, and wind chill temperatures could drop to dangerous lows far below zero—enough to cause frostbite within minutes.
  • The dangerous storm is expected to hit everyone east of the Rockies — around two-thirds of the country.


Consider the following statements about Bombogenesis

  1. Bombogenesis is an ominous-sounding term frequently used to describe the powerful low-pressure systems that intensify rapidly 
  2. The corridor off the East Coast of the US is notorious for bombogenesis events
  3. Major features of Bombogenesis are directly related to Frontogenesis

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

A. Only 1 and 2

B. Only 2 and 3

C. Only 1 and 3

D. All are correct

Answer: A

Current Affairs: National

First Veer Bal Diwas Observed Today

  • Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 26 December paid tributes to Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh, Guru Gobind Singh’s sons, who laid down their lives while defending their faith.
  • The day they died is observed as ‘Veer Bal Diwas’.
  • PM Modi had announced that 26 December would be observed as ‘Veer Bal Diwas’.
  • On 26 December 1707, Sahibzada Zorawar Singh and Sahibzada Fateh Singh attained martyrdom when they were executed on the orders of Aurangzeb.

Guru Gobind Singh:

  • He was the tenth Sikh guru.
  • He became the Sikh guru at the age of nine, following the demise of his father, Guru Tegh Bahadur, the ninth Sikh Guru.
  • He is also known for his significant contributions to the Sikh religion, including introducing the turban to cover hair.
  • He is renowned for founding the principles of Khalsa or the Five ‘K’s, i.e., kesh (uncut hair), kanga (wooden comb), kara (iron or steel bracelet), kirpan (dagger) and kachera (short breeches).
  • He fought against the Mughals later in the battle of Muktsar in 1705.
  • Guru Gobind Singh was killed by a Mughal assassin in 1708, a year after the death of Aurangzeb.


Which of the following days has recently been announced as ‘Veer Bal Diwas’ by PM Modi?

A. 23 April

B. 19 August

C. 05 October

D. 26 December

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Science and Technology

Garuda Aerospace Becomes the First Drone Company Ever to get Double Certification by DGCA for ‘Kisan Drones’

  • Drone manufacturer Garuda Aerospace has become India’s first drone startup to receive both Type Certification and RTPO approvals by DGCA for their indigenously designed Kisan Drones. 
  • DGCA Type certification is provided on the basis of the quality check of the drones and is issued after a rigorous testing process.

What Are ‘Kisan’ Drones?

  • The Made in India ‘Kisan’ drones are particularly developed for agricultural purposes such as reducing crop loss, crop health monitoring, yield measurement, and crop loss mitigation with the latest manufacturing capacities. 
  • The startup is now eligible for ₹10 lakh unsecured loans from Agri Infrastructure Fund at a 5% interest and 50-100% subsidy from the Centre, post the Type Certificate approval for the GA-AG model. 
  • Priced at ₹4.50 lakhs, the Kisan Drone is India’s most affordable advanced automated Agri Drone, which has DGCA-approved Type Certification in the under 25kg small category.

About DGCA Type Certification:

  • DGCA Type certification is provided based on the quality check of the drones and is issued after a rigorous testing process for the UAVs. 
  • The government of India introduced the Type certification in August 2021 under Drone Rules, and the historic dual DGCA approval validates the Chennai-based startup’s tag of being India’s most valuable Drone startup.

About Garuda Drone:

  • Kisan Drones currently being developed by Garuda are fitted with sensors, cameras, and sprayers that help increase food crop productivity, reduce crop loss, and reduce farmer exposure to harmful chemicals. 
  • They enable precision spray of pesticides and fertilisers and also help with crop health monitoring, surveillance, industrial inspection, yield measurement and crop loss mitigation.


Which of the following is the first Aerospace company of India ever to get double certification by DGCA for ‘Kisan Drones’?

A. Hindustan Aeronautics Limited

B. Boeing India Private Limited

C. BrahMos Aerospace Private Limited

D. Garuda Aerospace

Answer: D

Factbook: 26 December 2022

Antim Panghal nominated for United World Wrestling Rising Star of Year award

  • An Indian female wrestler Antim Panghal has recently been nominated for the United World Wrestling Rising Star of the Year award. 
  • Nonoka Ozaki of Japan, Amit Elor of the United States, Emma Malmgren of Sweden, and Andreea Ana of Romania are among the five women nominated for the prize. 

Pushpa Kamal Dahal ‘Prachanda’ to be Nepal Prime Minister for the third time

  • Nepal President Bidhya Devi Bhandari recently appointed Pushpa Kamal Dahal, leader of the parliamentary party of the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), Prime Minister of the Himalayan nation.
  • He will replace Sher Bahadur Deuba of the Nepali Congress party as the Prime Minister.
  • In the recent elections none of  the parties got a clear majority. 
  • Prachand’s Maoist Center Party won 32 seats in Nepal’s 275-member House of Representatives. 
  • The Parliament of Nepal is called Sanghiya Sansad, It is a bicameral house. 
  • Upper house is called the National Assembly or Rastriya Sabha and consists of 59 members. 
  • It is a permanent body and the term of a member of the house is six years. 
  • The lower house is called the House of Representative or Pratinidhi Sabha. 
  • It consists of 275 members with a term of five years. 

PV Sindhu is among the top 25 highest-paid female athletes on Forbes’ annual list

  • India’s badminton star PV Sindhu is the only player in the top 25 in Forbes’ annual list of the highest-paid female athletes in the world. 
  • Sindhu, the 2016 Tokyo Olympics silver medallist, occupies the 12th spot in the list.
  • Japanese tennis star Naomi Osaka tops the list. 
  • The 27-year-old made seven million US Dollars of her earnings, having won a singles gold and doubles silver at the Commonwealth Games earlier this year in Birmingham.
  • Osaka tops Forbes’ annual list of the world’s highest-paid female athletes for the third straight year. 
  • The list is dominated by tennis players once again.

A girl from UP is India’s first Muslim female to be selected to become an IAF fighter pilot

  • A girl named Sania Mirza, from a small village in Uttar Pradesh got 149th rank in the NDA exam.
  • She became the first Muslim girl in the country to be selected to become a fighter pilot in the Indian Air Force (IAF) from UP.
  • She belongs to Jasovar village in Uttar Pradesh.
  • Sania will also be the state’s first woman IAF pilot.
  • The Defence Ministry had approved allowing women to join the Air Force as fighter pilots in 2015, but the scheme for “Induction of Women SSC officers in Fighter Stream of Flying Branch” began in 2016.

NHPC wins ‘Best Globally Competitive Power Company of India – Hydropower and Renewable Energy Sector’ at PRAKASHmay ‘15th Enertia Awards 2022’

  • NHPC Limited has been awarded as Winner of ‘Best Globally Competitive Power Company of India – Hydropower and Renewable Energy Sector’ at PRAKASHmay ‘15th Enertia Awards 2022’. 
  • The function was held at the New Delhi Institute of Management recently.
  • The award has been conferred to NHPC in recognition of its leadership in the hydropower sector with a gross asset class renewable energy capacity of more than 7000 MW. 
  • The award also recognises that NHPC has more than 5000 MW of projects under construction and an ambitious 7000 MW plus plan for solar capacity addition. 

Star named after former PM Atal Bihari Vajpayee

  • On the birth anniversary of former Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee, which was marked as ‘Good Governance Day’ (25th December) across the country, the Aurangabad unit of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) named a star after the ‘Bharat Ratna’ recipient.
  • The distance of the star from Earth is 392.01 light years. It is the closest star to the Sun.
  • “The star with the coordinates 14 05 25.3 -60 28 51.9 has been registered in the International Space Registry on 25th December 2022. The star gets the name Atal Bihari Vajpayee ji. Registration Number CX16408US,” read the International Space Registry certificate.
  • Vajpayee served as the Prime Minister from 16th May 1996 to 1st June 1996 and again from 19th March 1998 to 22nd May 2004.
  • He also served as India’s External Affairs Minister in the cabinet of Prime Minister Moraji Desai from 1977 to 1979. 


“It always seems impossible, until it is done”.

Nelson Mandela

Current Affairs: Days and Event

International Day of Epidemic Preparedness 2022

  • Just as life was becoming normal after over two years of the COVID-19 pandemic, a new variant of the coronavirus, named BF.7, has emerged. 
  • The variant has become a cause for serious concern after a massive outbreak of cases in China. 
  • It is wise to remain prepared for future pandemics or epidemic situations in such a climate.
  • The International Day of Epidemic Preparedness is observed on 27th December to highlight the need for such an initiative.


  • In its 75th session and 36th plenary meeting on 7th December 2020, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) passed a resolution which declared 27th December as the International Day of Epidemic Preparedness. 
  • The decision is part of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.


  • The International Day of Epidemic Preparedness reminds us of what we went through during the two years of peak-COVID infections. 
  • Hospitals were overwhelmed. Family members could not conduct the last rites of their loved ones. 
  • Such grim situations could be avoided in the future if people remain alert and prepared.


International Day of Epidemic Preparedness 2022 is observed on which of the following dates?

A. 19th January

B. 29th April

C. 19th August

D. 27th December

Answer: D

Current Affairs: National

Kerala’s Dharmadam Becomes the First Complete Library Constituency in India

  • Kerala Chief Minister Pinarayi Vijayan’s constituency has achieved a new record recently. 
  • It has become the only constituency in India to have a library in all the wards. 
  • CM Vijayan’s constituency Dharmadam has achieved the position of complete library constituency in India, the first in India.


  • Complete librarianisation was made possible with the support of all sections of the people of the constituency. 
  • The People’s Mission for Social Development, a people’s organisation, has taken up the work of establishing libraries and expanding the existing ones in the Dharmadam constituency.


  • Puthuvayil Narayana Panicker is also known as the Father of the Library Movement in India; he belongs to Kerala.
  • Panicker started Granthashala Sangam with 50 small libraries in 1945 in Kerala, which further expanded and became thousands of libraries.
  • The Government of Kerala declared 19th June as Vayanadinam (Reading Day) in 1996.
  • 19th June 2017 is also declared as National Reading Day in India.


Which of the following states/UT has recently become the first complete library constituency in India?

A. Maharashtra

B. Kerala

C. Uttarakhand

D. Karnataka

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Environment and Ecology

Polluted Stretches in India’s Rivers Have Fallen

  • The number of polluted stretches in India’s rivers has fallen from 351 in 2018 to 311 in 2022; however, the number of most polluted stretches is practically unchanged, according to a report from the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB).

Key Findings of the Report:

  • The decline in polluted Stretches – The number of polluted stretches in India’s rivers has fallen from 351 in 2018 to 311 in 2022.
  • The number of polluted river stretches categorised in ‘Priority I & II’ is almost unchanged.
  • Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) exceeding 3.0 mg/L (milligram per litre) is identified as a polluted location.
  • Two or more polluted locations identified on a river in a continuous sequence are considered a “polluted river stretch”.
  • A BOD less than 03 mg/l means the river stretch is fit for ‘Outdoor Bathing’.

Number of Polluted River Stretches Categorised in ‘Priority 1 to 5

  1. Priority 1:River stretches with a BOD exceeding 30 mg/l are considered the most polluted and thus need the most urgent remediation
  2. Priority 2: Indicating a BOD of 20-30 mg/l
  3. Priority 3: BOD between 10-20 mg/l
  4. Priority 4: BOD between 6-10 mg/l
  5. Priority 5: Indicating 3-6 mg/l


  • Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh had the maximum number of ‘Priority 1’ river stretches (6), Maharashtra had the maximum number of polluted river stretches, i.e., 55, followed by Madhya Pradesh (19), Bihar (18), Kerala (18), Karnataka (17) and Uttar Pradesh (17).


Consider the following statements

  1. The number of polluted stretches in India’s rivers has fallen from 351 in 2018 to 311 in 2022
  2. Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh had the maximum number of ‘Priority 1’ river stretches (6)
  3. The higher value of BOD indicates the high dissolved oxygen content of water

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

A. Only 1 and 2

B. Only 2 and 3

C. Only 1 and 3

D. All are correct

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Environment and Ecology

Dolphin Census Begins at the Odisha Coast

  • The annual census of dolphins began in Odisha’s Bhitarkanika national park and Gahirmatha marine sanctuary recently.


  • The Odisha coast has emerged as an ideal habitat for dolphins, with an impressive rise of 33% in their population.
  • The survey is conducted across the five coastal divisions in the Chilika lagoon by the Chilika Development Authority.
  • The survey is a 3-day exercise involving over 100 wildlife experts conducting a headcount.
  • The survey is being conducted using the ‘Transect Survey Method’, which is used for surveys around the world.


  • During the last census, six species of dolphins were recorded in Chilika Lake.
  • They are – Irrawaddy, Bottlenose, Humpback, Striped, Finless and Spinner.


In which of the following states recently the annual census of dolphins began?

A. Tamil Nadu

B. Kerala

C. Uttar Pradesh

D. Odisha

Answer: D

Current Affairs: National

Jammu and Kashmir Land Grants Rules, 2022

  • The Jammu and Kashmir (J&K) Lieutenant Governor’s administration, recently, notified fresh land rules under J&K Land Grant Rules-2022 and replaced the J&K Land Grants Rules-1960, which dealt with the special rules to grant government land on lease in the erstwhile State of J&K. 

What Is the ‘J&K Land Grants Rules 1960’?

  • It dealt with the special rules to grant government land on lease in the erstwhile State of J&K.
  • Prime locations such as Srinagar, Jammu, Gulmarg and Pahalgam were opened up to construct hotels, commercial structures and residential buildings.
  • No such land shall be granted on lease to a person who is not a permanent resident of the State.

What Was the Need for New Rules?

  • The previous land laws were regressive.
  • The present landholders just paid five Rupees to enjoy profits from ₹100 crores property.

Provisions Under News Rules:

  • According to the new land laws, the leases of current landowners will not be extended in case of their lease expiry.
  • It reads that all leases, except the subsisting or expired residential leases, expired or determined prior to the coming into force of these rules or issued under these rules shall not be renewed.
  • Unlike the previous, where land was granted on lease for 99 years, now the lease period has been reduced to 40 years.
  • The people returning their expired leased land will be recompensed after valuation for any improvement carried out or structure constructed on the plot.
  • The government has asked the outgoing leaseholders to evict properties or else face evictions under the new rules.
  • However, the current land holders termed these rules exclusive to J&K, where the first right to leaseholders has not been granted and revised rates negotiated.

What Are the Immediate Impacts of the Amendments?

  • The new rules have hundreds of properties open for fresh auction, where outsiders could also participate.
  • The government has not yet released the list of properties where the lease period has ended.
  • The impact will be of great significance in the tourist hotspot Gulmarg, where 56 hotels out of 59 have their leases expired already.


Consider the following statements about the recently notified Jammu and Kashmir Land Grants Rules, 2022

  1. To date, properties in Jammu and Kashmir are being handled by J&K Land Grants Rules 1960
  2. Under the new rule, the lease period has been reduced to 40 years from the previous law’s 99 years
  3. According to the new law, the leases of current landowners will not be extended in case of their lease expiry

Which of the above statements is/are correct?

A. Only 1 and 2

B. Only 2 and 3

C. Only 1 and 3

D. All are correct

Answer: D

Current Affairs: Economy

RBI’s Revised Bank Locker Rules

  • The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has mandated banks in the country to renew their locker agreements with existing locker customers by 1st January. 
  • All the existing locker depositors are required to furnish proof of eligibility for a renewed locker arrangement.

CCTV Cameras in Safe Deposit Areas:

  • RBI advises the banks to install CCTV cameras at entry and exit points of the strong room and the common areas of operation. 
  • It mandates the preservation of its recording for a period of not less than 180 days.


  • Depositors can now get up to 100 times the bank charges if the valuables stored in the vaults are ransacked or lost due to fire or building collapse. 
  • However, the bank shall not be liable for any damage and/or loss of contents of the locker originating from natural calamities or ‘Acts of God’.

Government Raids to be Notified:

  • If any government authorities have approached for attachment, recovery or seizure of the locker or articles deposited for safe custody, under the new guidelines, banks have to inform the customer by letter as well as by email/SMS.

Banks Can Demand Term Deposit as Rent:

  • RBI allows the banks to demand a term deposit while allocating a locker that would be collected as rent for three years. 
  • But lenders cannot insist on such term deposits for the existing locker holders or from those with satisfactory operative accounts.


According to the RBI’s revised bank locker rules, how much compensation the customer gets if the valuables stored in the vaults are ransacked or lost due to fire or building collapse?

A. 25 times of loss

B. 75 times of loss

C. 100 times of loss

D. 150 times  of loss

Answer: C

Factbook – 27th December 2022

Anurag Thakur inaugurates Sports Science Centre in Karnataka’s Udupi

  • Union Minister for Youth Affairs and Sports Anurag Thakur has recently inaugurated the Sports Science Centre at M.G. Stadium in Udupi, Karnataka.
  • This Sports Science Centre will bring together sports scientists and athletes.  
  • These centres will conduct research on medicines, nutritious food, treatment and rehabilitation measures for sportspersons, which would help them to boost their abilities.

Losar Festival 

  • Recently the PM extended his greetings on the occasion of Losar. 
  • It marks the beginning of the Tibetan new year in the traditional schedule of Tibetan Buddhism and is an important festival of Ladakh. 
  • It dates back to the pre-Buddhist era in Tibet when Tibetans followed the Bon religion. 
  • The celebration consists of offering prayers in the name of God and Goddess, dances and songs in honour of Ibex and a pilgrimage to Mount Kailash. 

Amrit Bharat Station Scheme

  • The Indian Railways is planning to modernise 1,000 small yet important stations under the new “Amrit Bharat Station Scheme”. 
  • This is apart from the ambitious plan to revamp 200 big stations under a separate redevelopment programme.
  • The aim is to identify developing cities with potential and envisage railway stations as city centres that would link not just various parts of the city but also between different cities in the future. 
  • The plan is to map everything connected to it – bridges and different modes of transport.
  • The redevelopment will be done under the “Khurda (Station in Odisha) model of redevelopment”.

Dark patterns on the Internet

  • Social media companies and Big Tech firms such as Apple, Amazon, Skype, Facebook, LinkedIn, Microsoft, and Google use dark or deceptive patterns to downgrade the user experience to their advantage. 
  • Such patterns are unethical user interface designs that deliberately make your Internet experience harder or even exploit you. 
  • In turn, they benefit the company or platform employing the designs.
  • By using dark patterns, digital platforms take away a user’s right to full information about the services they are using and reduce their control over their browsing experience.
  • The term is credited to UI/UX (user interface/user experience) researcher and designer Harry Brignull, who has been working on cataloguing such patterns and the companies using them since around 2010. 
  • In social media, LinkedIn users often receive unsolicited, sponsored messages from influencers.
  • Disabling this option is a difficult process with multiple steps that require users to be familiar with the platform controls.

India ranks fifth in world’s cuisines list for 2022

  • Indian cuisine has ranked fifth in TasteAtlas’ World’s Best Cuisine Awards 2022, receiving 4.54 out of five-star ratings. 
  • The Bulgaria-based food website rated “garam masala, ghee, malai, butter garlic naan, keema and 460 more” the best-rated food in India.
  • Italian cuisine topped the list of the world’s best cuisines, followed by Greek cuisine (2nd), Spanish cuisine (3rd), and Japanese cuisine (4th), respectively.

Cyclist Swasti Singh gets Ekalabya Puraskar

  • The ‘Ekalabya Puraskar’ for the year 2022 was presented to cyclist Swasti Singh.
  • The award is given every year to encourage young sports talents.
  • She was presented with a citation, trophy and Five Lakh Rupees cash in a programme organised by Indian Metals Public Charitable Trust (IMPaCT), the charitable wing of IMFA.
  • She was honoured for her performance from 1st April 2020 to 31st March 2022 at both national and international levels. 
  • Ekalabya Puraskar, instituted by IMPaCT in 1993, has come a long way to be recognised as the most prestigious sports award of Odisha, drawing parallels with many national awards.

India will become the third largest economy by 2035: CEBR

  • The Centre for Economics and Business Research (CEBR), a British consultancy, has said India will become the third-largest economy by 2035 from the current fifth spot. 
  • In its annual World Economic League Table, the Centre for Economics and Business Research said that over the next five years India’s annual rate of GDP growth is expected to average 6.4 per cent, after which growth is expected to average 6.5 per cent in the subsequent nine years.


“Don’t count the days, Make the days count.”

Muhammad Ali

Current Affairs: National Interest 

Election Commission Begins ‘Delimitation’ in Assam

  • The Election Commission of India recently said it has begun the process of delimitation of Assembly and Parliamentary constituencies in Assam. 
  • The process will be based on Census data from 2001. 
  • The last delimitation of constituencies in Assam was done in 1976 on the basis of the 1971 Census.
  • In March 2020, the Centre notified a Delimitation Commission for Jammu and Kashmir, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur and Nagaland.

Current Representation of Assam:

  • The State has 14 Lok Sabhas, 126 Assemblies, and seven Rajya Sabha seats.
  • The term of the current Assam Legislative Assembly will end on 20th May, 2026. 

What is Delimitation?

  • Delimitation is the act of redrawing boundaries of Lok Sabha and State Assembly seats to represent changes in population. 
  • The main objective of delimitation is to provide equal representation to equal segments of a population. 
  • For instance, in 1971, Assam’s population was 1.46 crore. In 2001, it increased to 2.66 crores. 
  • Further, the population does not grow uniformly across all areas of a state. 
  • Hence, delimitation of constituencies is periodically carried out to reflect not only an increase in population but changes in its distribution.

Who Carries out Delimitation?

  • Delimitation is carried out by an independent Delimitation Commission, appointed by the Government of India, under the provisions of the Delimitation Commission Act. 
  • The Delimitation Commission is appointed by the President of India and works in collaboration with the Election Commission of India. 
  • It is composed of the following: a retired Supreme Court judge, the Chief Election Commissioner of India, and respective State Election Commissioners.
  • The Delimitation Commission is to work without any executive influence. 
  • The Constitution mandates that the Commission’s orders are final and cannot be questioned before any court as it would hold up an election indefinitely.

How is Delimitation Supposed to be Carried Out?

  • Under Article 82, the Parliament is to enact a Delimitation Act after every Census. Once the Act is in force, the Union government sets up the Delimitation Commission.
  • The Commission is supposed to determine the number and boundaries of constituencies in a way that the population of all seats, so far as practicable, is the same. 
  • The Commission is also tasked with identifying seats reserved for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

How many Delimitation Commissions have been constituted in India?

In the history of the Indian Republic, Delimitation Commissions have been set up four times

  • In 1952, under the Delimitation Commission Act, 1952
  • In 1963, under Delimitation Commission Act, 1962
  • In 1973, under Delimitation Act, 1972
  • In 2002, under Delimitation Act, 2002


Consider the following statements:

  1. Election Commission has recently begun the ‘delimitation’ process in Assam.
  2. The State has 14 Lok Sabhas, 126 Assemblies, and seven Rajya Sabha seats.
  3. The Delimitation Commission is appointed by the Election Commission of India.

Which of the following statements is/are correct?

A. only 1 and 2

B. only 2 and 3

C. only 1 and 3

D. all are correct

Answer: A

Current Affairs: Art & Culture

GEOGLYPHS: Ratnagiri’s Prehistoric Rock Art

  • Experts and conservationists have raised concerns over the proposed location for a mega oil refinery in Barsu village of Maharashtra’s Ratnagiri district. 
  • They claim that the refinery might damage prehistoric geoglyphs found in the area.

About the Art:

  • The sites are protected by the state archaeology department and the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI). 
  • In April, these sites in the Konkan region were added to a tentative list of UNESCO’s world heritage sites. 
  • While the UNESCO listing dates these sites to be over 12,000 years old, some experts have claimed that these sites might go as far back as 20,000 years, and that this can be ascertained through carbon and geological dating.
  • The Barsu-Solgaon site was proposed after the original plan to construct a refinery in Nanar village of the district was dropped in 2019.

What are Geoglyphs?

  • Geoglyphs are a form of prehistoric rock art, created on the surface of laterite plateaus by removing a part of the rock surface through an incision, picking, carving, or abrading. 
  • They can be in the form of rock paintings, etchings, cup marks, and ring marks.

Ratnagiri Art:

  • The figures depicted in the geoglyphs include humans and animals such as deer, elephant, tiger, monkey, wild boar, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, cattle, pig, rabbit, and monkey. 
  • Ratnagiri’s rock art is evidence of the continued existence of human settlements from the Mesolithic (middle stone age) to the early historic era. 
  • The geoglyphs also show the existence of certain types of fauna that are no longer present in the region.


Geoglyphs are a form of prehistoric rock art recently seen in the news, is located in which of the following states?

A. Maharashtra

B. Madhya Pradesh

C. Himachal Pradesh

D. Assam

Answer: A

Current Affairs: National Interest 

President Inaugurates ‘PRASAD’ Project to Create a Slew of Facilities at Srisailam

  • President of India Droupadi Murmu inaugurated the ‘PRASAD’ project at the tourism facilitation centre in the pilgrim town of Srisailam in Andhra Pradesh recently. She was accompanied by Telangana Governor Tamilisai Soundararajan.

About the ‘PRASAD’ Project:

  • The PRASAD Project scheme launched in the year 2014-2015 focuses on developing and identifying pilgrimage sites across India for enriching the religious tourism experience.
  • It comes under the Ministry of Tourism.
  • It aims to integrate pilgrimage destinations in a prioritised, planned, and sustainable manner to provide a complete religious tourism experience.
  • The Ministry of Tourism provides Central Financial Assistance (CFA) to state governments under the PRASAD scheme to promote tourism at pilgrim sites.
  • The Central Government will cover 100% of the costs under this program.
  • For improved sustainability, it also includes a Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

Cities identified under the PRASAD scheme:

  1. Amritsar (Punjab)
  2. Kedarnath (Uttarakhand)
  3. Mathura (Uttar Pradesh)
  4. Ajmer (Rajasthan)
  5. Varanasi (Uttar Pradesh)
  6. Gaya (Bihar)
  7. Kamakhya (Assam)
  8. Dwaraka (Gujarat)
  9. Puri (Odisha)
  10. Amaravati (Andhra Pradesh)
  11. Kanchipuram(Tamil Nadu)
  12. Velankanni (Tamil Nadu)


The President of India Droupadi Murmu recently inaugurated Pilgrimage Rejuvenation And Spiritual Augmentation Drive (PRASAD) Project. Which of the following cities is not included in this project?

A. Kamakhya (Assam)

B. Dwaraka (Gujarat)

C. Puri (Odisha)

D. Sree Padmanabhaswamy(Kerala)

Answer: D

Current Affairs: National Interest 

Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation Year End Review 2022

  • The Department of Drinking Water and Sanitation under the Ministry of Jal Shakti, Jal Jeevan Mission (JJM), and Swachh Bharat Mission–Grameen (SBM–G) have recently released the year-end review for the year 2022.

Jal Jeevan Mission Data:

  • As on 21st December, 2022 under the Jal Jeevan Mission, more than 10.76 Crore (55.62 %) of rural households are being provided with tap water connection in adequate quantity, of prescribed quality on a regular basis.
  • Four States namely Goa, Telangana, Gujarat, and Haryana, and three Union Territories of Puducherry, Daman & Diu and Dadra & Nagar Haveli, and Andaman & Nicobar Islands, are reported as “Har Ghar Jal”, i.e., every rural household in these regions has provision of tap water supply.

State Data:

  • Goa becomes the First ‘Har Ghar Jal’ Certified State, and Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu becomes the First ‘Har Ghar Jal’ Certified Union Territory (UT) in India in August, 2022.
  • The Burhanpur District of Madhya Pradesh becomes the first ‘Har Ghar Jal’ certified district in India in July, 2022.

Har Ghar Jal Certification Data:

  • Once a village is declared as Har Ghar Jal, the Gram Panchayat of that village conducts a special Gram Sabha and passes a resolution with the concurrence of all the village members that all the households, schools, Anganwadi, and public institutions in their village have functional tap connection, and thus declare themselves as ‘Har Ghar Jal Certified. 
  • As on date, 56 districts, 413 blocks, 34,452 panchayats, and 49,928 villages are ‘Har Ghar Jal’ certified, i.e., all the households have access to tap water connection.

Coverage of Potable Tap Water in Aspirational Districts

  • There are 112 Aspirational districts of which eight districts have provided 100% tap water connection to its rural households. 
  • Today, out of a total of 2.77 Crore households in Aspirational districts, 1.49 Crore households (53.99%) are getting water through taps, which at the time of the launch was only 21.66 lakh (7.83%).

Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen) Data:

  • Swachh Bharat Mission (Grameen), a centrally sponsored scheme, was launched by the Prime Minister on 2nd October, 2014, with the main aim to make the country Open Defecation (ODF) by 2nd October, 2019, the 150th birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, by providing access to toilets to all the rural households in the country.
  • All the villages in the country had declared themselves ODF by 2nd October, 2019.


  • Around 1.25 lakhs villages declared Open Defecation (ODF) Plus between 1st January, 2022 to 20th December, 2022.

Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2023 Data:

  • DDWS has launched Swachh Survekshan Grameen (SSG) 2023 on 2nd November, 2022 with an objective to create healthy competition amongst States, Districts, and Gram Panchayats, and to ascertain progress of SBM-G Phase II.
  • Under SSG 2023, assessment will be undertaken at the Gram Panchayat and District levels.
  • To make SSG 2023 more participatory, Gram Panchayats will undertake village self-assessment on ODF Plus parameters.


Consider the following statements about Drinking Water and Sanitation Year End Review 2022:

  1. Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu became the First ‘Har Ghar Jal’ Certified Union Territory (UT) in India.
  2. In India, there are 112 Aspirational districts of which eight districts have provided 100% tap water connection to its Urban/rural households. 
  3. Swachh Survekshan Grameen 2023 assessment will be undertaken at the Gram Panchayat and District levels.

Which of the following statements is/are correct?

A. only 1

B. only 1 and 3

C. only 2

D. only 2 and 3

Answer: B

Current Affairs: Awards and Recognitions

IIT Madras Won Wharton-QS Reimagine Education Awards 2022

  • The Wharton-QS Reimagine Education Awards, also known as “the Oscars of Education,” gave significant recognition to the Indian Institute of Technology, Madras (IIT-M). 
  • The best programme awards went to the IIT Madras courses, BS Data Science, and NPTEL in partnership with IISc Bangalore.


  • The BS in Data Science and Applications programme earned Silver in the category of “Best Online Program,” according to a statement released by IIT Madras. 
  • The National Program on Technology Enhanced Learning, or NPTEL, won the Gold award in the category of “Lifelong Learning”.
  • In spite of a student’s location, the BS programme and NPTEL serve as examples of how technology may be used to provide them with a top-notch education.

About Reimagine Education Awards:

  • Reimagine Education is a global conference and competition, open to educational innovators from all around the world. 
  • The Reimagine Education Awards—the ‘Oscars’ of Education—reward innovative approaches that enhance student learning outcomes and employability, offering $50,000 in funding to the overall winners.


Which of the following educational institutes in India won the Wharton-QS Reimagine Education Awards, the ‘Oscars’ of Education?

A. St. Xavier’s College, Kolkata

B. Birla Institute Technology of Science, Pilani

C. Indian Institute of Technology, Madras

D. Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi

Answer: C

Current Affairs: International

India-Australia Economic Cooperation and Trade Agreement Comes into Force

  • The India–Australia Economic Cooperation and Trade Agreement comes into force from today. 
  • India and Australia signed the Economic Cooperation and Trade Agreement (ECTA) on the 2nd of April this year. 
  • ECTA is the first trade agreement of India with a developed country after more than a decade. 
  • The agreement encompasses cooperation across the entire gamut of bilateral economic and commercial relations between the two friendly countries.

About the Agreement:

  • Under this trade agreement, Indian exports will benefit from preferential zero-duty market access in Australia for 100 per cent of its tariff lines. 
  • It will benefit India’s labour-intensive sectors such as gems and jewellery, textiles, leather, furniture, food and agricultural products, engineering products, and medical devices.


  • India has provided preferential access to Australia on over 70 per cent of its tariff lines, which are primarily raw materials and intermediaries. 
  • As a result of this agreement, 10 lakh jobs are estimated to be created in the country. 
  • The total bilateral trade is expected to cross 45 to 50 billion dollars in five years from the existing 31 billion US dollars.

FactBook – 29th December 2022

1. ‘Dhanu Yatra’ Begins in Odisha’s Bargarh

  • The ‘Dhanu Yatra’ festival, considered to be the world’s largest open-air theatre, has commenced recently in the Western Odisha town of Bargarh.
  • The plays in the festival start with the dethroning of Emperor Ugrasen of Mathura by an angry Kansa over the marriage of his sister Devaki with Vasudev.
  • The festival will conclude with the death of demon king Kansa and the restoration of the throne to Ugrasen.

2. Revamped e-HRMS 2.0 Portal

  • The government (Department of Personnel and Training) launched a revamped probity portal and e-HRMS 2.0 portal for central government employees.
  • Previously, employees could avail limited Human Resources Services and were not connected with other HR applications. 
  • Now with the revamped portal, employees will get end-to-end HR services and save time and money on the management of human resources of the central government.

3. Indian Energy Exchange Forms a Subsidiary

  • Energy exchange platform Indian Energy Exchange has incorporated a subsidiary to explore business opportunities in the voluntary carbon market.
  • The wholly-owned subsidiary company is named International Carbon Exchange Private Limited (ICX).
  • The new entity will enable participants to buy and sell voluntary carbon credits at competitive prices through its platform.
  • It will facilitate the reduction of global Greenhouse Gas emissions by 45 per cent by 2030 to get on track to limit global warming to 1.5 degrees.
  • Voluntary carbon markets are markets where carbon credits are purchased, usually by organisations, for voluntary use rather than to comply with legally binding emissions reduction obligations.

4. Indian Firm Bags Consultancy Contract for Bangladesh Port

  • An Indian firm has bagged a contract for providing consultancy for a capacity building project at Mongla port, the second largest seaport in Bangladesh, which will boost sub-regional connectivity in South Asia.
  • The contract was signed between Mongla Port Authority and EGIS India Consulting Engineers Pvt Ltd
  • The total project cost under the Government of India Concessional Line of Credit is $530 million, of which PMC contract awarded to EGIS India Consulting Engineers Ltd. is for $9.60 million.
  • The project is scheduled to be completed by July 30, 2024.
  • The project includes constructing a container terminal, handling and delivery yards, a residential complex and community facilities, marine workshop, and service jetty.

5. Praveen Shrivastava Appointed as the New CVC

  • Praveen Shrivastava has been appointed as the new Central Vigilance Commissioner (CVC) of India. The post of CVC is a crucial one as it is responsible for the prevention of corruption and the maintenance of integrity in the government.
  • A 1982-batch Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer, Shrivastava will be taking over from the Outgoing CVC, Sanjay Kothari, who has completed his term.
  • The Central Vigilance Commissioner (CVC) is appointed by the President of India for a fixed term of four years, or until the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier. 
  • The term of the CVC cannot be extended, and the CVC must retire upon completion of the term or reach the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier.

6. Bangladesh PM Sheikh Hasina Inaugurates the First Metro Rail in Dhaka

  • Bangladesh Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina inaugurated the first ever metro rail service with Japanese assistance in the country. 
  • Along with the PM, the newly-appointed Japanese Ambassador Kiminori Iwama, and Ichiguchi Tomohide, the chief representative of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) also inaugurated the service. 
  • The funding of the project was made by The Japan International Cooperation Agency, which is a governmental agency that delivers the bulk of Official Development Assistance for the government of Japan. It also assists economic and social growth in developing countries.

7. Prabhu Chandra Mishra Honoured With Atal Samman Award

  • On the birth anniversary of former Prime Minister of the country, Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee, many personalities who played an important role in various fields were honoured recently at Vigyan Bhawan, New Delhi during ninth Atal Samman Samaroh.
  • Shri Prabhu Chandra Mishra received an honourable Atal Samman Award (Atal Anveshi Shikhar Samman) during this event for his excellence in the field of science and research. 
  • His area of work is Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine in infertility, especially when IVF also fails. 

Also, check:

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Current Affairs for April 2022Current Affairs for May 2022
Current Affairs for June 2022Current Affairs for July 2022
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